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cult to effect a landing. A little water, however, was procured, and the ships were obliged to continue their voyage. Byron attempted also to find Davis's or Easter island, but without success. The scurvy was now making its ravages among the crews, and heightened the natural impatience of a protracted voyage. At length a small island was discovered, of a most beautiful appearance. It was covered with tall trees, and upon the shore were seen the shells of turtle, scattered in profusion. The inhabitants ranged themselves along the beach to survey the ships, and lighted numerous fires as if for signals. But so many pleasing objects thus presented to the eyes of the seamen only increased their misery, and prompted the imagination to exercise the power which it possesses of aggravating the calamities of life. No anchorage could be found near the island, which was surrounded by coral rocks; it was therefore impossible to remain here. On the following day another small island was discovered, similarly situated. Cocoa-nut trees were seen in abundance, but no anchorage could be found. The sick, who were now in a deplorable situation, were still further depressed on finding that the land presented to their view was inaccessible. These islands were therefore left, having received the name of the Islands of Disappointment.
On the next day, however, other islands were discovered, from which, notwithstanding the equivocal conduct of the natives, the boats were able to carry off several loads of cocoa-nuts, and a great quantity of scurvy grass, the most valuable refreshments which could have been procured. The natives, though at first disposed to view the strangers as enemies, were not without sentiments of kindness and generosity. A midshipman, who testified his confidence in them by swimming with his clothes on through the surf to the shore, was minutely examined, and indeed stripped of some articles of apparel by the inquisitive Indians, but no violence of any kind was offered to him. Some remnants of a Dutch long-boat, with fragments of brass and iron implements, were found here in a hut. To this small group Byron gave the name of King George's Islands. In the remainder of the voyage to Tinian, commodore Byron was prevented by the sickly state of his crew from examining the islands which he descried, with the patience and attention that would be expected from a navigator under more fortunate circumstances. The difficulty of finding good anchorage, and the necessity of avoiding any unnecessary delay, compelled him to pass by Prince of Wales's Island, and the Archipelago, which he named the Islands of Danger, with little or no examination. At length, in the beginning of August, he arrived at Tinian, and anchored in the same harbour which had formerly afforded shelter to lord Anson. To Byron and his company, however, this island did not present that enchanting appearance which had won from their predecessors such rapturous descriptions. After remaining here nine weeks, during which time the sick were pretty well recovered, and having laid in a stock of 2000 cocoa-nuts, the ships again put to sea, and in about six weeks arrived at Batavia. Having again refreshed here, they set sail for England, where the commodore arrived in the beginning of May, having been somewhat more than two and twenty months on the voyage.
Commodore Byron returned in May, 1766 ; and in the month of August following, the Dolphin was again sent out, under the command of captain Wallis, together with the Swallow, captain Carteret, in the prosecution of the same general design of making discoveries in the southern hemisphere. On his arrival in the Straits of Magellan, captain Wallis despatched a store-ship, which had accompanied him so far, with some thousand young trees, taken to be tansplanted to the Falkland Islands, where a British colony had been just established, so that this expedition does not appear to have been wholly without some views of settlement, any more than the preceding. Though captain Wallis arrived in the straits at the season recommended by Byron, he was nevertheless four months endeavouring to effect his passage through them: so little reliance can be placed on the constancy of the seasons in such a tempestuous climate. He at length effected his entrance into the South Sea, on the 11th of April, 1767. But the Swallow, being a heavy sailer, was unable to clear the straits at the same time, and returned to Europe by a different route, as the two ships never afterwards joined company. Captain Wallis, in his voyage across the Pacific, ranged through the archipelago of the Georgian Islands, and named several, as Queen Charlotte's, Egmont, Gloucester, and Osnaburgh, Islands, of which he considered himself the first discoverer. At length he arrived at an island of considerable size, to which he gave the name of King George the Third's Island, but which is now better known by the native name of Otaheite. The crew being sickly, he deemed it expedient to remain here some time to procure refreshments; but although the natives were hospitable and friendly, it was difficult to establish a cordial correspondence between parties so unequal in power and intelligence. It was impossible to do away with all symptoms of fear and mistrust on the one side, and the disposition to behave tyrannically on the other. In the combats which took place, the natives experienced the dreadful effects of fire-arms, and the dangerous superiority of their European visiters. Captain Wallis, prompted by a wanton desire to exhibit his powers of destruction, directed some balls to the woods, to which the women and those incapable of bearing
arms had retired; and, in order to disable the natives from giving him any further disturbance, he destroyed above fifty of their large or war canoes. But these quarrels did not wholly alienate the affections of the natives. They still regarded the strangers, in the intervals of peace, with the warmth of affection, which spoke abundantly the simplicity of their hearts. A female of rank, named Oberea, whom our navigators considered as the queen of the island, was unremitting in her attentions to captain Wallis, to whom she was personally attached, and seemed inconsolable at his departure.
From Otaheite captain Wallis sailed to Tinian, where he repaired the ship, and refreshed his crew; and having touched at Batavia and the Cape of Good Hope, arrived at Hastings, the 19th of May, 1768, having been about one year and nine months on the voyage.
In the mean time captain Carteret, in the Swallow, having lost sight of the Dolphin at the western entrance of Magellan's Straits, had to encounter numberless dangers and distresses when left to perform a long and difficult navigation in a ship inadequately provided, and not at all fitted for such an expedition. He cleared the straits four days later than captain Wallis, and crossed the Pacific by a route a little further to the south. After leaving Masafuero, in lat. 25° 2 S., a lofty island was seen, which, from the name of the young officer who discovered it, was named Pitcairn's Island. Carteret hoped to fall in with the Salomon Islands, and in reality he must have approached them very closely; but having failed to verify the discoveries of Spanish navigators, he incautiously ventured to doubt their veracity. The island to which he gave the name of Egmont Island was probably the Santa Cruz of the Spaniards; and his Gower Island is at no great distance from the principal of the Salomon group. On arriving at New Britain, in the inlet to which Dampier had given the name of St. George's Sound, he was tempted to believe that it conducted into an open sea, and, venturing through it, discovered that Nova Britannia, which Dampier had first demonstrated to be separated from New Guinea, was itself divided by a channel, which he named St. George's Channel. To the northernmost island Carteret gave the name of New Ireland. The island to the south remained in possession of the title under which the whole had before been vaguely comprehended. Leaving St. George's Channel, he determined the positions of many of the islands with which these seas abound. The distressed situation of his crew compelled him to remain some time at Macassar, the Swallow being the first English ship of war that ever touched at Celebes.
The preceding expeditions were all more or less connected
with the project of forming establishments in the Falkland Islands. But these colonies were soon found to be not worth the trouble and expense which they incurred. The English, we have before observed, made a settlement at Port Egmont in 1766. But this colony appears to have met with no further attention, and soon disappeared. Captain Macbride, in the Jason frigate, who surveyed those islands in the sanie year, threatened the existence of the French colony in Baie des Francois, on the eastern coast. But Spain now interposed, and claimed the Falkland Islands by virtue of the old papal grant, the authority of which had long since fallen into contempt. France, howev. er, chose rather to relinquish a worthless possession than to engage in war on its account. The king of Spain agreed to pay 500,000 crowns as an indemnification for the expenses already incurred in settling the country. Part of this sum was to go to Bougainville, the first projector and chief proprietor of the colory. He was accordingly despatched in 1766 with the Boudeuse, of 26 guns, and the Etoile store-ship, to make formal restitution of these islands to the Spanish crown, and with instructions to return home through the Pacific Ocean with the view of making geographical discoveries. As the French had been recently deprived of their colonies in North America, they were anxious to find some new channels in which their enter. prising spirit might be advantageously employed. Bougainville, who had personally witnessed those political reverses, was as well qualified by the activity of his mind as by his knowledge and experience to guide the French merchants to those remote seas where they might hope to remain undisturbed by political rivalry.
In November, 1767, having resigned the Falkland Islands, and repaired his ships in the La Plata, he commenced his voyage towards the Pacific. His great reputation, and the interest excited by the object of his voyage, procured him the company of the Prince of Nassau and of the naturalist Commercon. His passage through the Straits of Magellan was effected in 52 days; and though he had to struggle with continual storms, he seems to prefer the passage by the straits to that round Cape Horn. He failed, like Byron and Carteret, in his attempt to find Easter Island, but at length arrived at a group with which those navigators were not wholly unacquainted, and to which he gave the name of Archipel Dangereux. These are the Paumotu or Pearl Islands of the English charts. But his first resting place was the island to which Wallis gave the name of King George the Third's Island, and of which the French navigator correctly ascertained the native name, Tahiti. Here he experienced the same kind treatment as the English who had preceded him; and, health being restored among his crew, he
again proceeded on his voyage. An intelligent native, named Aootooroo, was induced to accompany him to Europe.
Commerçon the naturalist had a young servant, remarkable for his mild and patient disposition; but the discriminating Tahitians, as soon as they set their eyes upon him, exclaimed that he was a woman: suspicions were thus directed towards Baré, as the young servant was named; and the ship was not long at sea after leaving Tahiti, when, being teased continually by the crew, she was obliged to avow her sex. The female who had thus engaged in an enterprise, of the hardships of which she could form no conception, and who embarked in disguise to circumnavigate the globe, with hardly any other motive than the gratification of curiosity, was about 27 years of age, and not ill looking. Her fortune would have been truly singular, as M. Bougainville remarks, if the ship in which she sailed had been thrown away on some desolate island.
Bougainville next arrived at a group of islands, to which he gave the name of Les Grandes Cyclades, and which seem to have formed the Terra Australis of Quiros. But the French were unable to establish any intercourse with the natives, whose dispositions were as hostile as their appearance was forbidding. They were almost all affected with the leprosy, from which circumstance one of the islands received its naine. Continuing his course to the west, and afterwards to the north, he discove ered a great island or archipelago, which he named Louisiade. Still further to the north he sailed along the eastern coast of another island, to which he gave his own name. He shortly after anchored near the southern extremity of New Ireland, at the mouth of King George's Harbour; but instead of investigating this inlet, which Carteret discovered to be a strait, he followed the land to the east and north; and after being at sea for ten months and a half, arrived at Batavia on the 28th of September. On touching at the Cape of Good Hope, he learned that captain Carteret was only eleven days before him. But the Swallow, being in a wretched condition, was soon overtaken; the two navigators corresponded with so much jealousy and reserve, that each endeavoured to conceal from the other the fact of his having circumnavigated the earth. Bougainville arrived at St. Malo on the 16th of March, 1769, after a voyage of two years and four months.