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to the ordinary observer, but shapeless masses of brick and cement, the original use of which I profess myself but moderately anxious to determine.
The cathedral was formerly a temple dedicated to Augustus; but, as it generally happens, when a new structure rises on the ruins of an old one, there remains of the temple but enough to disfigure the church, while the church conceals and encumbers what remains of the temple. This transformation has, nevertheless, often preserved the finest monuments, which, without it, would probably have been completely destroyed.
Of the famous port built by the Cumæans, but commonly called the port of Caligula, there remain but thirteen piles of brick; which, but for their symmetrical position, might be mistaken for points of rock scarcely appearing above the surface of the water.
The Temple of Jupiter Serapis is one of the most curious monuments that exist. of the building could hardly be understood, even by a very detailed description. There now remain of it three marble columns, broken off but erect, the pavement, even the rings to which the victims were attached, and the
steps to mount to the altar; the whole is covered by water, that rises from a spring under the pavement. Around were, anciently, hot mineral baths : of these many are still well preserved, others are repaired and furnished with the same water, which, as then, rises in abundance on the spot. The rest of the place is covered with blocks and columns of beautiful white marble, perforated by the sea water that at one time overflowed the ground on which
I then ascended the hill to the amphitheater, of which only one interior corridor and a few vomitoria remain. The seats, if there are any, are concealed under the weeds, bushes, and brambles, which descend to the arena; thus forming a beautiful and variegated bank, that encloses a fine crop of Indian corn* which grows in the area, while elms and vines rise above to protect it with the shade they afford. How different this from the appearance of the Amphitheatre of Pompeii !
A narrow stony road, bordered by walls of lava and sulphurous stones, conducted me from the amphitheatre to the Solfatera,—the nearlyextinguished volcano, which is, on that account, more curious than any other, excepting, indeed, such as are in full activity; but those I have never seen, and Vesuvius in its actual state is unable to give any idea of them. I was advancing on a small circular flat, covered with a white dust,' and surrounded with rocks of the same colour : the earth resounded under my feet; at length, on arriving in the center of the arena,
* It is curious that the grain the English call of India, should he named by the French blé de Turquie; and that the bird the French call d'Inde, should be termed Turkey by the English.
-as it may be called,-my guide took up a large stone, which falling again on the earth, or rather floor, produced a rumbling subterraneous noise, which, lasting for several seconds, attested still more fully, that I was walking on a slender shell, formed and supported over a gulph, the depth of which is unknown. On the opposite side, a sulphurous vapour and smoke, escaping through a small cleft in the crust, rose in graceful folds to the sun. As this steam comes above ground, part of it is collected, and forms a bath on the spot: the warmth of the vapour here brought together is excessive. Sulphur and alum are found and worked in this place. Murat, wishing to procure the mineral more easily, pierced the crust, and found a layer of it below; but under that water only appeared. . The well he made is now filled up, and the sulphur extracted by the process before employed. Adieu.