Roman Ideals.


Rore under the Rublic clown to the conquest

of Greece initated the Spartan ideal. Under the Emperors, Athen

ian ileals were preferred. However, ir consequence of t?e utilitarian inclination of the Romans, literature ani oratory re

ceived marl ed attention, Music ant sculpture were left mainly

to the Greeks.

While the Greek education aimed at intellectual

Educational and.physical culture, the Roman had utilitarian Lessons.

ideals, essentially literary and etrical. Athen ideal of intellectual culture is represented in our classical

courses; Rome's utilitarian, combined with the literary and

ethical in our scientific courses. Since the Romans merely ini

tated the Greeks in elucation, tey have no lesson for us in

this field save that of showing how to adapt ideals and netrols

to secure iesirable results unler conditions different from

those which formerly produced them.

Chapter 11.

Medieval and Modern Continental Ideals.

German Ideals.


of the modern nations, Gerany's educational ideals

and practice rank foremost. A study of her schools is also in

large measure a study of all similar schools on the continent

because the other nations have patterned

after her. Even

France and England (il. France in 1830 and again after her

national disaster of 1870. England, in 1956, sent Arnold

to study German schools for the purpose of making that stuly

the basis of plans for improving Englis. schools. The German


schools were organized to support the tenets of the

Christian faith and they have always been strong agencies in

the realization of the ligi est spiritual ileals of the German

people. Now, after te union of churol anri state, they have

been taken over bolily into the service of the broader nation

al life,

Their aim now is to produce a religious and patriot

[blocks in formation]

school teachers in December 1990 to discuss ways and means with:

them. Talking of the existing practice he said: "First of all,

a national basis is wantire. The soundation of our gymnasium

must be German. It is our duty to educate men to become young


and not young Greeks or Romans. We must relinquish

the basis which has been the mile for centuries-the old monas

tic elucation of the Middle Ages, when Latin and a little Greek

were most important. These are no longer our standart; we must

make German the basis and German composition must be made the

center around which everyt:ing else revolves."

Again in his

Enphasizes purpose

orier of May 1, 1899 he says: "The prime

of pyrinasia.

object of the

schools will be ever to lay

the foundation for a souni comprehension of both ivic arri

social relations, by cherishing reverence for God ant love for

the fatherland. But I cannot fail to recognize that in a time

when the errors and misrepresentation of social deriocracy are

spread abroad with increased zeal, the school is called upon

to make increased eforts to advance the recognition of the

true, the real, and the possible in the world. The school must

endeavor to create in the young the conviction that the teach

ings of social democracy contralict not only the divine com

mands und Christian morals, but are, moreover, impracticable

and in their consequence destructive alike to te comunity.

The school must be for the purpose of bringing the new,


the newest history or the times more than hitherto into the

circle of the subjects of instructior, ani show that the power

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