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posing them to be such, as I really think the news of his death; the bare news of his they are, does the reader suppose, that our death, might have prevented a war with government possess a license to commit America ! And

yet

have these same acts of aggression, and to put forward its writers the impudence to call the people of mere cessation of them as a ground for Nottingham, and other places, monsters peace with the offended party ? ' This is because they expressed their joy upon renot the way with our governinent, either ceiving that same news! -In conclusion, abroad or at home. It is always talking I beg the reader to bear in mind, that I of " indemnity for the past and security for have been nearly two years endeavouring the future ;" and, why are we to suppose to prevent a war with America; that, very that the American Government will not soon after I was sentenced to be imprisoned talk in the same way? If a man offend two years in Newgate and to pay a thouour government, does it

say, cease to sand pounds to the King, for writing about offend us, and there is an end of the mat- the fogging of English Local Militia-men ter ?" No : this is not the language it is at the town of Ely and about the employing now making use of to the people in the of German Troops upon that occasion ; I Luddite counties. It punishes them, when beg the reader to bear in mind, that, very it can catch them; and shall it lay it down soon after that imprisonment commenced, as a maxim, that it is never to be made I began my most earnest endeavours 10 responsible for what it does ? --The reader prevent this war, the most fatal, I lear, may be assured, that the Americans do of all the many wars in which we have not consider it as exempted from the usual been engaged, since the present King laws and principles by which nations re- mounted the throne. I was enabled to tell gulate their conduct towards each other ; pretty exacily what would come to pass, and, he may be further assured, that the unless we redressed the grievances of Ameinquiries relative to the state of our manu- rica without delay. I had letters from 'facturers will not, when read in America, America, written by persons of a little tend to lower her tone.- She is now

more understanding than appears to be armed ; she has got over her great reluct. possessed by those from whom our lawance to inlist soldiers and to fit out armed yers get their information.

I did not vessels ; and, she will, in my opinion, know to what extent the merchants of Amenever lay down her arms, that is to say, rica might submit to have their property she will never make peace with us, until seized; but I was well assured, thai the, we agree to make her ample compensation American people would no longer suffer for her losses and injuries under the Orders their seainen to be impressed upon the open in Council, and also agree to desist from im- sea. This I was positively told nearly tivo pressing any persons on board her ships at years ago ; and, I am now particularly sea. -Are we prepared for this? Are anxious tu impress it upon the minds of the associates of Perceval ready to give up the ministers; for, they may be assured, these points ? Are they ready to pay for that the American Government, if it has what has been captured under regulations, actually declared war, will never make which the Americans regard as a violation peace till that point is settled to the satisof their rights; and are they ready to make faction of the American people; till, in it a crime in any English officer to seize short, we agree to desist wholly from taking seamen on board American ships at sea ? any person whatever out of an American If they are, we shall certainly soon be at ship al sea. -I am aware how stinging peace with America ; if they are not, my it will be to some persons in England to opinion is, that we shall have war with yield one jot to America. I am aware how her, till those points are given up.

inuch more they hate her government than The close of the pretended Letter from they hate that of France. I am aware Liverpool is curious. It observes that, I how glad they would be to hear of the 66 when the Senate came to the resolution United States being swallowed up by an " of declaring war, the account of Mr. earthquake. Not so, however, the people " Perceval's death had not reached Wush-of England generally, who do not grudge " ington," -As much as to say, that if any thing that is yielded to America so the news of his death had reached Wash- much as they do what is yielded to other ington, war might not have been declared ! powers. They do not, besides, see very And this is the way in which the friends clearly the advantages they are to derive of the little dead lawyer speak of him, is from the keeping down of the Americans by it? They leave us clearly to infer, that the means of the English navy. They do

If we

his

not see the benefit that is likely to accrue treaty at all with us. look

upon to them from any thing, the tendency of abdication in favour of Napoleon as nothing which is to press upon a free people in at all, still we must know that the man is another country.

Nothing, I am con- in France; we must know that he has never vinced, will ever make an American war received any Embassador from England; popular in England.

that he has signed no treaty, and that he

has, in fact, no power whatever as a king. FRENCH OVERTURES FOR PEACE.-- Besides, who made him a king? How This is a subject of great importance. Not came he to be considered king of Spain ? so great as that of disarming the people of His father is alive; and, while he lives, English counties, but, certainly, of very how can his son be king? Why, they great importance. Peace and Reform are tell us, that the king, his father, abdicated necessary to England; they are now be- the throne in favour of his son. But, the come necessary to her happiness and even father has since declared, in the most pubto her safety. When, therefore, another lic and solemn manner, that, in abdicating, offer of peace has been made to us, it be- he yielded to fear; that the abdication was hoves us to inquire what were the terms extorted from him at the perilof his life, and, proposed.---- In another part of this Num- upon that ground he resumed his crown. ber I have inserted the letter of the Duke -Besides, if the right of Ferdinand will of Bassano, containing the proposition of stand upon the ground of an abdication in the Emperor Napoleon, and also the an- his favour, why will not the right of Naswer of Lord Castlereagh. ——The propo- poleon stand upon the same ground, since sition has been represented as unfair, in- we know well, that Ferdinand abdicated sidious, and I know not what besides ; but, the throne in favour of Napoleon ; If abin my opinion, a proposition more fair, dication is to hold good in the one case, more frank, and, the circumstances con- why not in the other? If Ferdinand can sidered, more moderale, never was made acquire a crown by the abdication of its by one nation to another at the opening of possessor, why can he not dispose of it in a negociation. The basis is, each party the same way ?-It has been said, that the shall keep in peace the territories of which abdication was exterled from Ferdinand ; the other has not been able to deprive him but, we have not heard that he himself has by war. This is the proposed basis ; or, made any such complaint. It is our kind at least, it is the main stone of it. And, and generous government that makes the what can be more fair; what more explicit complaint for him. But, at any rate, it or comprehensive; what more reasonable ? was but extorting from him that which his To reject'a basis like this is to proclaim a own father had accused him of having exo disposition to continue war, without end torted. If Ferdinand, in the face of his faand without object.-- But, it is, it may ther's protest, had a right to possess the be said to other parts of the overture, that crown, surely any one to whom he might Lord Castlereagh objects. He objects to make it over could not fail in his right of the leaving of Spain in the hands of King possession.-- -So much for the legitimacy Joseph. This point, has already cost us of Ferdinand's rights. This, however, is four years of war at the rate of about a trifle compared with the design, now 20,000,000 of pounds a year, and how clearly developed, of continuing the war many men it has cost I cannot even venture though Portugal is offered to be guaranleed to guess. Eighty millions of money is, to the House of Braganza. What could however, something; and, it would seem we expect more than this? This seemed, that we are very far indeed from being at at one time, to be an object beyond our the end of the account.- -The overture of hopes ; and now when the enemy offers it Napoleon is, by Lord Castlereagh, under to us, and offers besides to leave us in posstood to mean, that, as to Spain, the pre- session of all the French and Dutch and sent king, Joseph is to reign there ; and, Danish Islands, containing about 35 milthis being the case, the Prince Regent can- lions of inhabitants, nearly twice the numnot consent to treat, because he owes it ber that France has added to her subjects ; "to his honour," because he is bound by when the independence of Sicily is offered treaty to Ferdinand and his Cortes. Really to be guaranteed ; and when the Emperor I do not see how he can be so bound. offers to leave us in quiet possession of Ferdinand has lived in France ever since Malta ; aye, of that MALTA, which was the war began in Spain. I am at a loss to the cause, and the sole professed cause, of imagine how he can be said to have any this war of Trojan duration ; when even Malta is offered to be left to us, our go- in that state for more than a century, and yernment declines to treat, it rejects the that, even at the last peace, the peace of overture, for the sake of Ferdinand and his Amiens, Spain was so completely in alCorles: —-When, then, are we to have liance with France, that the latter negopeace? We have it now in our power to cialed for her. If not, then, with an see Portugal independent of the French, to offer such as is now made us ; if we have see Sicily in a state to dispense with the now no chance of peace, when are we aid of an English army and an English sub- to hope for it? If we are not to have sidy.; and, at the same time, we may re- peace till the giant power of France is tain possession of all the immense conquests reduced, who amongst us can reasonably that we have made during the war, all the hope to see peace again ?- -I shall return French and Dutch settlements in all parts to this subject in my next. of the world. In short, Napoleon gives up to us three quarters of the globe, excepting the American States, which are not his BRISTOL ELECTION.- - This contest is, to give.--I shall be told, perhaps, that for the present, at an end. It has been dethe guaranteeing of the independence of cided against Me. Hunt by a large majoriPortugal and of Sicily would be of no use ; ty; but, let it be borne in mind, that the for, that the enemy would seize on them in election has been carried on under the peace, or declare war again for the pur-" prolection" of soldiers. This is a perfect pose, as soon as our troops were with novelty, even in this age of novelties.drawn. This is possible; but, then, he That there will be another election is cerwho tells me this, must recollect that his tain; for, unless there be, there is an end, argument goes to establish the necessity of at once, to even the slightest show of the eternal war, or, at least, war to the exter- elective franchise. The nation is inmination of Napoleon, and of all those who debted to the people of Bristol for the stand shall posssess his power and act upon his that they have made against corrupt influpolicy; for, the same possibility will exence ; and the people of Bristol are indebtist next year as well as this year, and every ed to Mr. Hunt for having been enabled to year as long as the power and territories of make that stand; they are indebted to him, the French empire shall remain what they and to him alone, for having had AN now are. The truth is, that the terms ELECTION, or any thing in the shape of offered as a basis of peace are fair and rea-. an election. I shall, in my next, when sonable, and, for a first offer, very mo- in full possession of all the facts relating to derate; but, our government appears to be this glorious struggle against corruption, afraid of peace. It is obviously afraid, put those facts upon record in a way that I that guarantees would be useless in behalf think most likely to give them the best of Sicily and Portugal; it is afraid that chance of producing effect. Napoleon would seize on them the moment our troops should be withdrawn, and it feels thai it would have no power to punish ENGLISH LIBERTY OF THE PRESS.- It him for so doing! There's the rub! The appears to me to be necessary to put upon great, the giant power of France; the in- record, in a compact form, all the princifrinsic strength of that empire ; this it is pal facts relating to the prosecution carried that frightens our government, and makes on against me, and the punishment inflicted those who have the management of it alarm- upon me. -I shall now state these facts ed at the idea of peace; and this giant bere; and, in my next, and in every fulure power has been created by those coalitions Number of the Register, if it continue to be against republicanism, of which Engiand published as long as I live, it shall form was the soul. Were not this the case the last page ; so that, in time, it may be it would be impossible for any set of mi- read by every man in every country where nisters to think for one moment of rejecting the English language is understood; and so an offer like that contained in the letter of that it may, if people choose, be cut off, the Duke of Bassano, which offer, as I ob- and pasted upon walls or other places. served before, gives up all that we have I have confined myself to bare facts; facts ever contended for, except Spain ; and, if which nobody can deny. I have had reit be said, that Spain in family alliance course to no colouring at all. Here are the with France would be dangerous to us, let unvarnished facts, and let every man form it be borne in mind, that Spain has been his own judgment upon them.

ENGLISH LIBERTY OF THE PRESS, numerous hangings in the course of every As illustrated in the Prosecution and

year; that the part of the prison in which s

was sentenced to be confined is sometimes Punishment of

inhabited by felons, that felons were acWILLIAM COBBETT.

tually in it at the time I entered it; that one In order that my countrymen and that man was taken out of it to be transported in the world may not be deceived, duped, and about 48 hours after I was put into the cheated upon this subject, 1, WILLIAM same yard with him; and that it is the place COBBETT, of Botley, in Hampshire, put of confinement for men guilty of unnatural upon record the following facts; to wit: crimes, of whom there are four in it at this Thai, on the 21th June, 1809, the follow-time; that, besides this imprisonment, I ing article was published in a London was sentenced to pay a thousand pounds TO new's-paper, called the Courier:- THE KING, and to give security for my " The Mutiny amongst the LOCAL MI. good behaviour for seven years, myself in " LITIA, which broke out at Ely, was the sum of 3,000 pounds, and two sureties " fortunately suppressed on Wednesday, in the sum of 1,000 pounds each ; that the “ by the arrival of four squadrons of the whole of this sentence has been executed * GERMAN LEGION CAVALRY from upon me, that I have been imprisoned the " Bury, under lie command of General two years, have paid the thousand pounds " Auckland. Five of the ringleaders were TO THE KING, and have given the bail, « tried by a Court-Martial, and sentenced Timothy Brown and Peter Walker, Esqrs. ss to receive 500 lashes each, part of which being my sureties ; that the Attorney Gene“punishment they received on Wednes- ral was Sir Vicary Gibbs, the Judge who “ day, and a part was reinitted. A stop. sat at the trial Lord Ellenborough, the four

page for their knapsacks was the ground Judges who sat at passing sentence Ellen “ of the complaint that excited this muti- borough, Grose, Le Blanc, and Bailey; and

nous spirit, which occasioned the men to that the jurors were, Thomas Rhodes of " surround their officers, and demand what Hampstead Road, John Davis of Southamp" they deemed their arrears. The first di- ton Place, James Ellis of Tottenham Court "s vision of the German Legion halted yes- Road, John Richards of Bayswater, Thomas 56 terday at Newmarket on their relurn to Marsham of Baker Street, Robert Heath“ Bury."

- That, on the 1st July, 1809, cote of High Street Marylebone, John Maud I published, in the Political Register, an of York Place Marylebone, George Baxter article censuring, in the strongest terms, of Church Terrace Pancras, Thomas Taylor these proceedings; that, for so doing, the of Red Lion Square, David Deane of St. Attorney General prosecuted, as seditious John Street, William Palmer of Upper Street libellers, and by Ex-Officio Information, Islington, Henry Favre of Pall Mall; that me, and also my printer, my publisher, and the Prime Ministers during the time were one of the principal retailers of the Political Spencer Perceval, until he was shot by John Register; that I was brought to trial on the Bellingham, and after that Robert B. Jen15th June, 1810, and was, by a Special kinson, Earl of Liverpool ; that the proseJury, that is to say, by 12 men out of 48 cution and sentence took place in the reign appointed by the Master of the Crown Of- of King George the Third, and that, he fice, found guilty ; that, on the 20th of the having become insane during my imprisonsaine month, I was compelled to give bail ment, the 1,000 pounds was paid to his for my appearance to receive judgment; and son, the Prince Regent, in his behalf; that, that, as I came up from Botley (to which during my imprisonment, I wrote and pubplace I had returned to my family and my lished 364 Essays and Letters upon politifarm on the evening of the 15th), a Tip cal subjects; that, during the same time, staff went down from London in order to was visited by persons from 197 cities seize me, personally; that, on the 9th of and towns, many of them as a sort of deJuly, 1810, I, together with my priňter, puties from Societies or Clubs; that, at the publisher, and the newsman, were brought expiration of my imprisonment, on the 9th into the Court of King's Bench to receive of July, 1812, a great dinner was given in judgment; that the three former were sen- London for the purpose of receiving me, at tenced to be imprisoned for some months in which dinner upwards of 600 persons were the King's Bench prison; that I was sen present, and at which Sir Francis Burdett tenced to be imprisoned for two years in presided; that dinners and other parties Newgate, the great receptacle for malefac. were held on the same occasion in many tors, and the front of which is the scene of other places in England; that, on my way home, I was received at Alton, the first than the receiving of a self-gratification, I town in Hampshire, with the ringing of the trust that you and all our friends will have Church bells; that a respectable company the goodness to accept, in the lieu of the met me and gave me a dinner at Winches- personal attendance, the most sincere thanks ter ; that I was drawn from more than the for your kind intention, and an assurance distance of a mile into Boiley by the peo- that I shall always esteem it amongst the ple; that, upon my arrival in the village, best compensations for the losses and the I found all the people assembled to receive sufferings of your faithful friend, me; that I concluded the day by explaining

WM. COBBETT. to them the cause of my imprisonment, and Bolley, July 23, 1812. by giving them clear notions respecting the flogging of the Local Militia-men at Ely, and respecting the employment of German

MINISTERIAL NEGOCIATIONS. Troops; and, finally, which is more than a compensation for my losses and all my suf- DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED, RELATING TO THE ferings, I am in perfect health and strength, LATE NEGOCIATIONS FOR MAKING A NEW and, though I must, for the sake of six chil.

MINISTRY. dren, feel the diminution that has been made in my property (thinking it right in

(Continued from page 96.) me to decline the offer of a subscription), 1 than that which arose from the necessity of have the consolation to see growing up giving to a new government that character three sons, upon whose hearts, I trust, all of efficiency and stability, and those marks these facts will be engraven.

of the constitutional support of the crown, WM. COBBETT.

which were required to enable it to act Botley, July 23, 1812.

usefully for the public service; and that on

these grounds it appeared to them indispenTo Me. RICHÁRD KITTLE, OF Norwich.

sable, that the connexion of the great of

fices of the court with the political admi. Dear Sir,

nistration should be clearly established in I have this moment received

your
letter

its first arrangements,- A decided differof the 19th, informing me, that other friends of freedom and enemies of ence of opinion as to this point having been

thus expressed on both sides, the conversacorruption, have fixed on the 3d day of August next for giving me a dinner at the of regret.-Nothing was said on the sub

tion ended here, with mutual declarations White Swan in your city, and that you

ject of official arrangements, nor any pertend to advertise in boih the Norwich pa

sons proposed on either side to fill any parpers to that effect. By this time you will

ticular situations. have received a letter from me, containing the reasons for my at present foregoing the

B. and C. Two Letters / which passed be. very great honour which I was before in

lween Lords Moira and Grey) subjoined formed you intended me; but, as I owe a

for the purpose of throwing light on the similar explanation to all our friends in and

ground of part of these transaclions. (B.) near your public-spirited city, I here re

--- May 31st, 1812. peat, that I found my farm so imperiously to demand my presence, especially at this My dear Lord,- A just anxiety not to important season of the year, and with a leave any thing subject to misunderstandsense of my recent losses in my mind, and ing, must excuse me if I am troublesome prudence dictating, at the same time, the to you. Since I quitted you, the necessity removal of my family from a gentleman's of being precise in terms has occurred to house to a farm house, that I could not me: and, although I think I cannot have bring myself to resolve to leave home, mistaken you, I wish to know if I am accuanxious as I was to see and shake by the rate in what I apprehend you to have said. hand the friends of freedoin at Norwich. I understood the position, stated by you as If the object of my absence had been the having been what you advanced in the rendering of some greater service to the House of Lords, to be this, " That pledges cause of freedom than I could render by re- " had been given to the Catholics, a demaining at home, the reasons I have given parture from which rendered their prewould not have been a sufficient apology “sent disappointment more galling; and for the disappointment I shall occasion ; " that you said this in the hearing of per'but, as the object would have been no other sons who could contradict you if you

you, and

in

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