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The function of tre schools ceased to be wholly ecclesiastical,

becoming something more than that of preparation for the priest

hool. The national self consciousness now so prominent in

Germany sprang into existence tien.

Beginning of

Charlemarne, Alcuin anl rany others e

National Seli

sired earnestly to for a great empire in strict

Consciousness.

harmony with the church. It was clear to Alouin

that for the realization o. this ain the common people would

have to be rescued from barbarism and taught by a Christian

elucation to thoroughly appreciate the value of the Cristian

citizen--ship. Alcuin's plars received the learty approbation

of hiperor Charles the Great, as the folloring extracts fron

his famous proclamation will show: "As it is our desire to im

prove the conditions of the Church, we make it our task to re

3tore witi watchful zeal, the study of letters, a task almost

forgotten through the neglect of our ancestors. We would there

fore enjoin to our subjects, so far as they may be able to

study tre liberal arts." At another time: "Let there there

fore be chosen for this work men who are able and willing to

learn, and also desirous of instructing others, and let then

anply themselves to the work with â zeal equallirę tł:e earrest

ness with which we recommend it to thein."

Irfect.

Under the influence of this pressure and of

tl.is concention of the function of schools the mo

nastic schools were rapidly re, omeri and enthused with new life

ani activity. Their nurber increased. But by far the riost in

portant step in the direction of improvement, was the adnission

of laynen to these scliools. There was much prejudice anong the

clergy against this, but the foors openei to out-siders never

so cautiously at first, soon sirurg open a little farther anıı never afterwards clo ed entirely upon ten.

Fluctuations.

A fine start was nale in the direction of

iraprovements but botl. inpulse ani result large

ly vanished under the wea} successers of Charles the Great.

The schools again reteriorated, to be revived in turn by Scho

lasticism, the Renascerce ani later on hy tre Reformation.

Curricula in

The curricu a in these schools varied a

the Schools of

trifle wit. the fluotuation of the ideal. In

ti:e Middle Ages, its essentials auch consicted of the mastery of

the Latin tongue, committinę tie psalter to nemory, reading, writing, a little arithmetic, and church music.

The reti.oris were in accordance miti. the ideals of the

times. Just enough arithmetic was taught for computation 01

the church calender; music for carrying on the religious cere

monies. Latin was te nain stapie. To nake the pupils experts

in the tongue deran ter its enforce1 use at all ties. Tiis in

connection with the renorizing or portions of the Holy "rit

made them realy linguists. To {ive aditional practice, foar authors,

especially the poets were carefully studied--not for what they sail so much, as for their way of saying it. This

phase of study was enor inated rhetoric.

Influence of

The ideals of Feudalis remind us of those

Feudalism.

of ancient Persia coupled with the physical

ideal of Athens. They consisted of success in chase, tournament

and battle, of writing verses, singing ballals, and making love

to ladies. For this purpose the youth were taught riling,

swimning, archery, fencing, unting, Dess playing, music, and rrying. Wile these themselves were not antagonistic to the

schools of the times, they tende i to produce the impression

that study of books was efferinate ani in tiis Tay Feudalis?

seriously interferei witi. the levelopent of the intellectual

ideal.

Influence of

The aim of scholasticism to render the

Scholasticism. dogna acceptable to reason" of necessity brought about an alliance between the theolory of the medieval

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given the vernacular and soman branches. In consequence of

this, schools in these places rifted away from Latin which did

not there regain its pre-eminence urtil the Renascence.

Influence of

The revival of learning produced the

the Rena

humanistic ideal. Its actererts found more

scence.

pleasure in aut! ors who portrayed incidents

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