« ForrigeFortsett »
the fears of Napoleon; in the latter, as“ property, and can take it away at their proceeding from his arrogance. So that, pleasure, are, by the same means, bereally, I do not, for my part, see what come masters of the Crown and its Excase can arise, in which we shall see it chequer. -7th. That this Meeting wise for us to treat for peace with France. " knows but of one criine meriting punish
---Nay, I almost fear, that the notion “ment by a confiscation of their estate, of of re-establishing the Bourbons has been" which the People of England have been revived. I have lately seen, what I have guilty, namely, the crime of having too never seen before, the whole of the per- " Jong submitted to Taxation without Resonages belonging to the French Royal" presentation-a crime of which they Family forming part of a party with the must speedily repent, or inevitably sink Queen and Prince Regent, which is very “ into a slavery the most abject and the little short of being openly received at most hopeless.-8th. That as the court and acknowledged in their royal ca- “ House of Commons exercises the authopacities. Whether this was looked upon rity of a Court of Judicature, with exas a good occasion to revive the claims of " clusive jurisdiction over whatever relates that family, or whether the meeting was " to the Elective and Legislative Rights of accidental, I know not, but I think it is “ the People, so as no redress of any inthe duty of the minister to advise the Prince" jury touching the same can be elsewhere Regent not to suffer any thing to be done, " obtained, the Meeting, on behalf of which may tend to countenance the idea, “ themselves and the nation at large, will that that family is again to be put forward " present to that House a Petition of Right, by us; for, in that case, a war of extermi-" claiming Representation co-extensive with nation will be, in fact, proclaimed. “ Taxation in Annual Parliaments, ac
“ cording to the Constitution; and deWESTMINSTER MEETING.- -On Wed- " manding that “ Justice be neither denied nesday, the 5th instant, there was a Meet“ nor delayed,” according to Magna Charing of the Inhabitant House-Holders of the "- These resolutions, which I inCity and Liberties of Westminster, at sert as I find them in the Morning Chrowhich the following Resolutions were nicle and Courier News-papers, contain matmoved by Major CARTWRIGHT and se- ter worthy of universal attention. The talk of conded by Mr. Harris: “Resolved, 1st. a tax upon capital has given rise to a little “ That the Chancellor of the Exchequer alarm even amongst those who have been “having taught us to expect, in ad very well contented under the income tax, “ dition to all the 'grievous taxes on In- But, what is the use of talking of these &« come, an early tax on Capital, it is ex- matters in detail ? It is the power of lux“ pedient to distinguish between these ation without representation; that is the 6 modes of taxation. -2d. That to tax only thing worthy of our attention. It is a “ Income, is to take a proportion of the maxim, that we tax ourselves; and, if this
rents or profits of an estale; to tax Ca- maxim be not ‘acted upon, what signifies “pital, is to take away part of the estate any thing else as relating to politics ? —A « itself, -3d. That a tax on Capital, Mr. Martin, of Galway, who, I suppose, " annually repeated, must shortly take has a house in Westininster, and whose
away the whole of the estate. -4th. speeches in parliament I have sometimes "That between the effect of taxing Capi- read, spoke at this meeting, and, if a true is tal, and the effect of confiscation, this account be given of his speech, he made a * Meeting is not able to distinguish.- very miserable attempt to oppose the pro* 5th. Thai although the whole of Men's positions of the venerable Major. He
Escates may be taken away by arbitrary wanted to be shown that a reform would
Taxation, yet, as neither land, nor its make things beller. Just as if any thing, "produce, nor other personal property, is any argument or any fact were necessary to “ thereby annihilated, so the real effect of convince a man, that the doing away of " the system is, to transfer all property, corruption could fail to do good, could fail " real and personal, from the right owners to makc malayo lunce.
to those who, possessing a power of ar- the cant of the day against reform ; could 6 bitrary Taxation, can take away that not see that it would make men better ;
6th. That could not see that it would make men property at their pleasure. " the Oligarchy, which, by usurping a more zealous in the defence of their coun
great majority of the seats in the House try; and the like ; upon all which points 5 of Commons, are become masters of all he was answered by Sir Francis Burdett.
There was one point, however, which I | town of Nottinghani in November last, by shall notice rather more particularly: Mr. the destruction of a great number of newlyMartin said: “Let us fight the public ene-invented stocking-frames, by small parties "! my, and then, when we have done our of men, principally stocking-weavers, who " duly to our country, it will be time to assembled in various places round Notting" think of our private wrongs.” If Mr. ham.-_By degrees the rioters became Martin, by “ public enemy,"
more numerous and more formidable; many, say foreign enemy, and by" private were armed and divided in different parties, wrongs, domestic wrongs,
I differ disturbed the whole country between Notwholly from him in opinion. I think the tingham and Mansfield, destroying frames danger and the disgrace from these wrongs almost without resistance. This spirit of may be much greater than from any efforis discontent (amongst other causes to which of a foreign enemy; and, I am for begin, it has been attributed) was supposed 10 ving the work of redress at home, before I have been excited or called into action by pesier myself with what is going on abroad.. the use of a new machine, which enabled Before men begin to “ fighi," they ought the manufacturers to employ women in to know pretty well what they are lighting work in which men had been before emfor. In short, I am as ready as Mr. Mar ployed, and by the refusal of the manufactin to fight the foreign enemy; but I am turers to pay the wages at the rate which for a redress of grievances at home at the the weavers demanded; and their disconsame time; because, if my right to redress tent was probably heightened by the inis to wait till the war is over, I may never creased price of provisions, particularly of live to see it. - This is an old and stale corn. The nien engaged in ihese disturbdevice, to turn the attention of the people ances were at first principally those thrown of a country from their domestic grievances out of employ by the use of the new mato their foreign dangers ; but, this trick can chinery, or by their refusal to work at the piever succecd at a time when the people in rates offered by the manufacturers, and they general are thoroughly convinced, that particularly sought the destruction of frames their domestic grievances are the cause of owned or worked by those who were will. their foreign dangers.
ing to work at the lower rates; in conseWM. COBBETT. quence of the resistances opposed to the Bolley, 121h August, 1812.
outrages of the rioters, in the course of which one of them was killed, they became still more exasperated and more violent,
till the magistrates thought it necessary to THE LUDDITES,
require the assistance of a considerable OR HISTORY OF THE SEALED Bag.
armed force, which was promptly assem
bled, consisting at first principally of Local Report of the House of Lords, from the Militia and Volunteer Yeomanry, to whom Secret Commillee appointed to inquire
were added above 400 special constables; into the late Disturbances.
the rioters were then dispersed, and it was
hoped that the disturbances had been by Your Committee, in pursuing the In- these means suppressed. Before the end quiry referred to their consideration, have of the month of November, however, the endeavoured to ascertain the origin of the outrages were renewed; they became more disturbances which have arisen in the dif- serious, were more systematically conductferent parts of the country, with respect to ed, and at length the rioters began in sevewhich they have abtained information, the ral villages, where they destroyed the manner in which those disturbances have frames, to levy at the same time contribu. been carried on, the objects to which they tions for their subsistence, which rapidly have been apparently directed, the means increased their numbers, and early in Deused to suppress them, the effects of those cember the outrages were in some degree means and the state of those parto of the foxtended into Derbyshire and Leicestercountry within which the disturbances have shire, where many frames were broken. prevailed.---The disposition to combined In the mean time a considerable force and disciplined riot and disturbance which both of infantry and cavalry had been sent has attracted the attention of Parliament, to Nottingham, and the commanding ofand excited apprehension of the most dan- ficer of the district was ordered to repair gerous consequences, seems to have been thither; and in January two of the most first manifested in the neighbourhood of the experienced police magistrates were dis
patched to Nottingham, for the purpose of by the rioters, and before the rioters assisting the local authorities in their endea- could be dispersed several of them were vours to restore tranquillity in the disturbed killed and wounded ; according to the ac: districts. The systematic combination, counts received, at least three were killed however, with which the outrages were and about twenty wounded.On the conducted, the terror which they inspired, 14th of April riots again prevailed at Stockand the disposition of many of the lower port; the house of Mr. Goodwin was set orders to favour rather than oppose them, on fire, and his steam-looms were destroymade it very difficult to discover the offended. In the following night a meeting of ers, to apprehend them if discovered, or rioters on a heath about two miles from to obtain evidence to convict those who the town, for the purpose, as supposed, of were apprehended of the crimes with which being trained for military exercise, was they were charged. Sorne, however, were surprised and dispersed; contributions were afterwards proceeded against at the Spring also levied in the neighbourhood, at the assizes at Nottingham, and seven persons houses of gentlemen and farmers.were convicted of different offences, and About the same time riots also took place sentenced to transportation. -- In the at Manchester and in the neighbourhood, mean time acts were passed for establishing of which the general pretence was the high a police in the disturbed districts, upon the price of provisions. On the 26th and 27th ancient system of watch and ward, and for of April the people of Manchester were applying to the destruction of stocking alarmed by the appearance of some thouframes the punishment before applied by sands of strangers in their town, the greater law to the destruction of other machinery part of them, however, disappeared on the
The discontent which had thus first 28th; part of the Local Militia had been appeared about Nottingham, and had in then called out, and a large military force some degree extended into Derbyshire and had arrived, which it was supposed had Leicestershire, had before this period been overawed those who were disposed to discommunicated to other parts of the country. turbance. An apprehension, however, Subscriptions for the persons taken into prevailed, of a more general rising in May, custody in Nottinghamshire were solicited and in the neighbourhood of the town many in the month of February at Stockport, in houses were plundered. Nocturnal meetCheshire, where anonymous letters were at ings for the purpose of military exercise the same time circulated, threatening to de- were frequent; arins were seized in various stroy the machinery used in the manufac places by the disaffected; the house of a tures of that place, and in that and the fol- farmer near Manchester was plundered, and lowing months attempts were made to set a labourer coming to his assistance was on fire two different manufactories. The shot.- The manner in which the disasspirit of disorder then rapidly spread lected have carried on their proceedings is through the neighbourhood ; inflammatory represented as demonstrating an extraordi. placards, inviting the people to a general nary degree of concert, secrecy, and orrising, were dispersed, illegal oaths were ganization. Their signals were well conadministered, riots were produced in vari. Trived and well established, and any atous places, houses were plundered by per- tempt to detect and lay hold of the offenders sons in disguise, and a report was industri. was generally defeated.---The same spirit ously circulated, that a general rising would of riot and disturbance appeared at Boltontake place on the first of Mav, or early in in-the-Moors. So early as the 6th of April, that month.—This spirit of riot and dis- intelligence was given, that at a meeting of turbance was extended to many other places, delegates from several places it had been and particularly to Ashton-under-line, Ec- resolved, that the manufactory at West ctes, and Middleton; at the latter place the Haughton, in that neighbourhood, should manufactory of Mr. Burton was attacked on be destroyed, but that at a subsequent the 20th of April, and although the rioters meeting it had been determined that the were then repulsed, and five of their 'nuin- destruction of this manufactory should be ber were killed by the military force assem- postponed. On the 24th of April, howbled to protect the works, a second attack ever, the destruction of this manufactory was made on the 22d of April, and Mr. was accomplished. Intelligence having Burton's dwelling-house was burnt before been obtained of the intended attack, å military assistance could be brought to military force was sent for its protection, his support.
When troops arrived to and the assailants dispersed before the arprotect the works, they were fired upon rival of the military, who then returned to their quarters; the rioters taking advantage miles from Leeds, was attacked by a large of their absence, assailed and forced the body of armed men, who proceeded with manufactory, set it on fire, and again dis-, great regularity and caution, first seizing the persed before the military could be brought watchman at the Mill, and placing guards again to the spot. Symptoms of the at every neighbouring cottage, threatening same spirit appeared at Newcastle-under-. death to any who should attempt to give Lyne, Wigan, Warrington, and other alarm, and then forcibly entering the mill, towns; and the contagion in the mean time they completely destroyed the machinery had spread to Carlisle and into Yorkshire. In the following night, notwithstanding the
-İn Huddersfield, in the West Riding precautions adopted, the buildings belongof Yorkshire, and in the neighbourhood, ing to Messrs. Dickinsons in Leeds, were the destruction of dressing and shearing forcibly entered, and the whole of this machines and shears began early in Febru- goods there, consisting principally of cloths, ary; fire-arms were seized during the course were, cut to pieces. Many other persons of March, and a constable was shot at in in Leeds, were threatened with similar his own house.. In March a great number treatment, and the proceedings at this place of machines belonging to Mr. Vicarman are represented to have had for their object were destroyed, and in April the destruc- the destruction of all descriptions of goods tion of Bradley Mills, near Huddersfield, prepared otherwise than by manual labour, was threatened, and afterwards attempted, At Leversedge, near Hockmondwicke, but the mills were protected by a guard, which is in the neighbourhood of the moors which defeated the attempt. About the dividing Lancashire and Yorkshire, an same time the machinery of Mr. Rhode's attack was made early in the morning of mill at Tentwhistle, near to Stockport, was the 12th of April by a body of armed men, utterly destroyed; and Mr. Horsfall, a re-represented to have been between two and spectable merchant and mill-owner, in the three hundred in number, on a valuable neighbourhood of Huddersfield, was shot mill belonging to Mr. Cartwright. The about six o'clock in the afternoon, in broad mill was defended with great courage by day-light, on the 28th of April, returning Mr. Cartwright, the proprietor, with the from market, and died on the 30th of the assistance of three of his men and five same month. I A reward of £2000. was soldiers, and the assailants were at-length offered for the discovery of the murderers, compelled to retire, being unable to force but no discovery has yet been made, though an entrance into the mill, and their ammuit appears that he was shot by four persons, nition probably failing. Two of the assaileach of whom lodged a ball in his body: ants were left on the spot desperately that when he fell, the populace surrounded wounded, and were secured, but died of and reviled him, instead of offering assist their wounds. Many others are supposed ance, and no attempt was made to secure have been Iso wounded, and informa, the assassins, who were seen to retire to tion was afterwards obtained of the death an adjoining wood. Some time after, a of one of them. When the assailants re young woman was attacked in the streets of tired, they declared a determination to take Leeds, and nearly murdered, her skull Mr. Cartwright's life by any means.. Oqe being fractured; and the supposed reason of the wounded men who was left on the for this violence was an apprehension that spot was only nineteen years of age, and she had been near the spot when Mr. Hors- son of a man in a respectable situation in fall was murdered, and might, therefore, the neighbourhood; but neither this man be able to give evidence which might lead nor the other prisoner would make any to the detection of the murderers. - The confession respecting their confederates in town of Lecds had for some time before this outrage. The neighbouring inhabi, been much alarmed by information that at-tants, who assembled about the mill, after tacks were intended to be made on places in the rioters had retired, only expressed their the town and its neighbourhood, which in regret that the attempt had failed. A vast duced thic magistratoo to dcoirc a otrong mi- concourse of people attended the funeral of litary force, and to appoint a great number the young man before described, who died of respectable inhabitants of the town spe- of his wounds; and there was found wriçcial constables, by which means the peace ten on the walls in many places, “ Ven of the town was in a great degree preserved. geance for the Blood of the Innocent."
Early, however, in the morning of the The threats against Mr. Cartwright's life 24th of March, the mills of Messrs. Thomp- were attempted to be put into execution on sous, at Rawdon, a large village about eight the 18th of April, when he was (wice shot at in the road from Huddersfield to Raw depredations which were committed by bo. fold. About the same time a shot was dies of armed men.” At the same time fired at a special Constable on duty at this remarkable circumstance was stated, Leeds, and a ball was fired at night into that amongst one hundred depositions taken the house of Mr. Armitage, a Magistrate by the Magistrates of the facts of robberies in the neighbourhood, and lodged in the committed, there was only one as to the ceiling of his bed-room; Col. Campbell perpetrator of the crime. -During the also, who commanded the troops at Leeds, latter part of this period, it is represented was shot at in the night of May 8, upon that nightly robberies of arms, lead and returning to his own house, by two men, ammunition, were prevalent in the districts who discharged their pieces at him within bounded by the rivers Air and Calder, and the distance of twenty yards, and imine that the patrols which went along both diately after a third shot was fired, direct- banks of the Calder, found the people in ed towards the room usually occupied by the ill-affected villages up at midnight, and Colonel Campbell and his family. At heard the firing of small arms at short Horbury, near Wakefield, valuable mills distances from them, through the whole were attacked on the 9th of April by an night, to a .very great extent, which they armed body, supposed to consist of 300 imagined proceeded from parties at drill. men. The machinery and considerable In the corner of Cheshire, touching upon property were destroyed. The men who Yorkshire and Lancashire, in the neighcommitted the outrage were seen on the bourhood and to the eastward of Ashton, road between Wakefield and Horbury, Stockport, and Moultram, nocturnal meetmarching in regular sections, preceded by ings were more frequent than ever, and a mounted party with drawn swords, and the seizure of arms carried on with great followed by the same number of mounted perseverance. Peculiar difficulties are men as a rear guard. They were supposed stated to exist in this quarter from the want to have assembled from Huddersfield, of Magistrates. - Your Committee have Duesbury, Hickmondwicke, Guildersome, not thought it necessary to detail, or even Morley, Wakefield, and other places to state all the outrages which have been In many parts of this District of Country committed in different parts of the country, the well-disposed were so much under the but have selected from the great mass of influence of terror, that the Magistrates materials before them, such facts only as were unable to give protection by putting appeared to them sufficient to mark the exthe Watch and Ward Act in execution, tent and nature of those disturbances. and the lower orders are represented as ge- The causes alleged for these destructive nerally either abettors of or participators in proceedings have been generally the want the outrages committed, or so intimidated, of employment for the working manufacthat they dared not to interfere.- -Atturers, a want, however, which has been Sheffield the storehouse of arms of the the least felt in some of the places where Local Militia was surprised in the month the disorders have been most prevalent, the of May, a large proportion of the arms application of machinery to supply the were broken by the moh, and many taken place of labour, and the high price of proaways this disturbance, however, seems visions ; but it is the opinion of persons, to have been followed by no further conse- both in civil and military stations, well acquences, and the remainder of the arms quainted with the state of the country, an were secured.—But during the months opinion grounded upon various informaof May and June depredations of different tions from different quarters now before kinds, and particularly the seizure of arms, your Committee, but which, for obvious continued to be nightly committed in other reasons they do not think proper to detail, parts of Yorkshire; and it is represented that the views of some of the persons enthat in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield gaged in these proceedings have extended and Birstall the arms of all the peaceable lo revolutionary measures of the most dan. inhabitants had beeu swept away by bands gerous description.- -Their proceedings of armed robbers. In consequence of these manifest a degree of caution and organizaoutrages the Vice-Lieutenant of the West tion which appears to flow from the direcRiding, the Deputy-Lieutenants, and Ma- tion of some persons under whose influence gistrates assembled at Wakefield on the they act; but it is the opinion of a person, ilth of June, and came to a resolution, whose situation gives him great opportuni"That the most alarming consequences ties of information, that their leaders, alwere to be apprehended from the nightly though they may possess considerable in