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on shore a ewe and ram, and also two goats, a male and female. A garden also was dug, and a variety of seeds of culinary vegetables, adapted to the climate, were sown in it.
Although it was the winter season, Cook determined not to lose his time in utter inactivity. His ships being sound, and his crews healthy, he thought that he might safely proceed to examine the Southern Ocean within the latitude of 46°; and then, refreshing at some of the islands between the tropics, return in the summer season to carry his researches to a higher latitude. His voyage from New Zealand towards the east was not productive of any interesting discoveries, nor diversified by any but the ordinary details of navigation. He felt convinced, from the great sea that rolled from the south, that no land of any extent could lie near him in that direction. When he had advanced so far as to find himself to the north of Carteret's track, he could no longer entertain any hope of finding a continent; and this circumstance, with the sickly state of the Adventure's crew, induced him to direct his course to the Society Islands. During this part of his voyage, he saw a number of those small low islands which compose the Dangerous Archipelago of Bougainville.
The ships narrowly escaped destruction by drifting on the coral reefs at Otaheite: they were saved only by the promptness of their commander and the unremitting exertions of the crew. On the 24th of August they anchored in their old station in Matavai Bay. The men on board the Resolution were at this time in perfect health ; but the crew of the Adventure, on the other hand, suffered dreadfully from the scurvy, though the two ships were equipped alike, and the same precautionary system to preserve the health of the men was prescribed to both; but zeal on the part of the officers was requisite to give efficacy to the orders, and their example was necessary to encourage the men to sacrifice old habits in order to preserve their constitutions.
During this visit to Otaheite, our navigators obtained a more intimate acquaintance with the manners and character of the natives. Of their religious doctrines they were unable to acquire a distinct knowledge: but they ascertained that human victims were often sacrificed to their gods. They also witnessed the Heavas or dramatic representations of the people, and found them not devoid of archness and ingenuity. The performance was generally extemporaneous, founded upon some incidents presented at the moment, and in which our navigators usually made a prominent figure. Otoo, the present king of Otaheite, a man of fine figure but of remarkably timid disposition, contracted an intimate friendship with captain Cook. Obe. rea, who, when the island was first visited by captain Wallis, was so conspicuous a character, was now reduced to an humble station, and had declined as much in personal appearance as in rank. It is remarkable that few inquiries were made after Tupia, who had accompanied Cook in his former voyage, or after Äootooroo, the native of Otaheite who had accompanied Rougainville to Europe ; but, though the islanders were neglectful of their own countrymen, they were uniformly solicitous in inquiring after Mr. Banks. . On leaving Otaheite, Cook visited the other islands of the group, where he found provisions in greater abundance. Oree, the chief of Huaheine, evinced towards him the most affectionate regard. Omai, a native of Ulietea, being desirous to accompany the English, was admitted by captain Furneaux on board the Adventure : he was not of the higher class, and, consequently, not a favourable specimen of these islanders as far as regarded person and deportment; but his docility and general propriety of conduct eventually justified the choice of captain Furneaux. A young native of Borabora, named HeteHete or Oedidee (as our great navigator named him), was at the same time allowed by captain Cook to embark in the Resolution.
On quitting the Society Islands, Cook directed his course to the west, where he had reason to believe, from the accounts of the natives, that much yet remained to be explored. At the island named Middleburg by Roggewein, he was well treated by a chief called Tioony: at Amsterdam Island his reception was equally favourable. The language of these islanders differed but little from that of Otaheite, and they were evidently of the same race. Some of our navigators thought them much handsomer; but others, and among these Cook himself, were of a different opinion. The men were grave and stately; but the women, on the contrary, were remarkably vivacious, and prattled unceasingly to the strangers, regardless of the mortifying fact that the latter could not understand them. But these people were chiefly distinguished from the natives of the Society Islands by their superior industry. On the island of Amsterdam captain Cook was struck with admiration; when he surveyed the cultivation and the beauty of the scene, he thought himself transported into the most fertile plains of Europe : there was not an inch of waste ground. The roads or paths occupied no more space than was absolutely necessary, and the fences did not take up above four inches each; nor was this small portion of ground, wholly lost, for the fences themselves contained in general useful trees or plants. The scene was every where the same; and nature, assisted by a little art, no where assumed a more splendid appearance than in these islands.
Cook now directed his course again to New Zealand; but, VOL. III.
on approaching that country, the ships had to encounter a suc. cession of severe gales and continued bad weather, during which the Adventure was again lost sight of and never afterwards rejoined. On the 3d of November the Resolution anchored in Queen Charlotte's Sound. The winter had been spent not unprofitably in re-victualling the ships, restoring the health of the crews, and obtaining a more accurate knowledge of the islands between the tropics. And now, as summer approached, it was Cook's intention to run from New Zealand, where wood and water were to be procured in abundance, and to explore the high southern latitudes from west to east, in which course he might reckon upon having the winds and currents in his favour. While the Resolution lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound, indubitable proofs presented themselves that cannibalism was common among the natives : one of them who carried some human flesh in his canoe, was allowed to broil and eat it on board the Resolution, in order to satisfy the doubts of some of the officers. Oedidee, who witnessed all this, was shocked beyond measure at the spectacle: at first he stood motionless as a statue, but his horror at length gave way to rage, which vented itself not only on the New Zealander, but on the officers who had encouraged him; and he could not be induced even to touch the knife which had been employed to cut the human flesh.
On the 26th of November, Cook sailed to prosecute his examination of the antarctic seas. His crew were in good health and high spirits, not at all dejected by the arduous task which was before them. In a few days they crossed the antipodes of London, and were thus on the point of the globe which was most distant from their home. The first ice island was seen on the 12th of December; and, on the 30th of that month, our navigators had reached the 71st degree of southern latitude: but here the ice was so compact that it was impossible to proceed any further towards the south; and it was also obvious that no continent existed in that direction but what must be inaccessible from the ice. It was Cook's intention to winter again within the tropic; but, in proceeding thither, he wished to satisfy himself as to the southern land said to have been discovered by Juan Fernandez. He sailed sufficiently near the position assigned to that supposed continent to assure himself that it could not have been any thing more than an island of moderate size. He now directed his course in search of Davis's Land or Easter Island, which had been sought in vain by Byron, Carteret, and Bougaiuville : Cook, however, succeeded better, and made the island on the 11th of March, 1774. The natives were found to speak a language radically the same with that of Otaheite, and which thus reaches across the Pacific Ocean from New Zealand to the sequestered islands in the East. Easter Island was
found to be remarkably barren, ill supplied with water, and wholly without wood. But the attention of the English was forcibly attracted by the great statues seen on the island by Roggewein. About fifteen yards from the landing place was found a perpendicular wall of square hewn stones, about eight feet in height, and nearly sixty in length; another wall parallel tɔ the first, and about forty feet distant from it, was raised to the same height; the whole area between the walls was filled up and paved with square stones of blackish lava. The stones of the walls were so carefully fitted as to make a durable piece of architecture. In the midst of the area was a pillar consisting of a single stone, about twenty feet high and about five feet wide, representing the human figure down to the waist. The workmanship was rude but not bad; nor were the features of the face ill formed, but the ears were long beyond proportion. On the top of the head was placed upright a huge round cylinder of stone, above five feet in height and in diameter; this cap, which resembled the head-dress of an Egyptian divinity, was formed of a kind of stone different from that which composed the rest of the pillar, and had a hole on each side, as if it had been made round by turning. It appeared as difficult to explain how the natives of this island, who were but few in number, could carve such huge statues with no better tools than those made of bones or shells, or how they raised them on their pedestals when finished, as to divine for what purpose they undertook such gigantic labours; for it did not appear that the statues were objects of worship; yet on the eastern side of the island they were numerous enough to employ the male population of the island for many centuries in their construction. The skill of this people in carving was still more manifest in the ornaments of their canoes, and in small wooden figures, of which the English brought home many curious specimens.
From Easter Island Cook directed his course to the Marquesas, discovered by Mendana in 1595; and on the 6th of April he got sight of one island of the group which was, however, a new discovery, and received, from the gentleman who first descried it, the name of Hood's Island. The other islands seen by Mendana, St. Pedro, Dominica, and St. Christiana, were afterwards discovered in succession. The ship with much difficulty anchored in Mendana's Port in the last mentioned island. Magdalena, the fifth island of the group, was seen only at a distance. Of the inhabitants of these islands captain Cook tells us, that collectively they are without exception the finest race of people in this sea; for fine shape and regular features they perhaps surpass all other nations. Nevertheless the affinity of their language to that spoken in Otaheite and the Society Islands shows that they are originally of the same nation. Dedidee could converse with them tolerably well, though the English could not, and it was obvious that their languages were nearly the same. In their manners and arts the people resembled the natives of Otaheite, - but appeared to be rather less ingenious and refined. Forts, or strong holds, were seen on the summits of the highest hills; but they were not visited by the English, who had not become sufficiently acquainted with the natives to venture into the interior.
Cook, having rediscovered the Marquesas of Mendana, proceeded to Otaheite, and passing by a group, to which he gave the name of Palliser's Islands, and some others which had been seen by Byron, he anchored in Matavai Bay on the 22d of April. At this time there were no sick on board; but as the island seemed to abound with provisions, our navigator was willing to prolong his stay here. His original stock in trade was, indeed, now exhausted ; but he found that the people of Otaheite set a great value on the red parrot feathers, of which he had brought a considerable supply from Amsterdam and Middleburg Islands. He thus accidentally learned an advantageous and easy course of traffic in the South Sea.
Among other entertainments with which our navigators were treated during this visit to Otaheite was a grand naval review. The vessels of war consisted of 160 great canoes, from fifty to ninety feet in length; they were decorated with flags and streamers; and the chiefs, together with all those who were on the fighting stages, were dressed in their war habits. The whole fleet made a noble appearance, such as our voyagers had never before seen, and could not have expected in this part of the world. Besides the vessels of war, there were 170 sail of. smaller double canoes, which seemed to be designed for transports and victuallers. Upon each of them was a small house or shed; and they were rigged with a mast and sail, which was not the case with the war canoes. Captain Cook estimated, at a moderate computation, that there could not be less than 7,760 men in the fleet; but the immense number of natives assembled as spectators astonished the English more than the splendour of the armament, and they were still further surprised to learn that this fleet was the naval force of only one of the twenty districts into which the island is divided. On these equivocal grounds they were led to form an extremely exaggerated calculation of the population of Otaheite, which they estimated to be at least 200,000 souls ; a number exceeding the truth, perhaps, in the proportion of ten to one.
From Otaheite our navigators proceeded to visit the Society Islands, at Huaheine. Cook was affectionately received by the old chief Oree, who still carefully preserved the medals, coins, and pewter plate with an inscription commemorating the voyage,