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Great Britain and France, but also for those away from under the protection of its flag, States which are in relations of amity with by one of the Belligerent Powers, the proeach of these Powers.--Having made perty which the other has placed there; known without reserve the sentiments of that all Powers consequently have the right the Prince Regent, with respect to a point of exacting, that nations, pretending to on which it is necessary to have a full un neutrality, should cause their flag to be derstanding, previous to any ulterior dis- respected in the same manner as they encussion, I shall adhere to the instructions of force respect to their territory ; that so long his Royal Highness, by avoiding all super- as England, persisting in its system of war, fluous comment and recrimination on the should disavow the independence of any. accessary objects of your letter. I might Aag upon the seas, no Power, which is advantageously for the justification of the possessed of coast, can be neuter with reconduct observed by Great Britain at the spect to England. - With that penetradifferent periods alluded to by your Excel. tion and elevation of sentiment by which lency, refer to the correspondence which he is distinguished, the Emperor Alexthen took place, and to the judgment which ander also perceived that there could not the world has long since formed of it. — be any prosperity for the Continental States, As to the particular character the war has but in the establishment of their rights by. unhappily assumed, and the arbitrary prin a maritime peace. This great interest was ciples which your Excellency conceives to predominant in the Treaty of Tilsit, and have marked iis progress, denying, as I do, every thing else was the immediate result that these evils are attributable to the Bri- of it. The Emperor Alexander offered tish Government, I at the same time can his mediation to the English Government, assure your Excellency, that it sincerely and engaged, if this Government would deplores their existence, as uselessly aggra- not consent to conclude peace upon the vating the calamities of war, and that its principle of acknowledging that the flags of most anxious desire, whether at peace or all Powers should enjoy an equal and perwaf with France, is to have the relations fect independence upon the seas, to make of the two countries restored to the liberal common cause with France, to summon, principles usually acted upon informer in concert with her, the ihree Courts of times.--I take this opportunity of assur Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Lisbon, to ing your Excellency of my respect. close their ports against the English, to de
CASTLEREAGH. clare war against England, and to insist
upon the adoption of the same measure by FRANCE AND RUSSIA, Correspondence
the various Powers. The Emperor Narelative to the Dispule of 1812.
poleon accepted of the mediation of Russia,
but the answer of England was a violation Copy of a Nole addressed by the Minister of of the rights of nations, till then unexam
Foreign Relations to Count Romanzow, pled in history. She, in the midst of Chancellor of Russia. Paris, April 25, peace, and without any preliminary decla1812.
ration of war, attacked Denmark, surCount --- His Majesty the Emperor of prised her capital, burned her arsenals, Russia had acknowledged at Tilsit ihe prin- and took possession of her feet, which was ciple, that the present generation should dismantled and lying secure in her ports. not have looked to the enjoyment of happi. Russia, in conformity to the stipulations ness, but on the ground that the nations in and principles of the Treaty of Tilsit, dethe full enjoyment of their rights might clared war against England; proclaimed give themselves up freely to the exercise of anew the principles of the armed neutratheir industry; that the independence of lity; and engaged never to swerve from their flag should be inviolable; that the this system. Here the British Cabinet independence of their flag was a right be threw off the mask, by issuing, in the longing to each of them, and its protection month of November, 1807, those Orders a reciprocal duty of the one towards the in council, by virtue of which England other; that they were not less bound to levied a toll of from four to five millions protect the inviolability of their flag, than upon the continent; and she compelled the ihat of their territory; that if a Power Hag of every Power to submit to the regucannot, without ceasing to be neuter, allations which were the result of her prinlow its territory to be taken away by one ciples of legislation. Thus, on the one of the Belligerent Powers, so neither can it side, she made war upon all Europe ; and, remain neuter, in permitting to be taken on the other, she secured to herself the
means of perpetuating the duration of that maritime peace, and then as much diswar, by founding her financial system upon posed as at Tilsit to defend those principles the tributes which she arrogated to herself for the defence of which they had entered -a right of imposing upon all people. into an alliance, resolved to make a soAlready in 1806, and while France was at lemn application to England. You, Count, war with Prussia and Russia, she had pro came, in consequence, to Paris, and a claimed a blockade which had placed under correspondence ensued between you and the an interdict the entire coast of an empire. British Government. But the Cabinet of When His Majesty entered Berlin, he an- London, which had perceived that war swered this monstrous presunsption by a was about to be rekindled on the ContiDecree of blockade against the British Isles. nent, rejected all overtures towards negoBut to meet the Orders in Council of 1807, ciation. Sweden had resused to shut her more direct and specific measures were ne ports against England; and Russia, in cessary; and His Majesty, by the Decree conformity to the stipulations of Tilsit, had of Milan, of the 17tli of December of the declared war against her. The result to same year, declared all those flags dena- her was, the loss of Finland, which was tionalized which should permit their neu- united to the Russian empire; and at the trality to be violated by submitting to those same time the Russian armies occupied the Orders. - The attempt on Copenhagen fortresses on the Danube, and made war had been sudden and public. England with effect upon the Turks. Neverthehad prepared in Spain new attempts, hatch- less, the system of England was triumed with reflection and in the dark. phant. Her Orders in Council threatened Not having been able to shake the deter- to produce the most important results ; and mination of Charles IV., she formed a the tribute, which was to furnish the means party against that Prince, who would not of supporting the perpetual war which she sacrifice to her the interests of his kingdom. had declared, was perceptible upon the She used the name of the Prince of the seas. Holland and the Hanseatic Towns Asturias, and the father was driven from continuing to trade with her, their comhis throne by the name of the son. The merce frustrated the salutary and decisive enemies of France and the partisans of regulations of the Decrees of Berlin and England took possession of the Sovereign Milan, which alone were calculated to efauthority:—His Majesty, called upon fectually resist the principles of the British by Charles the Fourth, sent troops into Orders in Council. The execution of these Spain, and war was commenced in the Decrees could not be assured, but by the Peninsula.-By one of the stipulations daily exercise of a firm and vigilant Admiof Tilsit, Russia was to evacuate Walla- nistration. Unexposed to the influence of chia and Moldavia. This evacuation was the enemy, Holland, and the Hanseatic deferred new revolutions, which had Towns, it was necessary, should be united. taken place at Constantinople, had several But while the sentiments dearest to the times bathed in blood the walls of the heart of His Majesty yielded to the interest Seraglio. - Thus scarcely a year had of his people and that of the Continent, elapsed from the peace of Tilsit—the af- great changes were taking place. Russia fairs of Copenhagen, of Constantinople, abandoned the principle to which she had and the Orders in Council, published in pledged herself at Tilsit, viz. to make 1807, in England, had placed Europe in common cause with France, which she had so unlooked- lor a situation, that the two proclaimed in her Declaration of War Sovereigns thought proper to come to an against England, and which had dictated understanding, and the interview at Er- the Decrees of Berlin and Milan.---- They furth took place. With the same de- were evaded by the Ukase which opened signs, and inspired by the same spirit which the ports of Russia to all English ships had directed their proceedings at Tilsit, laden with colonial produce, English prothey agreed as to what exacted from them perty, provided that they were under a such considerable changes. The Emperor foreign Alag. This unexpected blow anconsented to withdraw his troops from nulled the Treaty of Tilsit, and those imRussia, and at the same time consented portant transactions which had put an end that Russia should not only evacuate Wal- to the struggle between the two greatest lachia and Moldavia, but that she should Empires of the World, and which had unite these provinces to her empire. afforded to Europe a probability of obtainThe two Sovereigns, inspired with one ing a maritime peace. Approaching coinand the same desire of re-establishing a motions and bloody wars were of course to
be immediately expected. The conduct | Oldenburgh, by sacrificing the existence of of Russia at this time was constantly di- the Duchy of Warsaw; perhaps, also, rected towards these fatal results. The Russia, not being able to disguise from uniting of the Duchy of Oldenburgh, dove herself the fact of her having violated the tailed, as it were, into the countries re- Treaty of Tilsit, had recourse to force, for, cently brought under the same principles to other purpose but to seek to justify of Government as France, was a necessary violations which could not be defended. consequence of the uniting of the Hanseatic His Majesty nevertheless remained Towns. An indemnity was offered. This unmoved (impossible). He persevered in object was easy to regulate with reciprocal his desire of an arrangement: he was of advantage. But your Cabinet made an af- opinion, that at any period it would be fair of State of it; and, for the first time, time enough to resort to arms; he required was seen a Manifesto of an ally against an only that powers should be sent to Prince ally.--The reception of English vessels Kurakin, and that a negociation should be in Russian ports, and the regulations of the opened with respect to these differences, Ukase of 1810, had made it known that which might be thus easily terminated, and the treaties were dissolved. The Manifesto which were by no means of a nature to call showed that not only the bonds which had for the effusion of blood. They were reunited the two Governments were broken, ducible to the four following points :but that Russia had publicly thrown the 1st. The existence of the Duchy of Wargauntlet to France, for a difficulty which saw, which had been a condition of the was foreign to her, and which could not peace of Tilsit, and which, since the close be solved but by the method which His of 1809, gave Russia occasion to manifest Majesty had proposed. It was not to those instances of defiance to which His be concealed that the refusal of this offer Majesty answered with condescension, cardisclosed the project of a rupture already ried as far as the most exacting friendship formed. Russia prepared for it at the very could desire, and honour could allow.time that she was dictating terms of peace 2d. The annexation of Oldenburgh, which to Turkey; she suddenly recalled five di- the war against England had rendered nevisions of the army of Moldavia : and, in cessary, and which was conformable to the the month of February 1811, it was known spirit of the Treaty of Tilsit.---3d. The at Paris that the army of the Duchy of Legislation respecting trade in English merWarsaw had been obliged to repass the chandises and denationalized vessels, which Vistula, in order to fall back upon the ought to be regulated according to the spiConfederation, because the Russian armies, rit and the terms of the Treaty of Tilsit, on the frontiers, were so numerous, and --4th. Lastly, the dispositions of the had assumed so menacing a posture. --Ukase of 1810, which, by destroying all When Russia had resolved on measures the commercial relations of France with contrary to the interests of the active war Russia, and opening her ports to simulated which she had to support—when she had flags freighted with English property, were imparted to her armies a developement contrary to the letter of the Treaty of Tilsit, burdensome to her finances, and without ---Such would have been the objects of any object, in the situation in which all the negociation. As to what concerned the Powers of the Continent were then the Duchy of Warsaw, His Majesty would placed, all the French troops were within have been forward to adopt a Convention, the Rhine, except a corps of 40,000 men, by which he would pledge himself not to stationed at Hamburgh for the defence of the encourage any enterprise which might have coasts of the North Sea, and for the main- a tendency, directly or indirectly, to lead tenance of tranquillity in the countries re- to the re-establishment of Poland.--As cently united; the reserved places in Prussia to Oldenburgh, he offered to accept the inwere occupied only by the Allied troops. tervention of Russia, which nevertheless A garrison of only four thousand men had had no right to interfere in what involved remained at Dantzic; and the troops of the a Prince of the Confederation of the Rhine, Duchy of Warsaw were on the peace esta- and he agreed to give that Prince an inblishment, a part of them even was in demnity. With regard to commerce in Spain.---The preparations of Russia then English merchandises and to denationalized were without object, unless she entertained ships, His Majesty desired to come to some an expectation to impose upon France by a understanding, in order to reconcile the grand array of forces, and to oblige her to wants of Russia with the principles of the put an end to the discussions respecting Continental System, and the spirit of the
Treaty of Tifsit. And, lastly, as to the selrode was destined to proceed to Paris Ukase, His Majesty consented to conclude with instructions. Four months elapsed a Treaty of Commerce, which, in securing before His Majesty was apprized that this the commercial relations of France, would, | mission would not take place. He instantat the same time, provide for all the inte ly sent for Colonel Czernichew, and gave rests of Russia. The Emperor Aattered him a letter to the Emperor Alexander, himself, that such dispositions, dictated by which was a fresh endeavour to open negoso manifest a spirit of conciliation, would, ciations. M. de Czernichew arrived on at length, have led to an arrangement. the 10th of March at St. Petersburg, and But it was impossible to prevail upon that letter still remains unanswered. Russia to grant the powers for opening a How is it possible longer to dissemble that negociation. She invariably answered all Russia evades all approximation? For the new offers made to her by fresh arma- eighteen months she has made it a constant ments, and the conclusion was, at length, rule to lay her hand upon her sword whennecessarily come to, that she refused to ex ever propositions for an arrangement have plain, because she had nothing to propose been made to Russia. -Seeing himself but what she dared not avow, and which thus constrained to abandon every, hope could not be granted to her; that it was from Russia, His Majesty, before he should not any stipulations, which by identifying commence this contest in which so much the Duchy of Warsaw still more with Sax- blood must be shed, felt it to be his duty ony, and placing that Duchy in security to address himself to the English Governfrom any commotions that might alarm ment. The distress felt by England, the Russia for the tranquillity of her provinces, agitations to which she is a prey, and the that she was desirous to obtain, but the changes which have taken place in her GoDuchy itself, which she wished to unite to vernment, decided His Majesty to take this herself: that it was not her own commerce,
A sincere desire of peace dictated but that of the English which she wished the proceeding, which I have received to favour, in order to release England from orders to communicate to you. the catastrophe which menaced her: that it had been sent to London, and there has was not for the interests of the Duke been no other communications between the of Oldenburgh that Russia wished to two Governments. The letter, of which interfere in the business respecting the an- your Excellency will find a copy annexed, nexation of that Duchy, but that it was an and which I addressed to the Secretary for open quarrel with France that she wished Foreign Affairs of His Britannic Majesty, to keep in reserve, till the moment of the had been sent by sea to the Commandant rupture for which she was preparing. on the Dover station. The course which The Emperor then became sensible that he | I now take towards you, Count, is a conhad not a moment to lose. He also had sequence of the dispositions of the Treaty of récourse to arms. He took measures to Tilsit, with which His Majesty has the wish oppose army to army, in order to guaran- to comply till the last moment. If the tee a State of the second order so often me overtures made to England should produce naced, and which reposed all its confidence any result, I shall take the earliest opporupon his protection and good faith. tunity to make it kuown to your Excellency. Nevertheless, Count, His Majesty still His Majesty the Emperor Alexander will continued to avail himself of every oppor- participate in the business, either in consetunity to manifest his sentiments. He de- quence of the Treaty of Tilsit, or as an ally, clared publicly, on the 15th of August last, of England, if his relations with that counthe necessity of arresting the very dan try be already adjusted.--I am formally gerous course in which affairs were pro commanded, Count, to express, in conceeding, and wished to attain that object cluding this dispatch, the wish already by arrangements, for which he never ceased communicated by His Majesty to Colonel to request that a negociation should be en- Czernichew, to see those negociations, tered into.--Towards the close of the which, during eighteen months, he has month of November following, His Ma- never ceased to solicit, prevent, at length, jesty believed he might indulge the hope those events which humanity would have that this view was at length likely to be so much reason to deplore. -Whatever participated in by your Cabinet. It was may be the situation of things when this letannounced by you, Count, to the Ambas- ter shall reach your Excellency, Peace will sador of His Majesty, that M. de Nes still depend upon the determinations of
Cabinet. I bave the honour, the Emperor, my master; it now remains Count, to offer you the assurance of my for me to provide for my responsibility tohigh consideration.
wards my Court, by officially acquitting THE DUKE OF BASSANO. myself, in the communication which I have
received orders to make to your Excellency, Copy of a Nole from Prince Kurakin to the and which hitherto have been only made
Minister of Foreign Affairs.-- Paris, 18 verbally.--I am ordered to declare to (30) April, 1812.
your Excellency, that the preservation of My Lord Duke, -Since the interview Prussia, and her independence from every which I had on Tuesday last with your Ex- political engagement directed against Ruscellency, and in the course of which you sia, is indispensable to the interests of his gave me reason to suppose that the verbal Imperial Majesty. In order to arrive at a communications which I had the honour of real state of peace with France, it is necesmaking, according to the tenor of my latest sary that there should be between her and instructions, should be admitted as the Russia a neutral country, which shall not grounds of the arrangements on which we
be occupied by the troops of either of the are about to enter ; since that time I have two powers; that as the entire policy of his not been able to find you at home, and Majesty the Emperor, my master, is calcuenter into a second conference, in order to lated to preserve solid and stable principles the discussion of this object, and the settling of amity with France, which cannot subthe project of this convention. It is imsist so long as foreign armies continue to be possible for me, my Lord, to defer any quartered so near the Russian frontiers, the longer transmitting to the Emperor, my first basis of negociation can be, no other master, an account of the execution of the than a formal engagement or a complete orders he has given me. I acquitted my evacuation of the Prussian States, and of all self verbally towards his Majesty the En. the strong places of Prussia, whatsoever peror and King, in the private audience may have been the period and the pretext which he granted me on Monday. I also of their occupation by the French or Alacquitted myself in the same manner to- lied troops; of a diminution of the garrison wards your Excellency, in my interview of Dantzic; the evacuation of Swedish Powith you on Friday, Monday, and Tuesday. merania, and an arrangement with the King I Hattered myself, that the agreement to a of Sweden, calculated to give mutual satisproject of convention, founded upon a basis faction to the crowns of France and Sweder. which I had the houour to propose, and
-I must declare, that when the meawhich I had hoped would be agreeable to sures above-mentioned shall be acquiesced his Majesty the Emperor and King, would in on the part of France, as the basis of the put it in my power to prove immediately to arrangement to be concluded, I shall be his Majesty the Emperor, my master, that permitted to promise, that such arrangeI had fulfilled his intentions, and had the ments may include, on the part of his Magood fortune to have done so successfully. jesty the Emperor, my master, the followDeprived for two days of the power of seeing engagements :
- Without deviating ing your Excellency, of following up and from the principles adopted by the Empeconcluding, in conjunction with you, a work ror of all the Russias for the commerce of so important and so urgent, in consequence
his States, and for the admission of neutrals of the circumstances that are to be submit into the ports of his dominions-principles ted to us, that not a single day should be which his Majesty can never renounce, he lost; and seeing the certainty overthrown binds himself, as a proof of his adherence with which I had flattered myself that this to the alliance formed at Tilsit, not to adopt work would be finished without delay, and any change of the prohibitive measures estawhich might lead to the conclusion that it blished in Russia, and severely observed to ought to have, namely, that of preventing the present time, against direct trade with the fatal consequences of the close approach England. His Majesty is also ready to which has been made by the arıny of his agree with his Majesty the Emperor of the Majesty the Emperor and King to that of
(To be continued.)
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