the manner of men, brought indictments against each other for theft, violence, cheating, offensive language, etc.; not only

the convicted prisoners, but also the false accusers being

punished. Ingratitude was purished with special severity; for

the Persians tell t?at the ungrateful car. love neither the gols,

their parents, their fatherland, nor their friends, since wit?!

ingratitude shamelessness is always hitel, ard that the lat

ter is the most prolific source of all vices.

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in reading, writing, astronoiny, philosophy, ani meclicine, and

but the bare rudiments of these subjents. Wat a bold contrast

with the ideals of our own times! Yet other nations have learn

ei, ani still may learn of them the value of contributi g to

physical perfection by means of systematic exercises ant also

a very effective aid ir character training through the selec

tion of teachers possessing strong personality, ti orouęn know – leire of what they are to teach, an l skill in presentation of

subject matter.

beauties of poetry, rhetoric, music, mathematics, ini philosohy. l!usic with them was not a source of annu rennent, but was

studied on account of its ennobling ten lencies upon tie soul.

Physical and

Their physical development received careiul

inoral train

attention in the gymnasium where they vere


taught swimming, running, junging, wrestling, spear

ant discus throwing, not for the purpose of developing strengti. ani endurance as in Sparta and Persia, but for securing symmetrical development of the body. Courage, patriotism, modesty

and politeners were enjoinei ani practicel at all times.


Socrates, Plato, Aristotle ani other great lessons.

teachers have contributed much to education, , but a discussion of this phase would be foreign to the purp se

of this paper. Suffice it to say that the lesson of Ancient

Greece to America point out that we have sally neglected in

our secondary elucation the feeling for the beautiful, tre picturesque, the sublime--feeling canabie of contributing so much to hunar tappiness, that we have neglected the arts of music and oratory, nor do fully comprehend the educational

value of the play. It is sad, yet true, that we have not yet

succeeded in combiring systematic physical training and play,

as dit the Greeks of yore ir their national pares.

Egyptian Ideals.

The ideals and aims of ancient caste-hampered Egypt were

mainly utilitarian. In the lower castes, the fathers or guard

ian taught the boy the occupation into which he was born. The

boys of the cornercial caste received some instruction in the

rudiments of reading, writing, and arithmetic. The courses of

study for the youth of the warrior and the priestly castes

consisted of the elementary subjects as taught the cormercial

caste, and of superior instruction, enbodying language, mat?.e

matics, including surveying, astronomy, natural science, and

religion. The highest phases of instruction in these branches

were open only to tose designed for the priest-lood. The en

tire education was in the lands of the priests who everyvhere

inculcated due reverence for relision and its officials, and

for usages handed down for ages. Gymnastics and music rere

little practiced.


Although of the ancient oriental nations


Egypt attained the highest point in the intel

lectual culture of a portion of her people, yet her educa

tional lesson to us is mainly negative, showing tre narrowing influence of strictly utilitarian instruction, and the danger

in conservation al in to their reverence for usage handled down

for ages.

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