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Treaty of Tilsit.-And, lastly, as to the selrode was destined to proceed to Paris Ukase, His Majesty consented to conclude with instructions. Four months elapsed a Treaty of Commerce, which, in securing before His Majesty was apprized that this the commercial relations of France, would, mission would not take place. He instantat the same time, provide for all the inte ly sent for Colonel Czernichew, and gave rests of Russia. -The Emperor Aattered him a letter to the Emperor Alexander, himself, that such dispositions, dictated by which was a fresh endeavour to open nego80 manifest a spirit of conciliation, would, ciations. M. de Czernichew arrived on at length, have led to an arrangement. the 10th of March at St. Petersburg, and But it was impossible to prevail upon that letter still remains unanswered. Russia to grant the powers for opening a How is it possible longer to dissemble that negociation.-She invariably answered all Russia evades all approximation ?
For the new offers made to her by fresh arma- eighteen months she has made it a constant ments, and the conclusion was, at length, rule to lay her hand upon her sword whennecessarily come to, that she refused to ex- ever propositions for an arrangement have plain, because she had nothing to propose been made to Russia.Seeing himself but what she dared not avow, and which thus constrained to abandon every, hope could not be granted to her; that it was from Russia, His Majesty, before he should not any stipulations, which by identifying commence this contest in which so much the Duchy of Warsaw still more with Sax- blood must be shed, felt it to be his duty ony, and placing that Duchy in security to address himself to the English Governfrom any commotions that might alarm ment. The distress felt by England, the Russia for the tranquillity of her provinces, agitations to which she is a prey, and the that she was desirous to obtain, but the changes which have taken place in her GoDuchy itself, which she wished to unite to vernment, decided His Majesty to take this herself: that it was not her own commerce, course. A sincere desire of peace dictated but that of the English which she wished the proceeding, which I have received to favour, in order to release England from orders to communicate to you. No agent the catastrophe which menaced her: that it had been sent to London, and there has was not for the interests of the Duke been no other communications between the of Oldenburgh that Russia wished to two Governments. The letter, of which interfere in the business respecting the an- your Excellency will find a copy annexed, nexation of that Duchy, but that it was an and which I addressed to the Secretary for
open quarrel with France that she wished Foreign Affairs of His Britannic Majesty, a to keep in reserve, till the moment of the had been sent by sea to the Commandant
rupture for which she was preparing.-- on the Dover station. The course which The Emperor then became sensible that he I now take towards you, Count, is a conhad not a moment to lose. He also had sequence of the dispositions of the Treaty of récourse to arms. He took measures to Tilsit, with which His Majesty has the wish oppose army to army, in order to guaran- to comply till the last moment. If the tee a State of the second order so often me- overtures made to England should produce naced, and which reposed all its confidence any result, I shall take the earliest opporupon his protection and good faith.- tunity to make it kuown to your Excellency. Nevertheless, Count, His Majesty still His Majesty the Emperor Alexander will continued to avail himself of every oppor- participate in the business, either in consetunity to manifest his sentiments. He de- quence of the Treaty of Tilsit, or as an ally. clared publicly, on the 15th of August last, of England, if his relations with that counthe necessity of arresting the very dan try be already adjusted.--I am formally gerous course in which affairs were pro commanded, Count, to express, in conceeding, and wished to attain that object cluding this dispatch, the wish already by arrangements, for which he never ceased communicated by His Majesty to Colonel to request that a negociation should be en- Czernichew, to see those negociations, tered into.-- Towards the close of the which, during eighteen months, he has month of November following, His Ma- never ceased to solicit, prevent, at length, jesty believed he might indulge the hope those events which humanity would have that this view was at length likely to be so much reason to deplore.- -Whatever participated in by your Cabinet. It was may be the situation of things when this letannounced by you, Count, to the Ambas- ter shall reach your Excellency, Peace will sador of His Majesty, that M. de Nes- still depend upon the determinations of
I have the honour, the Emperor, my master; it now remains Count, to offer you the assurance of my for me to provide for my responsibility 10high consideration.
wards my Court, by officially acquitting Tue DUKE OF Bassano. myself, in the communication which I have
received orders to make to your Excellency, Copy of a Nole from Prince Kurakin to the and which hitherto have been only made
Minister of Foreign Affairs.-- Paris, 18 verbally.--I am ordered to declare to (30) April, 1812.
your Excellency, that the preservation of My Lord Duke, -Since the interview Prussia, and her independence from every which I had on Tuesday last with your Ex- political engagement directed against Rus cellency, and in the course of which you sia, is indispensable to the interests of his gave me reason to suppose that the verbal Imperial Majesty. In order to arrive at a communications which I had the honour of real state of peace with France, it is necesmaking, according to the tenor of my latest sary that there should be between her and instructions, should be admitted as the Russia a neutral country, which shall not grounds of the arrangements on which we be occupied by the troops of either of the are about to enter ; since that time I have two powers; that as the entire policy of his not been able to find you at home, and Majesty the Emperor, my master, is calcuenter into a second conference, in order to lated to preserve solid and stable principles the discussion of this object, and the settling of amity with France, which cannot subthe project of this convention.- -It is im- sist so long as foreign armies continue to be possible for me, my Lord, to defer any quartered so near the Russian frontiers, the longer transmitting to the Emperor, my first basis of negociation can be, no other master, an account of the execution of the than a formal engagement or a complete orders he has given me. I acquitted my evacuation of the Prussian States, and of all self verbally towards his Majesty the Em. the strong places of Prussia, whatsoever peror and King, in the private audience may have been the period and the pretext which he granted me on Monday. I also of their occupation by the French or Alacquitted myself in the same manner to- lied troops ; of a diminution of the garrison wards your Excellency, in my interview of Dantzic; the evacuation of Swedish Powith you on Friday, Monday, and Tuesday. merania, and an arrangement with the King I Hattered myself, that the agreement to a of Sweden, calculated to give mutual satisproject of convention, founded upon a basis faction to the crowns of France and Sweden. which I had the houour to propose, and
-I must declare, that when the meawhich I had hoped would be agreeable to sures above-mentioned shall be acquiesced his Majesty the Emperor and King, would in on the part of France, as the basis of the put it in my power to prove immediately to arrangement to be concluded, I shall be his Majesty the Emperor, my master, that permitted to promise, that such arrangeI had fulfiled his intentions, and had the ments may include, on the part of his Magood fortune to have done so successfully. jesty the Emperor, my master, the followDeprived for two days of the power
ing engagements : - Without deviating ing your Excellency, of following up and from the principles adopted by the Empeconcluding, in conjunction with you, a work ror of all the Russias for the commerce of so important and so urgent, in consequence
his States, and for the admission of neutrals of the circumstances that are to be subunit into the ports of his dominions--principles ted to us, that not a single day should be which his Majesty can never renounce, he lost; and seeing the certainty overthrown binds himself, as a proof of his adherence with which I had flattered myself that this to the alliance formed at Tilsit, not to adopt work would be finished without delay, and any change of the prohibitive measures estawhich might lead to the conclusion that it blished in Russia, and severely observed to ought to have, namely, that of preventing the present time, against direct trade with the fatal consequences of the close approach | England. His Majesty is also ready to which has been made by the army of his agree with his Majesty the Emperor of the Majesty the Emperor and King to that of
(To be continued.)
Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent-Garden.
LONDON: Printed J. M'Creery, Black Horse-Court, Fleet-street.
Vol. XXI. No.5.] LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 1, 1812.
[130 TO MY CORRESPONDENTS.
about them whether there be an election Obuv a bow.covcumunu liome, the postage guing on or not; and also, in case of fortiof Letters has cost me more than thirly hed towns, where, though there be an elecshillings a week. This is an expense that tion going on, soldiers are to remain in sufit would be inconvenient for me to bear. ficient number to take care of the works. I therefore hereby notify, that, after this Now, then, as Bristol is neither a place day week, I will never, on any account, of residence of the Royal Family, nor a forreceive any letter, from any body, the post- tified town, it is clear, that, if soldiers have age of which is not paid, whether by the been suffered to remain in, or to return to, General or by the Twopenny post; and your city within the periods above dethat I will pay the postage of all the Letters scribed, the election must be void; or, that I send to any persons whatever. Par. there is, at once, an end to the above-mencels left with Mr. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, tioned act of parliament, and also to the Covent Garden, will be forwarded to me ancient common law of England in this rewith care.
spect, and the very show of freedom of election is gone.
It has not only been
stated to me from the best authority; but, TO THE INDEPENDENT ELECTORS it has been stated in print by your wellOF BRISTOL.
known enemies, that soldiers were not
only brought within the precincts of your LETTER II.
city, during the time that the poll was Gentlemen,
open, but that they actually were stationed, If I have nut to congratulate you upon with bayonets fixed, in the very Guildhall; the return of Mr. Hunt as your representa- and, in short, that after the first or second tive, I may well congratulate you upon the day of the election, the city was under the spirit which you have shown during the control of military armed men. election, and upon the prospect of final suc- This being the case, there can be no cess from the exertion of a similar spirit. doult of the election being declared void;
That another contest will take place in a or, if it be not, there will, at any rate, be few months there can be no doubt; for, the no disguise; it will become openly declared, law allows of no exceptions with regard to that soldiers, under the command of men the use of soldiers. The ancient common appointed by the King, and removeable at law of England forbade not only the use, his sole will, can be, at any time, brought but the very show of force of any kind, at into a place where an election is going on, elections; and, the act of parliament, made and can be stationed in the very building in the reign of King George the Second, is where the poll is taken. Whether, amongst quite positive as to a case like yours. the other strange things of our day, we are That Act, after stating the principle of the doomed to witness this, is more than I can Coinmon Law as to soldiers in an election say; but, at the least, it will be something town, says, that, when an election is about decisive ; something that will speak a plair to take place in any city or borough, where- language ; something that will tend to fain there are any soldiers stationed or quar- shion men's minds to what is to come. tered, the soldiers shall be removed out of But, I have heard it asked: 66 would the said city or borough; that they shall go " you, then, in no case, have soldiers callout one day, at least, before the poll be " ed in during an election? Would you gins ; that they shall not return till one " rather see a city burnt down." Aye day, at least, after the poll has closed; would I, and to the very ground; and, rathat the distance to which they shall be re-ther than belong to a city where soldiers moved, shall be two miles at least. There were to be brought in to assist at elections, are a few exceptions, such as Westininster I would expire myself in the midst of the or any other place where the Royal Family Games, or, at least, it would be my duty so may be, who are to have their guards to do, though I might fail in the courage
to perform it. But, why should a city be I have heard it asked : 66 What! would burnt down, unless protected by soldiers ?" you, then, make an election void, because Why suppose any such case? Really, to " soldiers were introduced, though one of hear sorne men talk now-a-days, one would " the candidates would have been killed, be almost tempted to think that they look “ perhaps, without the protection of the upon soldiers as necessary to our very ex- 6 bayonet ? Would you thus set an elecistence; or, at the least, that they are ve- " tion aside, when it might be evident, cessary to keep us in order, and that the " that, without the aid of soldiers, the man people of England, so famed for their good " who has been elected, would not, and sense, for their public spirit, and their obe- 66 couldnat, have been elected. an account dience to the laws, are now a set of brutes, " of the violence exercised against him? to be governed only by force. If there are - If that be the case, there is nothing to do men who think thus of the people of Eng- " but too excite great popular violence land, let them speak out ; and then we against a man; for, that being done, you shall know them. But, Gentlemen, it is
- either drive him and his supporters from curious enough, that the very persons, who, " the polling place, or, if he call in sols upon all occasions, are speaking of the peo- diers, you make his election void." ple of England as being so happy, so con- This has a little plausibility in it; but, as tersted, so much attached to their govern- you will see, it will not stand the test of ment, are the persons who represent sol. examination. Here is a talk about excildiers as absolutely necessary to keep this ing of violent proceedings; here is a talk same people in order!
about burning the city; but, who, GentleTo hear these men talk, one would sup- men, were to be guilty of these violent pose, that soldiers, as the means of keeping proceedings ; who were to burn the city ? the peace, had always made a part of our Not the horses or dogs of Bristol; not any government; and, that, as to elections, banditti from a foreign land; not any pi. there always may have been cases when the rates who had chanced to land
the calling in of soldiers was necessary. But, coast. No, no; but “the rabble, the mob;" the fact is, that soldiers were wholly un- and what were they? Were they a species known to the ancient law of England; and, of monsters, unknown to our ancient laws that, as to an army, there never was any and to the act of George the Second ? Or thing of an army established in England till were they men and women? If the latter, within a hundred years. How was the they were, in fact, people of Bristol; and, peace kept then? How were riots sup- the truth is, that if the people of Bristol pressed in those times? We do not hear abhorred a man to such a degree that it was of
any cities having been burnt at elections unsafe for him or his advocates to appear on in those days. I will not cite the example the hustings, or in the streets; if this was of Anierica, where there are elections going the case, it was improper that that man on every year, and where every man who should be elected, since it must be clear, pays a sixpence tax has a vote, and yet that, if elected, he must owe his election to where there is not a single soldier in the undue, if not corrupt, influence. What! space of hundreds and thousands of miles; and do the advocates of corruption suppuse, I will not ask how the peace is kept in that that our law-makers had noi this in their country; I will not send our opponents view? Is it to be imagined, that they did across the Atlantic; I will confine inyself not foresee, and, indeed, that they had not to England; and, again I ask, how the peace frequently seen, that elections produced was kept in the limes when there were no fierce and bloody battles? They knew it soldiers in England! I put this question well; and so did the legislators in Ameto the friends of Corruption; I put this rica ; but, still they allowed of no use of question to Mr. Mills, of the Bristol Ga- soldiers. They reasoned thus, or, at least, zette, whose paper applauds the act of in- thus they would have reasoned, if any one troducing the troops. This is my question : had talked to them of soldiers : No; we how was the peace kept at elections, how will have no soldiers. The magistrate were towns and cities preserved, how was • has full power to keep the peace at all the city of Bristol saved from destruction, times, not excepting times of election, in those days when there were no soldiers in when assaults and slanders are no more Englandy. I put this question to the apos- permitted by law than at any other time. tles of tyranny and despotic sway; and, The magistrate has all the constables and Gentlemen, we may wait long enough, i' other inferior peace officers at his combelieve, before they will venture upon an 'mand; he can, if he find it necessary,
o add to the number of these at his plea. answer.
sure; and, if the emergency be such as who will dare to anticipate any other • not to allow time for this, he can, by his For, if the return be allowed to stand good
sole authority, and by virtue of his com- in favour of Hart Davis, does any man ' mission, which is at all times effective, pretend that there can ever exist a case in
call upon the whole of the people to aid which soldiers may not be brought in ? and assist him in the execution of his They are brought in under the pretence of duty, and for refusing to do which any quelling a riol; under the pretence of their man is liable to punishment. Having being necessary to preserve the peace, and endued the magistrate with these powers; where is the place where this pretence may having sivon him a chnsen haud of sworn not be hatched? It is in any body's power
officers, armed with staves; having given to make a row and a fight during an elec* him unlimitted power to add to that band; tion at Westminster, for instance; and, of
having given him, in case of energency, course, according to the Bristol doctrine, it • the power of commanding every man, of is in any body's power to give the magisa • whatever age or degree, to aid and assist trate cause for calling in soldiers, and for him in the execution of his duty; having posting them even upon the very hustings
thus armed the magistrate, how can we of Covent Garden. In short, if Hart Da. suppose him to stand in need of the aid vis, his return being petitioned against, be
of soldiers, without first supposing the allowed to sit, we can never again expect to country in a state of rebellion, in which see a candidate of that description unsup, case it is nonsense to talk about elections. ported by soldiers ; and, then, I repeat it, • To tell us about the popular prejudices the very show, the mere semblance, of freer excited against a candidate, is to tell us dom of election will not exist. of an insufficient cause even for the calling It being, for these reasons, my opinion, • out of the posse; but, if this prejudice be that the return of Hart Davis will be set
so very strong, so very general, aud sa aside, and, of course, that another election deeply rooted, that the magistrate;' with for
your city is at no great distance, I shall all his ordinary and special constables, now take the liberty to offer you my advice and his power to call upon the whole of as to the measures which you then ought ta " the people to aid and assist, is unable to pursue; first adding to what I said in my proiect him from violence, or, is unable last a few observations relative to Mr
to preserve the city against the rage ex- Hunt. cited by his presence and pretensions; if At the close of my last letter I observed
there be a prejudice like this against a to you, that it was owing to this gentle'candidate, we are sure that it would be man, and to him alone, that you had an "an insult to the cominon sense of mankind election. You now know this well. You
to call such a man, if elected, the repre- have now seen what it is to have at your sentalive of that city; and, therefore, we head a man of principle and courage, will make no new law for favquring the With all the purses of almost all those in election of such a man.'
Bristol who have grown rich out of the Such, Gentlemen, would have been the taxes ; with all the influence of all the core reasoning of our ancestors, such would rupt; with all the Bristol news-papers and have been the reasoning of the legislators of almost all the London news-papers; with America, if they had been called upon to all the Corporation of the City; with all make a law for the introduction of soldiers the bigoted Clergy and all their next a-king at an election; which, let the circumstances the pettifogging Attorneys; with all the of the case be what they may, and let the bigots, and all the hypocrites, and all alarm sophistry of the advocates of corruption be ist fools ; with all these against him, and what it may, is, after all, neither more with hundreds of bludgeon men to boot; nor less than the forcing of the people to opposed to all this, and to thirty or forty suffer one candidate to be elected and an hired barristers and attorneys, Mr. Hunt other to be set aside. The soldiers do, in stood the poll for the thirteen days, in the fact, decide the contest, and cause the re- face of horse and foot soldiers, and that, turn of the sitting meinber; unless it be too, without the ai i of advocate or atacknowledged, that his election could have torney, and with no other assistance than been effected without them; and, then, what was rendered him by one single where is the justification for calling them friend, who, at my suggestion, went down in? I have heard of nobody who has at- to him on the sixth or seventh day of the tempted to anticipate any other decision election. Gentlemen, this is, as í verily than that of a void election; and, indeed, believe, what no other man in England,