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must know that he holds both his property | the Bourbons.- -But, might not the goand life by a tenure far different from those vernment of Napoleon be destroyed without who prefer the service of well-treated free- restoring the old government ? Certainly men ; and he who dines to the music of it might. It is certainly possible, though groaning sufferers, must not, in the mo- not probable; but, if the government of Hent of insurrection, complain that his Napoleon be destroyed, it will give way to daughters are ravished and then destroyed, the restoration, not of the Bourbons, but of and that his sons' throats are cut. When the Republic; and that would, I suppose, such evils happen, they surely are more by no means suit the purpose of the “ deliimputable to the tyranny of the master, " verers." The truth is, that France is a rethan to the cruelty of the servant. The public, except merely in name. There are analogy holds with the French peasants: no Nobility and no Clergy any more than The murder of a seigneur, or a chateau in there are in the United States of America; flames, is recorded in every news-paper; that is to say, the persons having titles and the rank of the person who suffers attracts filling religious offices, have no privileges notice; but where do we find the register distinct from those of the people. They of that seigneur's oppressious of his pea- have no estates either. They have no hold santry, and his exactions of feudal services, upon the soil; and, of course, have no real from those whose children were dying power, or influence. The revolution has around them for want of bread? Where made a new distribution of property. It do we find the minutes that assigned these has distributed the great estates amongst starving wretches to some vile petty-fogger, numerous small proprietors. It has created, to be fleeced by impositions and a mockery lotally created, a middle class in society; of justice, in the seigneural courts? Who and, though one man has the executive gogives us the awards of the intendant and vernment in his hands, the society is essenhis sub-delegués, which took off the taxes lially republican, and all its manners are, of a man of fashion, and laid them with and will be, those of a republic. To “deaccumulated weight, on the poor, who “ liver" France would, in fact, be to deliver were so unfortunate as to be his neigh- this society of its properly. It is, therebours ? Who has dwelt sufficiently upon fore, an absurdity to talk of it; and, unless explaining all the ramifications of despo- France be " delivered," it is quite in vain tism, regal, aristocratical, and ecclesiastical, to attempt the " deliverance" of the rest of pervading the whole mass of the people ; the continent. -Having given my reasons reaching, like a circulating fluid, the most for believing, that the deliverance of Eudistant capillary tubes of poverty and “ rope" is a project that must have been wretchedness?" -This is a picture drawn engendered in the head of a madman, I by the hand of a master; and, let it be ob- now return to my former subject, and beg served, too, that the man, who drew it, those who have the powers of negociation had spent three summers, not only in tra- in their hands, to reflect well before they velling over, but in making an economical throw away this most favourable occasion of survey of, the kingdom of France. He had offering terms of peace. If we are to get minutely examined into every thing relating no nearer to the end of the war by this victo the government and to the state of the tory, what is the use of the victory? If, as people. The army, the navy, the church, it is asserted to be, this be the greatest victhe taxes, finances, arts, manufactures, tory we ever gained, what a prospect have commerce, agriculture, soil, climate, amuse- we, if it be to yield us no chance of peace? ments, manners ; nothing had escaped him; - There is, too, another reason for offerand the result was, this description. Does ing terms of peace at this time. Such a the reader believe, then, that the people of step might, at once, make America decide France wish to be restored to the blessed for peace, if she be hesitating at the time state here described ? Does he believe, when the news of such a proposition shall that the people of France are ready to bless reach her shores. She will rather be disthe hour when our good, kind deliverers posed for war in consequence of our success will set about their promised work? in Spain; because, as I have before observThe credulity of the people of England is ed, she will not suffer us to be masters of very great, “to be sure, but one would ima- Spanish America, if she can possibly avoid gine that it was not sufficient to make them it. She will view our success in Spain with swallow the assertion, that the people of great apprehensions. She will see very France are worse off under the government clearly, that if we expel the French from of Napoleon than they were under that of Spain, we shall, in reality, be the masters
of that country, and shall dispose of all its Douro on the morning of the 17th; and means at our will. I am, therefore, of opi- assembled his army on that day at La Nava nion, that, as nothing could more dispose del Rey, having marched not less than ten America to continue the war than the suc- leagues in the course of the 17th. The cesses of Talavera, so it would be good po- 4th and light divisions of infantry, and licy to make those successes the grounds of Major-General Anson's brigades of cavalry, treating, or of offering to treat, for peace. had marched to Castrejon on the night of If America see us treating, or offering to the 16th, with a view to the assembly of treat, with France, the former will the the army on the Guarena, and were at: more readily listen to terms of peace; and Castrejon under the orders of Lieutenantthus may this victory be the means of put- General Sir Stapleton Cotton, on the 17th, ting a stop to the bloodshed and misery of not having been ordered to proceed furo this long and terrible war, begun, on our cher, in consequence of my knowledge that part, avowedly for the island of Malta, but the enemy had not passed the Douro at which has changed the face of the whole Tora; and there was not time to call themcivilized world. -If the victory is to in between the hour at which I received have this effeet, it will be a great blessing the intelligence of the whole of the enemy's to the country; but, if it only serve to urge army being at La Nava, and daylight of our government on in a continuation of the the morning of the 18th. I therefore took war, with a view of finally oversetting Na- measures to provide for their retreat and poleon, I am convinced it will prove to have junction, by moving the 5th division tobeen one of the greatest misfortunes that Tordesillas de la Orden, and Major-Gene-: could possibly have befallen us.
ral Le Marchant's, Major-General Alten's, WM. COBBETT:
and Major-General Bock's brigades of ca
valry to Alaejos.---The enemy attacked Botley, 19th August, 1812.
the troops at Castrejon, at the dawn of day of the 18th, and Sir Stapleton Cotton
maintained the post, without suffering any OFFICIAL PAPERS.
loss, till the cavalry had joined him. Nearly
about the same time the enemy turned by Battle Of SALAMANCA.
Alaejos the left flank of our position at
Castrejon.The troops retired in adWar Department. -Downing-Street,
mirable order to Tordesillas de la Orden, August 16, 1812.
having the enemy's whole army on their Lord Clinton, Aid-de-Camp to the Earl flank or in their rear; and thence to the of Wellington, arrived this morning at the Guarena, which river they passed under War Department with Dispatches address the same circumstances, and effected cheir ed by his Lordship to Earl Bathurst, dated junction with the army. - The Guarena, the 21st, 24th, and 28th ultimo, of which which runs into the Douro, is formed by the following are extracts :
four streams, which unite about a league
below Ganizal, and the enemy took a Cabrerizos, near Salamanca, July 21st, strong position on the heights on the right 1812.
of that river, and I placed the 5th, 4th, In the course of the 15th and 16th, the and light divisions, on the opposite heights, enemy moved all their troops to the right and had directed the remainder of the army of their position on the Douro, and their to cross the Upper Guarena at Vallesa, in army was concentrated between Toro and consequence of the appearance of the eneSan Roman.- A considerable body pass- my's intention to turn our right.ed the Douro at Toro on the evening of the Shortly after his arrival, however, the 16th, and I moved the allied army to their enemy crossed the Guarena at Carteillo, left on that night, with an intention to below the junction of the streams, and maconcentrate on the Guarena. It was to- nifested an intention to press upon our left, tally out of my power to prevent the enemy and to enter the valley of Canizal. Mafrom passing the Douro at any point at jor-General Alten's brigade of cavalry, which he might think it expedient, as he supported by the 3d draguons, were already had in his possession all the bridges over engaged with the enemy's cavalry, and that river, and many of the fords; but he bad taken, among other prisoners, the recrossed that river at Toro, in the night French General Carriér; and I desired the · of the 16th, moved his whole army to Honourable Lieutenant-General Cole to Tordesillas, where he again crossed the attack, with Major-General William An
son's and Brigadier-General Harvey's bri- destroyed the fort of Mirabete, on the Ta. gades of infantry (the latter uuder the com-gus, on the 11th instant; and the garrison mand of Colonel Stubbs), the enemy's marched to Madrid, to form part of the infantry which were supporting their ca- army of the centre. They were reduced to valry. He immediately attacked and de- five days provisions.- I enclose, a return feated them with the 27th and 40th regi- of the killed and wounded on the 18th inments, which advanced to the charge with stant. bayonets, Colonel Stubbs' Portuguese brigade supporting, and the enemy gave way;
Flores de Avila, July 24, 1812. many were killed and wounded; and Ma- My A id-de-Camp, Captain Lord Glinjor-General Alten's brigade of cavalry ton, will present to your Lordship this having pursued the fugitives, two hundred account of a victory which the allied troops : and forty pri oners were taken. ---In these under my command gained in a general affairs Lieutenant-General the Hon. G. L. action fought near Salamanca on the evenCole, Major-General V. Alten, Major- ing of the 22d inst., which I have been General William Anson, Lieutenant-Co- under the necessity of delaying to send til lonel Arentschildt of the 1st hussars, and now, having been engaged ever since the Hervey, of the 14th light dragoons, Lieu-action in the pursuit of the enemy's flying tenant-Colonel Maclean, of the 27th, and troops. In my letter of the 21st I in. Major Archdall of the 40th, Lieutenant- formed your Lordship, that both armies Colonel Anderson, commanding the 11th, were near the Tormes ; and the enemy and Major de Azeredo, commanding the crossed that river with the greatest part of 23d Portuguese regiment, distinguished his troops in the afternoon by the fords themselves. -The enemy did not make between Alba de Tormes and Huerta, and any further attempt on our left; but having moved by their left towards the roads reinforced their troops on that side, and leading to Ciudad Rodrigo.- - The allied withdrawn those which had inoved to their army, with the exception of the 3d division left, I brought back ours from Vallesa. and General D'Urban's cavalry, likewise --On the 19th in the afternoon the ene- crossed the Tormes in the evening by the my withdrew all the troops froin their bridge of Salamanca, and the fords in the right, and marched to their left by Tarra. neighbourhood; and I placed the troops in gona, apparently with an intention of turn- a position of which the right was upon one ing our right. I crossed the Upper Gua- of the two heights called Dos Arapiles, and rena at Vallesa and El Olmo with the the left on the Tormes below the ford of whole of the allied army in the course of Santa Martha.- The 3d division and that evening and night; and every prepa- Brigadier-General D'Urban's cavalry were ration was made for the action, which was left at Cabrerizos, on the right of the expected on the plain of Vallesa on the Tormes, as the enemy had still a large morning of the 20th. But shortly after corps on the heights above Babilafuente, day-light the enemy made another move- on the same side of the river ; and I conmént in several columns to his left ; along sidered it not improbable, that, finding the heights of the Guarena, which river he our army prepared for thein in the morncrossed below Canta la Piedra, and en- ing, on the left of the Tormes, they would camped last night at Babilafuente and Vil- alter their plan, and inanæuvre by the lamela ; and the allied army made a cor other bank. In the course of the night respondent movement to its right by Can- of the 21st I received intelligences of the talpino, and encamped last night at Cabesa truth of which I could not doubt, that Vellosa, the 6th division, and Major-Ge- General Chauvel had arrived at Pollos on neral Alten's brigade of cavalry being upon the 20th, with the cavalry and horse arthe Tormes at Aldea Lengua. During tillery of the army of the north, to join these movements there have been occasional Marshal Marmont; and I was quite cercannonades, but without loss on our side. tain that these troops would join him on
--I have this morning moved the left of the 22d or 23d at the latest. During the army to the Tormes, where the whole the night of the 21st the enemy had taken are now concentrated; and I observe that possession of the village of Calvarasa de the enemy have also moved towards the Ariba, and of the height near it called same river, near Huerta.
- The enemy's Nuestra Senora de la Pena, our cavalry. object hitherto has been, to cut off my being in possession of Calvarosa de Abaxo; ! Comunication with Salamanca and Ciudad and shortly after...daylight detachments Rodrig -The enemy abandoned and from both armies attempted to obtain pos
session of the more distant from our right I reinforced our right with the 5th division, of the two hills called Dos Arapiles.- under Lieutenant-General Leith, włuch I The enemy however succeeded, their de placed behind the village of Arapiles, on tachment being the strongest, and having the right of the lih division: and with the been concealed in the woods nearer the hill 6th and 7th divisions in reserve; and as than we were, by which success they soon as these troops had taken their stastrengthened materially their own position, tions, I ordered the Hon. Major-General and had in their power increased means of Pakenham to move forward with the 3d annoying ours. In the morning, the division, and General D'Urban's cavalry, light troops of the 7th division, and the and two squadrons of the 14th lighi dra4th Cacadores belonging to General Pack's goons, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hervey, brigade, were engaged with the enemy on in four columns, to turn the enemy's left the height called Nuestra Senora de la Pena; on the heighis, while Brigadier-General on which height they maintained themselves Bradford's brigade, the 5th division, under with the enemy throughout the day. The Lieutenant-Ceneral Leith, the 4th divipossession, by the enemy, however, of the sion, under the Hon. Lieutenant General more distant of the Arapiles, rendered it Cole, and the cavalry, under Lieutenantnecessary for me to extend the right of the General Sir Stapleton Colton, should atarmy in Potence to the heights behind the tack them in front, supported in reserve by village of Arapiles, and to occupy that the 6th division, under Major-General village with light infantry; and here I Clinton, the 7th division, under Majorplaced the 4th division, under the com- General Hope, and Don Carlos D’Espana's mand of the Honourable Lieutenant-Gene- , Spanish division, and Brigadier-General ral Cole; and although, from the variety | Pack should support the left of the 4th diof the enemy's movements, it was difficult vision, by attacking that of the Dos Arato form a satisfactory judgment of his inten- piles, which the enemy held. The 1st tions, I considered that, upon the whole, and light divisions occupied the ground on his objects were upon the left of the Tormes. the left, and were in reserve.--The atI therefore ordered the Honourable Major- tack upon the enemy's left was made in the , General Pakenham, who commanded the manner above described, and completely 3d division, in the absence of Lieutenant-succeeded. Major-General the Hon. EdGeneral Picton, on account of ill health, ward Pakenham foruned the third division to move across the Tormes with the troops across the enemy's Hank, and overtbrew under his command, including Brigadier- every thing opposed to him. These troops General D'Urban's cavalry; and to place were supported in the most gallant style by himself behind Aldea Tejada, Brigadier- the Portuguese cavalry under Brig.dierGeneral Bradford's brigade of Portuguese General D’Urban, and Lientenant Col. infantry and Dou Carlos D'Espana's in- Hervey's squadrons of the 14th, who sucfantry, having been moved up likewise to cessfully defeated every attempt made by the neighbourhood of Las Torres, between the enemy on the frank of the third division. the 3d and 4th divisions. After a va- Brigadier General Bradford's brigade, riety of evolutions and movements, the the 5th and 4th divisions, and the cavalry enemy appears to have determined upon his under Lieutenant-General Sir Supleton plan about two in the afternoon ; and under Cotton, attacked the enemy in front, and cover of a very heavy cannonade, which drove his troops before them, from one however did us but very little damage, he beight to another, bringing forward their extended his left and moved forward his right, so as to acquire strength upon the troops, apparently with an intention to enemy's flauk, in proportion to the advance. embrace, by the position of his troops, Brigadier-General Puck made a very galand by his fire, our post on that of the two lant attack upon the Arapiles, in which, Arapiles which we possessed, and from however, he did not succeed, excepting thence to attack and break our line ; or at in diverting the attention ol the enemny's all events to render difficult any movement corps placed upon it, from the troops of ours to our right.--The extension of under the command of Lieutenant-General his line to his left however, and its ad- Cole, in his advance. --- The Cavalry vance upon our right, notwithstanding that under Lieutenant-General Sir Stapleton his troops still occupied very strong ground, Cotton made a most gallant and success." and his position was well defended by can- ful charge against a body of the enenon, gave me an opportunity of attacking my's infantry, which they overthrew and him, for which I had long been anxious. cut to pieces. In this charge Major-General Le Marchant was killed at the head of day in the morning with the same troops, his brigade; and I have to regret the loss and Major-General Bock's and Major-Geof a most able officer,- After the crest neral Anson's brigades of cavalry, which of the height was carried, one division of joined during the night, and having crossed the enemy's infantry made a stand against the Tormes, we came up with the enemy's the 4th division, which, after a severe con rear-guard of cavalry and infantry, near La test, was obliged to give way, in conse. Serna; they were immediately attacked by quence of the enemy having thrown some the two brigades of dragoons; and the ca- . troops on the left of the 4th division, after valry fled, leaving the infantry to their fate. the failure of Brigadier-General Pack's at. I have never witnessed a more gallant tack upon the Arapiles, and the Honourable charge than was made on the enemy's inLieutenant-General Cole having been fantry by the heavy brigade of the King's wounded. - Marshal Sir Williain Beres- German Legion, under Major-General Bock, ford, who happened to be on the spot, di- which was completely successful, and the rected Brigadier General Spry's brigade of whole body of infantry, consisting of three the fifth division, which was in the second battalions of the enemy's first division, Jine, to change its front, and to bring its were made prisoners. The pursuit was fire on the Bank of the enemy's division ; afterwards continued as far as Penaranda and, I am sorry to add, that while engaged last night; and our troops are still follow.. in this service, he received a wound, ing the flying enemy. Their head-quarters which, I am apprehensive, will deprive me were in this town, not less than ten leagues of the benefit of his counsel and assistance from the held of battle, for a few hours last for some time. Nearly about the same night; and they are now considerably adtime Lieutenant-General Leith received a vanced on the road towards Valladolid by wound, which unfortunately obliged him to Arevalo. They were joined yesterday on: quit the field. I ordered up the 6th divi: their retreat by the cavalry and artillery of sion, under Major-General Clinton, to re- the army of the North, which have arrived. lieve the 4th, and the battle was soon re- at too late a period, it is to be hoped, to be stored to its former success. The eve of much use to them. It is impossible my's right, however, reinforced by the to form a conjecture of the amount of the troops which had fled from his lest, and by enemy's loss in this action ; but from all those which load now retired from the Ara; reports it is very considerable. We have piles, still continued to resist ;, and I or- taken from them eleven pieces of cannon, * dered the 1st and light divisions, and Co- several ammunition waggons, two eagles, lonel Stubbs's Portuguese brigade of the 4th and six colours ; and one general, three codivision, which was re-formed, and Major- lonels, three lieutenant-colonels, 130-ofGeneral William Anson's brigade, likewise ficers of inferior rank, and between six and of the 4th division, to turn the right, while seven thousand soldiers are prisoners ;t and the 6th division, supported by the 3d and our detachments are sending in more every 5th, attacked the front. It was dark before moment. The number of dead on the field this point was carried by the 6th division, is very large.--I am informed that Marand the enemy fled through the woods to- shal Marmont is badly wounded, and has wards the Tormes. I pursued them with lost one of his arms; and that four general the 1st and light divisions, and Major- officers have been killed, and several General William Anson's brigade of the 4th wounded. Such an advantage could not division, and some squadrons of cavalry have been acquired without material loss under Lieutenant General Sir Stapleton on our side; but it certainly has not been Cotton, as long as we could find any of of a magnitude to distress the army, or to them together, directing our march upon cripple its operations.--I have great Huerta and the fords of the Tormes, by pleasure in reporting to your Lordship, which the enemy had passed on their ad- that, throughout this trying day, of which vance; but the darkness of the night was highly advantageous to the enemy, many of whom escaped under its cover, who must otherwise have been in our hands.Iain pieces of cannon; but it is believed that twenty
The official returns only account for eleven sorry to report, that owing to this same have fallen into our hands. cause, Lieutenant-General Sir Stapleton + The prisoners are supposed to amount to Cotton was unfortunately wounded by one ascertain their numbers exactly, from the ad
seven thousand; but it has not been possible to of our own sentries after he had halted. vance of the army immediately after the action
We renewed the pursuit at break of. was over.