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Dr. RENDON. It is about 1,000 pounds per acre.
Senator GRONNA. Of course, as I understand it, that does not mean that you take all there is during any one year, do you?
Dr. RENDON. No, Senator
Senator GRONNA. You trim off a certain amount, and leave a certain amount on the stem?
Dr. RENDON. Yes. The way we do it is, we cut the two lower rows of leaves on each plant every year. [Exhibiting a picture.] You see in this picture the leaves have been already cut. There are about 10 leaves every 6 months.
The CHAIRMAN. What is the life of the plant ordinarily, Doctor? Dr. RENDON. About 20 years.
Senator WADSWORTH. From planting or from commercial producing?
Dr. RENDON. From planting the average life is about 25 years. Senator GRONNA. You would not be able to estimate the amount of labor plus other expenses necessary to take care of henequen? You would not be able to make an estimate of what it costs to produce 1,000 pounds?
Dr. RENDON. I am not ready to do it right now; but I could.
Senator GRONNA. Of course, that is the only practical way of judging the value of henequen, or any product, as far as that is concerned. It must be based upon the amount produced per acre, multiplied by the price.
Mr. WEXLER. You can furnish all that information?
Dr. RENDON. Oh, no
Mr. WEXLER. Not immediately.
Dr. RENDON. Not immediately; yes.
Mr. ORTH. Can not Dr. Rendon tell us what it costs on his plantation? That would be a guide.
Senator GRONNA. I will not press it any further.
The CHAIRMAN. I suggest that the witness be allowed to furnish this information and add it to his testimony. I understand, Doctor, you are going to have some planters here from Yucatan who are engaged in the industry at this time?
Dr. RENDON. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. You have not been in it for several years, you have stated?
Dr. RENDON. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, Doctor, will you please proceed in your own way, as you were doing, giving us the history of this industry? Dr. RENDON. The conditions were such as I have pictured. planters asked for the creation of this commission, and it was created by law in January, 1908, and began to operate-it seems to me it was in March or April, 1908. The capital was accumulating little by little
Mr. MAYER. May I interrupt you, Doctor? Mr. Chairman, the decree, the law creating the commission, of which I have a copy,
Mr. WEXLER. You said 1908.
Dr. RENDON. NO; I meant 1912.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you a copy of the decree, Doctor?
Dr. RENDON. I have a copy in Spanish.
The CHAIRMAN. Is this a correct translation of it?
Dr. RENDON. Yes; that is a correct translation.
The CHAIRMAN. I would like to have that inserted along with your testimony, then.
(The document referred to is as follows:)
I, Licentiate Ismael Gonzalez Barzunza, supernumerary notary public of this demarcation of Merida, acting because of leave of absence granted to the proprietary notary, Licentiate Gonzalo P. Gonzalez, certify: That Mr. A. Lewels, general manager of the Comision Reguladora del Mercado de Henequen, has exhibited to me a copy of the official publication of the State of Yucatan, dated January 10, 1912, in which is published the decree reading literally as follows: I, Dr. Nicolas Camara Vales, constitutional governor of the State of Yucatan, to its inhabitants proclaim:
That the honorable Congress of the same has issued the following decree :
The XXIV Constitutional Congress of the State of Yucatan, in the name of the people, decrees:
ARTICLE 1. In order to protect the henequen industry of the State an extraordinary contribution is imposed on the production of unmanufactured hemp of one-half centavo per kilogram when the current price of the fiber in the market of Merida does not exceed $0.20641 per kilogram; if the price should exceed $0.20641 per kilogram but not $0.21728, the contribution shall be three-quarters of a centavo per kilogram; if the current price should exceed $0.21728 per kilogram, the tax shall be 1 centavo per kilogram. The proceeds of this extraordinary tax can only be applied to the purposes specified in this law.
ARTICLE 2. The producers shall be directly obliged to pay said contribution, and every purchaser of raw hemp shall insist upon receiving evidence that the tax has been paid. The manner of collection and the punishment to be incurred by those who try to evade payment shall be dealt with in special regulations to be issued by the executive.
ARTICLE 3. The executive is empowered to contract a loan of five million pesos, the net proceeds of which shall be applied exclusively to the purpose expressed in article first of this law.
ARTICLE 4. While this loan is being made the executive shall be empowered to contract one or more loans, which together shall not exceed five million pesos and the amount of which shall also be applied exclusively to the purposes expressed in article 1.
ARTICLE 5. When making the loan or loans referred to in the preceding two articles, the executive shall observe the following conditions:
I. The debt which the State may contract shall not in any case exceed five million pesos and the respective interest.
II. The terms for the amortization of the capital and the payment of interest shall be arranged so that they can be covered by the proceeds of the special contribution established by this law.
III. The State shall obligate itself to the payment of the capital and interest, giving as a special guarantee the proceeds or the extraordinary contribution established by article first of this law.
ARTICLE 6. The executive shall establish in the city of Merida a commission to regulate the henequen market, which shall be composed of five members, freely appointed by the governor of the State, who shall be the ex-officio president of the same. The principal attributes of this commission shall be:
I. To receive and administer the funds destined for the protection of the henequen industry.
II. To perform alf mercantile operations which it may consider advisable in order to elevate and maintain the price of Yucatan fiber at a level which shall be remunerative to its producers, to the extent permitted by the competition of other similar fibers.
III. To retain the quantities of henequen which it may consider necessary to take out of the market in order to maintain an equilibrium between supply and demand whenever the production shall be greater than the consumption. IV. To apply the excess production, whenever there shall be no prospects of a natural and early consumption, to new industrial outlets to which the fiber may be suited.
V. To open new markets to traffic in the fiber.
VI. To give all the impetus possible to the manufacture of henequen within
ARTICLE 7. To attain the purposes of clause sixth of the preceding article, the executive shall establish, as promptly as possible, in the penitentiary in this city, a cordage mill which shall manufacture Yucatan fiber.
ARTICLE 8. The extraordinary contribution established by this law shall not cease to exist until the defense fund created by same shall amount to the sum of five million pesos fully paid off.
ARTICLE. 9. If at any time the fund created should prove to be unnecessary for the special object for which it is intended, it shall not be applied to any other public work or service, but shall be returned to the contributors in the proportion to the payments they may have made.
ARTICLE. 10. The profits arising from the mercantile transactions of the commission for regulating the henequen market shall be applied to promote and further the manufacture of Yucatan fiber within the State.
ARTICLE. 11. The executive is empowered to issue and put in force all regulations which may be necessary for the most exact compliance with this law.
ARTICLE 12. This law shall go into effect the fifteenth day of the present month. Done in the palace of the legislature in Merida, the eighth day of January, one thousand nine hundred and twelve.
AUGUSTIN PATRON CORREA, D. P.
Therefore, I order same to be printed and published in order that it may be complied with.
Palace of the executive, Merida, January ninth, one thousand nine hundred and twelve.
NICOLAS CAMARA' VALES.
A. CASTILLO R., General Secretary.
I furthermore certify that the same Mr. Lewels exhibited to me also a copy of the official publication of the State of Yucatan dated the thirtieth of April, one thousand nine hundred and twelve, in which is published the decree reading as follows:
1. Doctor Nicolas Camera Vales, constitutional governor of Yucatan, to the inhabitants of the State proclaim that in the exercise of the powers conferred me in Article II of the law of the ninth of January, the present year, I issue the following regulations of the committee for regulating the henequen market: ARTICLE 1. In compliance with the dispositions of article 6 of the law of the ninth of January of the present year, published the tenth of the same month in the official publication, there is established in this city of Merida an official institution which shall be called "Committee for regulating the henequen market."
ARTICLE 2. The commission shall be composed of the governor of the State, who shall be president, and of five director members.
ARTICLE 3. There shall also be five supernumerary director members to take the places of the director members.
ARTICLE 4. In the temporary absence of the president of the commission his place shall be filled by the director member designated by the governor of the State, and in the absence of such designation by the director member standing first in the numerical order of their respective appointments.
ARTICLE 5. A secretary shall be appointed, who shall have charge of the work inherent to the office of secretary of the commission.
ARTICLE 6. In the temporary absence of the secretary his place shall be filled by the director member designated by the commision or by the secretary pro tem, appointed by the governor of the State.
ARTICLE 7. The exclusive attributes of the governor of the State are:
I. To appoint and to remove freely the director members and the secretary of the commission.
II. To appoint and to remove freely the manager, the submanager, and in general all of the employees of the institution.
III. To fix the salaries of the members of the commission and of the employees of the same.
IV. To cast the deciding vote in case of a tie in order to decide the voting on resolutions.
V. Any others which the law, the regulations, or the resolutions of the commission may confer upon him.
ARTICLE 8. The commission shall have the most ample powers to carry out the purposes of its institution in accordance with the provisions of the law of the ninth day of January of the present year.
ARTICLE 9. The attributes of the commission are:
I. Those which are basically conferred upon it by the fundamental law of its institution.
II. To rule and to direct in general the progress of all proceedings which it may adopt in order to fulfill the mission confided.
III. To formulate and to enforce such internal regulations as it may consider proper, and to modify same whenever it may consider it necessary to do so.
IV. To establish, in places other than in Merida, offices, branches, or factories dependent upon the central administration.
V. To appoint special commissions composed of its members for specific objects, delegating to them the powers, faculties, or attributes which they may require to carry out the affairs intrusted to them.
VI. To inform itself daily of the progress of the affairs of the management. VII. To settle or compromise, in the judgment of referees in law or friendly arbitrators, the matters concerning the commission, and to authorize the management in each case to proceed in the same manner.
VIII. In fine, to act in all things concerning its functions and the purposes of its institutions without further limitations than those arising from the law, these regulations, and the attributes reserved exclusively to the governor of the State.
ARTICLE 10. The commission shall hold meetings daily at the hour fixed in its internal regulations.
ARTICLE 11. In order to hold a meeting the presence of at least three members of the commission shall be required.
ARTICLE 12. Resolutions shall be adopted by a plurality of votes, and such as obtain the votes of the majority shall be considered adopted. In case of a tie the provisions of the paragraph fourth of article 7 shall be observed.
ARTICLE 13. The minutes of the sessions shall be entered briefly in a special book, inserting in same literally the resolutions which may be adopted.
ARTICLE 14. The administrative proceedings shall be in charge of a general manager and of an assistant manager who shall have the following powers and duties:
I. To use the signature and representation of the commission in all matters relating to the same.
II. To perform all acts and to execute all contracts tending to further the ends which the institution proposes to attain.
III. To perform, either personally or by proxy, or proxies to be selected with the authorization of the commission, the acts proper to their positions, and to interpose, in like manner, all objections which they may consider proper.
IV. To attend and to give information at the meetings held by the commission and to submit the proper reports to the same.
V. To take care that the employees under them comply with their respective duties.
VI. To suspend the employees under them when the offenses which they commit merit this procedure, rendering a report immediately to the governor of the State, in order that he may decide definitely whatever he may consider proper. VII. To present annually to the commission, in order that it may submit the same to the approval of the executive of the State, the accounts and the general balance of the administration.
VIII. To sign, to endorse, to accept, to pay, and to protest letters of exchange, drafts, vouchers, promissory notes, and any other documents of a mercantile
IX. To make payments and to receipt them.
X. To pay and to collect commissions and brokerages on the transactions which may be made.
XI. To sign the correspondence.
XII. To execute and to accept public and private documents.
XIII. In due manner to keep the books of the administration.
XIV. To submit to the president of the commission the personnel of the employees under them, or such changes as may be desirable, showing the amount of salary corresponding to each employee.
XV. To promote and to strive for all things conducive to objects of this institution, without further limitations than those arising from the law, the regulations, the attributes of the executive of the State, and the resolutions of the commission.
ARTICLE 15. The manager and assistant manager may act together or separately in the various matters of their administration, but the latter shall always comply with the expressed and concrete instructions which he may receive from the former, but this restriction, being purely economical, shall not be susceptible of affecting in any way whatsoever the acts of the assistant manager nor the validity of the contracts which he may make with third parties.
ARTICLE 16. The executive of the State will deliver to the commission the funds which, in accordance with the law of the ninth of January, of the present year, are destined exclusively to the ends which the institution proposes to attain.
ARTICLE 17. Any doubt which may arise regarding the compliance with the law of the ninth of January of the present year regarding the interpretation of the provisions of these regulations, or in regard to the contributions (attributes), respectively conferred upon the Comision Reguladora and the administrative officers of the same, shall be decided by the governor of the State. Done in the executive palace in Merida the twenty-ninth day of April, one thousand nine hundred and twelve.
NICOLAS CAMARA VALES.
R. General Secretary.
Having compared the foregoing transcriptions with the original exhibited to me, I seal, sign, and return the latter to the persons who presented same.
And certifying that the decrees herein transcribed are in force in the State, I issue this certification in four folios, stamped, sealed, and signed in Merida the nineteenth of August, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen. Two stamps, each reading: "Licentiate Ismael Gonzalo Berzunza."
I, General Salvador Alvarado, governor and military commandant of the State of Yucatan, certify that the stamp and signature affixed to the foregoing certifications are those used on all acts and contracts to which he intervenes as notary public of this demarcation by Licentiate Ismael Gonzalaz Berzunza, in enjoyment of the powers of his office on the date of issuing same, Merida, August twentieth, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen. A stamp reading: "Republic of Mexico. Government of the State of Yucatan." (Signed:) S. Alvarado. The general secretary pro tem. (Signed:) V. A. Rendon. Five revenue stamps of the Constitutionalist Government for fifty centavos each cancelled by stamps reading: "Licentiate Ismael Gonzalez Berzunza. Notary public. Demarcation of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico." A stamp reading: "Office of the general secretary of the government of the State of Yucatan, Number 1026-f. Principal tax, $3. Federal contribution, $0.60. Total, $3.60. Tax for the certification of signatures by the government of the State in accordance with the revenue law in force. Merida, August 20, 1915. The general treasurer. The auditor. (Signed:) D. B. Serna." Stamps of the Constitutionalist Government for 25, 25, 5, and 5 centavos, canceled by a stamp reading: “Government of the State of Yucatan. Office of the general secretary."
Certification of acknowledgment of execution of document No. 16. Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, ss: An American Consular Service $2 fee stamp. Canceled by a stamp reading: "American Consulate, Aug. 21, 1915. Progreso, Mexico." I, William P. Young, vice consul of the United States of America at Progreso, Mexico, duly commissioned and qualified, do hereby certify that on this 21st day of August, 1915, before me personally appeared S. Alvarado, to me personally known and known to me to be the individual described in, whose name is subscribed to, and who executed the foregoing instrument, and, being informed by me of the contents of said instrument, he duly acknowledged to me that he executed the same freely and voluntarily for the uses and purposes therein mentioned.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and official seal the day and year last above written. Seal reading: "American Consulate, Aug. 21, 1915. Progreso, Mexico." (Signed:) W. P. Young, vice consul of the United States of America in charge.