the Asinaria, between Cleaereta and Argyrippus, act i., scene 3 ; Cleaereta and Philenium, act iii., scene 1; the portion of act iii., scene 3, which is between Argyrippus and Philenium; the conclud. ing scene, in which Artemona carries off Demaenetus from the house of Cleaereta, act v., scene 2; are copied in the Inganni, in the scenes between Gostanzo and Gilletta, act i., scene 1; between Gilletta and Dorotea, act ii., scene 2; between Gostanzo and Dorotea, act ii., scene 5; and in the concluding scene, in which the physician's wife carrries off her husband from the house of Gilletta, act v., scene 10.

There is also a captain of the Bobadil order, who is imposed on and fleeced by Gilletta and Dorotea, and afterwards, finding the house barred against him, besieges it, as Terence's Thraso does the house of Thais, * and is as easily repulsed. There are other gatherings from the Latin drama. The comedy, in short, though very entertaining, has no originality.

It seems strange that the Inganni should have remained undiscovered by Shaksperian critics : but the cause which concealed the Ingannati from their researches, is somewhat curious. It appears with the title Comedia del Sacrificio degli Intronati. The Sacrificio is a series of songs to music, in which various characters, who have suffered from “the pangs of despised love,” renounce love, and each in succession sacrifices on an altar some gift or memorial of his unkind or faithless mistress. This prelude, which has no relation whatever to the comedy, being concluded, the comedy follows, with its own proper title, Ingannati.

There are many editions of this comedy. The earliest of which I have yet found a record, is of 1537. It is not probable that this was the first. There were others of 1538, 1550, 1554, 1562, 1563, 1569, 1585. Four of these are in the British Museum; and one, In Venetia, without date. And it was included in collections ; one, containing all the comedies of the Intronati, 1611; another, with four other comedies and notes by Ruscelli, which I find mentioned without the date. The title of an edition in my possession, is, Comedia del Sacrificio de gli Intronati, Celebrato ne i giuochi ď un Carnovale in Siena, l'Anno MDXXXI. Sotto il Sodo,ť dignissimo Archintronato. Di nuovo corretta e ristampata. In Venetia, appresso Francesco Rampazetto, MDLXII.I * Thraso. Hancine ego ut contumeliam tam insignem in me acci

piam Gnatho ? Mori me satius est. Simalio, Donax, Syrisce, sequimini. Primum aedeis expugnabo.-Eunuchus, actus iv., scena 7.

Le Capitaine. Ha ciel ! qu'il me faille endurer un tel affront! .... Allons chercher le capitaine Tailbras, le capitaine Brisecuisse, Brafort, Cachemaille, Pinçargent, Grippetout, et mes autres amis ; puis retournons faire bravade à ces poltronnes.-Les Tromperies, acte iv., scène 2. This version is better than the corresponding Italian.

+ Marcantonio Piccolomini. # There was a French translation of Ingannati, under the title of Les Abusez, Charles Estienne; of which there appear to have been three editions : Lyons, 1543; Paris, 1549 and 1558.

Intronati, the Thunder-stricken, was an Academy in Siena, which distinguished itself at that period by dramatic productions. The Italian academies gave themselves fantastical names, I Caliginosi, I Dubbiosi, I Chimerici: The Dark, the Doubtful, the Chimerical, and so forth. Their members assumed conformable appellations. L' Amor Costante, a comedy performed at Siena, before the Emperor Charles V., in 1536, * is given in the title as by Signor Stordito, t Intronato : Master Stunned of the Thunder-stricken. This comedy is introduced by a dialogue, between the Prologue and a Spaniard, in the course of which the Spaniard inquires

Who is the author of the comedy? Is it the most divine Pietro Aretino ? I

Prologue. The author is a member of an academy, which has been in Siena many years.

Spaniard. What is the name of this academy?
Prologue. The academy of the Intronati.

Spaniard. The Intronati ? The fame of this academy has spread through all parts of Spain; and its name has gone so far, that it has reached the ears of the emperor. How rejoiced should I be if I could belong to this academy! And if you would have me bound to you for the whole time of my life, place me among you.

Prologue. If you are disposed to observe our rules, I will gladly exert myself on your behalf.

Spaniard. What are the rules ?

Prologue. Few and simple. To seek knowledge and wisdom : to take the world as it comes : to be the affectionate and devoted slave of these ladies :& and, for the love of them, to make now and then a comedy, or some other work, to show our implicit submission.

Spaniard. These rules are greatly to my mind ; and if I can obtain the favour of being placed in the academy, I will most faithfully observe them all.

* In a Venetian reprint before me, the date of the first performance is given as 1531 ; but the play has many historical indications which determine the time. One will suffice. The action passes in the pontificate of Paul III., and two years after the death of Clement VII., who died in 1534.

+ Alessandro Piccolomini.

I Pietro Aretino had produced two of his five comedies before 1536.

& The Intronati were especially devoted to the service of the ladies. The Prologue of the Ingannati addresses the ladies only. “Io vi veggio fin di quà, NOBILISSIME DONNE, meravigliare di vedermivi cosi dinanzi, in questo habito, ed insieme di questo apparecchio, come se noi havessimo a fare qualche comedia.”

I see you, even from hence, MOST NOBLE LADIES, wonder at seeing me thus before you, in this dress, and also at these preparations, as if we were about to produce some comedy.

The prologues of other comedies of the period address the spectators generally.

Renouard in the Bibliothèque d'un Amateur (Paris, 1819, tome iii. pp. 109–119), gives a list of Italian dramas in his possession, which he introduces with the following notice :

“ Le XVIe siècle produisit une multitude innombrable de pièces dramatiques italiennes, qui actuellement se lisent peu : beaucoup d'entre elles continuent cependant à être recherchées des Italiens, soit pour la pureté du style, qualité par laquelle beaucoup se distinguent, soit même pour leur bizarrerie, et souvent pour la seule rareté des exemplaires. Ne voulant point ici faire collection de ce genre de pièces, on a seulement choisi parmi celles que l'on a crues recommandables par aucune de ces diverses causes, et l'on n'a admis aucun exemplaire qui ne soit de parfaite conservation.”

The list of dramas includes twenty comedies of the sixteenth century; two of which are the Ingannati and Inganni, the former with the usual title page, Comedia del Sacrificio, without date. The Inganni is given as nuovamente ristampata. In Fiorenza, 1568.

To return to the Ingannati. The Prologue says: “The fable is new: never before seen nor read : nor drawn from any other source than the industrious brains of the Academicians of the Intronati.

This, therefore, we may fairly assume to be the original source, from which all other versions of the elements of the story are drawn; the elements being these :

A girl assumes male apparel, and enters as a page into the service of a man, with whom she either previously is, or subsequently becomes, in love. He employs her as a messenger to a lady, who will not listen to his suit. The lady falls in love with the supposed page, and, under the influence of a mistake, marries the girl's twin brother. The lover transfers his affection to the damsel, who has served him in disguise.

I propose to translate the scenes in which these four characters are principally concerned, and to give a connecting outline of the rest.

The original has no stage directions, and the scenes have no indications of place. I have inserted some stage directions, and have indicated the places of the action, on what appeared to me probable grounds.

The house of Virginio is too far from the house of Gherardo to be shown in the same street. This is apparent from several passages, especially from act iv., scene 7, where Virginio asks Gherardo to take in his supposed daughter, because he cannot take her to his own house without her being seen in male apparel by all the city.

The house of Gherardo is near the hotels.

The house of Flaminio is in a distinct locality from both. It is clearly not under observation from either.

I have, therefore, marked three changes of scene :
A street, with two hotels, and the house of Gherardo.
A street, with the house of Flaminio.
A street, with the house of Virginio.


GHERARDO FOIANI, an old man, father of Isabella.
VIRGINIO BELLEN ZINI, an old man, father of Lelia and Fabrizio.
FLAMINIO DE' CARANDINI, in love with Isabella.
FABRIZIO, son of Virginio.
MESSER PIERO, a pedant, tutor of Fabrizio.

• { rival hotel-keepers.
Giglio, a Spaniard.
SPELA, servant of Gherardo.
SCATIZZA, servant of Virginio.
CRIVELLO, servant of Flaminio.
STRAGUALCIA, servant of Fabrizio.
LELIA, daughter of Virginio, disguised as a page, under the name of

ISABELLA, daughter of Gherardo.
CLEMENTIA, nurse of Lelia.
PASQUELLA, housekeeper to Gherardo.
CITTINA, a yirl, daughter of Clementia,

The Scene is in Modena.

Scene I.-A Street, with the house of VIRGINIO.

Virginio and GHERARDO.
TTIRGINIO is an old merchant, who has two children, a

son and a daughter, Fabrizio and Lelia. He has lost

his property and his son in the sack of Rome, May, 1527, when his daughter had just finished her thirteenth year. The comedy being performed in the Carnival of 1531, the girl is in her seventeenth year. Another old man, Gherardo, who is wealthy, wishes to marry her, and the father assents, provided the maiden is willing. Gherardo thinks that the father's will ought to be sufficient, and that it only rests with him to make his daughter do as he pleases.

Scene II.

VIRGINIO and CLEMENTIA. Virginio, having shortly before gone on business to Bologna, in company with a Messer Buonaparte and others, had left Lelia in a convent with her Aunt Camilla, and now, in the intention of her marriage, desires Lelia's nurse, Clementia, to go to the convent to bring her home. Clementia must first go to mass. Scene III.-A Street, with the house of FLAMINIO.

LELIA, afterwards CLEMENTIA. Lelia (in male apparel). It is great boldness in me, that, knowing the licentious customs of these wild youths of Modena, I should venture abroad alone at this early hour. What would become of me, if any one of them should suspect my sex? But the cause is my love for the cruel and ungrateful Flaminio. Oh, what a fate is mine! I love one who hates me. I serve one who does not know me: and, for more bitter grief, I aid him in his love for another, without any other hope than that of satiating my eyes with his sight. Thus far all has gone well : but now, how can I do? My father has returned. Flaminio has come to live in the town. I can scarcely hope to continue here without being discovered : and if it should be so, my reputation will be blighted for ever, and I shall become the fable of the city. Therefore I have come forth at this hour to consult my nurse, whom, from the window, I have seen coming this way. But I will first see if she knows me in this dress.

[CLEMENTIA enters. Clementia. In good faith, Flaminio must be returned to Modena : for I see his door open. Oh! if Lelia knew it, it would appear to her a thousand years till she came back to her father's house. But who is this young coxcomb that keeps crossing before me, backward and forward? What do you mean by it? Take yourself off, or I will show you how I like such chaps.

Lelia. Good-morning, good mother.

Clementia. I seem to know this boy. Tell me, where can I have seen you?

Lelia. You pretend not to know me, eh? Come a little nearer : nearer still : on this side. Now?

Clementia. Is it possible? Can you be Lelia ? Oh, misery of my life! What can this mear, my child ?

Lelia. Oh! if you cry out in this way, I must go.

Clementia. Is this the honour you do to your father, to your house, to yourself, to me, who have brought you up? Come in instantly. You shall not be seen in this dress.

« ForrigeFortsett »