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Hall was soon pulled down, and on the ground which it occupied rose the north gate of the college. Over the gate was a tower, pieces of which may still be seen in the rector's house, and in front of it ran the city ditch, long since filled up and covered by the roadway of Broad Street. The college authorities were naturally desirous of securing an edifice within their own precincts in which the students might hear the prayers and receive the sacraments of the Church. This was for some time a matter of difficulty, in consequence of the close proximity of the parish church of St. Mildred, but in 1326 the provisions of a deed of agreement defining the rights of the college and the parish were amicably settled, and in the same year the high altar of the college chapel was consecrated

in honour of the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter, and St. Thomas • the Martyr.' About the commencement of the fifteenth century Bishop Stafford rebuilt the portico of the chapel, and supplied service books and communion plate. Under the library he constructed a chamber twenty-four feet long, with a smaller chamber under the chapel portico. A sum of 1007. to be expended in building new chambers west of the north tower and in repairing the tower itself was given to the college in 1432 by William Palmer, one of its fellows. The memory of his good deed was preserved for generations by the representation in the east window of the founder's chapel of a man kneeling and warning the pious students to pray

for the soul of William Palmer, who caused this chapel to be

lengthened.' A still more useful memorial of his munificence existed elsewhere. As a school-boy he had been compelled to pass every day from the Devonshire parish of Bradstone, in which he was born and bred, to the house of the schoolmaster in the neighbouring county, and sometimes risked his life in crossing the turbulent waters of the Tamar. On one of these occasions he vowed to span the river with a bridge in after life, and when enriched by the prizes of the Church and by his emoluments as physician to Margaret of Anjou, he fulfilled the pledge by the erection of the Greystone bridge connecting Bradstone with Lezant in Cornwall.

The greatest accession of fortune which the college has ever received came to it from Sir William Petre in the year 1566. He might, indeed, be appropriately called its second founder. After a long life spent in the brightest sunshine of Court favour, during which he managed to serve with equal success rulers of such diverse opinions as Henry VIII., his son, and two daughters, growing infirmities warned the compliant courtier of the necessity of retiring from business. In his heart he

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was profoundly attached to the principles of the Catholic faith, but he did not hesitate to turn to his own profit the constant necessities of the Crown by purchasing on easy terms the property of which the Church had been deprived. When the accession of a Queen wedded to the Papal interests seemed to indicate the possibility of the forcible restoration of the abbey lands to their original owners, the prudent politician contrived to obtain from the Pope a dispensation for holding them on the assurance that they should be employed for pious purposes. Sir William Petre had received his early education at Exeter College, and in 1564 he seems to have communicated to the governing body his intention of increasing the number of the fellowships and augmenting the corporate revenue. later he transferred to the rector and scholars some valuable estates which he had purchased from the Queen in the preceding year. These consisted of lands at Kidlington Yarnton and other places in Oxfordshire, producing in 1864 a gross rental of nearly 15,000l. per annum. The income of the college was more than doubled by this accession of fortune, and, noble as the gift was, it did not exhaust the liberality of the donor, for at the same time he contributed nearly 1001. a year for the support of eight fellows born in the counties which contained the family property. In 1566, when seven fellows were added to the existing number under the Petrean statutes, the estates of the Petres were situate in only five counties, but through the growth of the family property, and by the liberality of several fellows who had purchased and conveyed to the head of the house of Petre for the time being small plots of land or rent-charge, with the object of rendering the natives of other shires eligible to hold these fellowships, the number of counties had been increased by 1854 to seventeen. Sir William's regard for the college lasted until his death, for his will contained a legacy of 401. in its favour. His relict left it a like sum, while his son, the first Baron Petre, imitated his father's good example by leaving to it after his death the sum of 201., and raising during his lifetime sufficient money to equalise the incomes of the fellowships which his father had established. The right of nominating to these fellowships was retained in the hands of Sir William Petre and his son for their lives, but on their deaths it passed to the college. This express stipulation did not restrain the second baron from endeavouring to force his nominee upon the college on the first vacancy after the death of his father. The college, however, successfully resisted the claim in the law courts, and it may be mentioned to the credit of the much

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calumniated Attorney-General Noy that, in gratitude to the college of his education, he pleaded its cause gratuitously in the Court of Common Pleas. To the services which Noy and Sir John Doddridge rendered in this emergency a graceful tribute is paid by Nathanael Carpenter in his volume of Geographie.' These two illustrious lawyers were cherished in the bosom of Exeter, and have since returned back with • 'interest'her courtesies. The claim was again raised and again defeated fifty years later. Prince, the laborious author of the · Worthies of Devon,' and a scholar eminently deserving of the honour of a fellowship at Exeter, was one of the Oxford students nominated by Lord Petre in 1663-4 to a vacant Petrean fellowship, but the nomination, as poor Prince confesses, did not secure that happy success as to myself my • lord intended and I then greatly desired.'

Through the good offices of two former fellows, both beneficed in Devonshire, and both celebrated by Bishop Prideaux as religious and constant preachers,' two gentlemen of good standing in that county were induced to bestow great benefits on the college. About the year 1618 the hall and the large beer-cellars underneath were erected at a cost of about 1,0001., and of that sum by far the largest portion was the gift of Sir John Ackland, of Columb-John, near Exeter. At the same time Sir John Peryam, a citizen of Exeter, expended nearly 6001. in building the rooms which stood north of the hall, and adjoining the small but pleasant garden of the college. The county of Devon has been a fruitful • seed plot' of learning to Exeter College. The sweet hiue and receptacle of our • Westerne wits' is the expression applied to it by Nathanael Carpenter in a passage of great eloquence * in praise of the vigour and energy of the inhabitants of mountainous districts, where he proves the truth of his assertion by citing a long line of worthies from his own county of Devon unequalled by any other shire in Great Britain. An eminent native of Devon, bearing a name distinguished in English literature for at least three generations, is credited with the remark that to be born within its borders is worth as much as the inheritance of 1001. a year to men outside its pale. The natural advantage inherited by the gentry born in this fair county has been heightened by the ties of friendship and community of tastes gained within the walls of Exeter College. Its children from the West country have never been slow to acknowledge the benefits of their residence at Oxford, and have laboured to repay their

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* Geographie, Book II. c. xv.

obligations to the college. Scarcely had the buildings of Ackland and Peryam been completed when another illustrious graduate from Devonshire commenced the good work of erecting a new chapel. The cost of the edifice amounted to about 1,4001., and all but 2001. were supplied by the bounty of Dr. Hakewill. This act of munificence is rendered more striking from the fact that it was the gift of a man, in the words of Bishop Prideaux, ‘not preferred as many are, and having two

sons of his own to provide for otherwise. Liberality seemed hereditary in the family of Hakewill, for it numbered among its kinsmen both Sir Thomas Bodley and Sir John Peryam. The first stone of the new chapel was laid on March 11, 1622-23, and the edifice was consecrated on October 5 in the following year, on the very day when England broke out into tumultuous rejoicing over the return of Prince Charles without bringing back an Infanta of Spain as his bride. The chapel was dedicated to St. James in compliment to the reigning king, in the same spirit as after the Restoration several churches were dedicated to Charles the Martyr, and in a later reign several new churches in London were connected with the name of George. Hakewill gave the college a sum of 301, in order that a sermon might be preached every year on the anniversary of its consecration, and left instructions in his will that his body should be buried in the chapel, or, if that proved undesirable, that his heart should be deposited under the communion table with the inscription Cor meum ad te, Domine, to mark its resting-place. Neither of the last injunctions was fulfilled. His body was placed in the chancel of the church of Heanton Punchardon, and his heart remains in his body.

For nearly fifty years bricklayers and masons ceased from disturbing the repose of the college. “No hammers fell, no 'ponderous axes rung. In 1672 the work of reconstruction commenced afresh with the new buildings between the front gate and the chapel, and ten years passed away before the works were finished. The cost was defrayed by subscription. Lord Clifford, the Lord Treasurer, headed the list of donations with a present of 501., and Dr. Bury, for many years. rector of the college, contributed 7001. from his own purse. A much larger sum of money, raised by wealthy members of the college, was laid out in other works in the first ten years of the eighteenth century. During this time the front gate, with the buildings between it and the college, was rebuilt. An old fellow, Narcissus Marsh, who rose to the primacy of the Irish branch of the English Church, and is said to have spent

VOL, CLII. NO. CCCXII.

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20,0001. in works of public utility, displayed his unabated interest in the prosperity of the college by the noble gift of 1,3001. A third of the present century had passed away before the governing body determined on devoting any large part of their corporate funds to the improvement of the college buildings. In August, 1833, the rooms east of the gate in Broad Street were begun. At the same time the buildings from the hall to the chapel were new faced towards the street, and the upper part of the tower was strengthened. The accommodation was still insufficient. More rooms were erected in Broad Street in 1854, and two years later an improved Rectory house on the site of an old quadrangle replaced the old and dilapidated house appropriated to the use of the head of the college. The same year (1856) witnessed the beginning of the new chapel, one of the most beautiful productions of the architectural genius of Sir Gilbert Scott, and one of the chief glories of Oxford. The visitor who climbs the hills which encircle the city easily identifies among the numerous towers and spires the sharp-pointed roof and the thin spire of Exeter Chapel. Its foundation stone was laid by Bishop Anderson (who in 1833 had won an open scholarship at the college) on November 29, 1856, and on October 18, 1859, the edifice was consecrated by the then bishop of the diocese. Over 20,0001. were spent on the works. Towards this large sum of money, which sorely taxed the resources of the college and its members, Dr. Richards, then the rector, gave 1,0001., and the past and present fellows vied with one another in the munificence of their contributions. The annual value of a fellowship at Exeter in 1854 but little exceeded 1001., and a year's income was in many instances a fellow's contribution for this good work. The undergraduates responded liberally to the calls of the tutors; they raised among themselves the funds required for a new screen and for an organ. The brass eagle used in the new chapel as a lectern forms a connecting link with the former building. It was the gift of John Vivian, a Cornish fellow of the college, to the old chapel in 1637.

To Henry Whitefield, a former fellow of the college, who subsequently became Provost of Queen's, must be assigned the distinction of being the first member of Exeter who thought of augmenting the college library. He was not unmindful of its wants in his lifetime, and on his death in the autumn of 1387 bequeathed to the college some medical works, and 51. for the purchase of volumes on · divine philosophy. The books were either kept chained to desks in the library, or deposited in the college chests; but not infrequently, when the funds be

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