As illustrated in the Prosecution and Punishment of


[256 In order that my countrymen and that the two sureties in the sum of 1,000 pounds each ; world may not be deceived, duped, and cheated that the whole of this sentence has been executed upon this subject, I, WILLIAM COBBETT, upon me, that I have been imprisoned the two of Botley, in Hampshire, put upon record years, have paid the thousand pounds TO THE the following facts; to wit: That, on the 24ih KING, and have given the bail, Tinjothy Brown June, 1809, the following article was pub- and Peter Walker, Esqrs. being my sureties; fished in a London news-paper, called the that the Attorney General was Sir Vicary Gibbs, COURIER: “ The Matiny amongst the LO- the Judge who sat at the trial Lord Ellepborough, « CAL MILITIA, which broke out at Ely, was the four Judges who sat at passing sentence Ellen"fortunately suppressed on Wednesday by the borough, Grose, Le Blanc, and Bailey; and that « arrival of four squadrous of the GERMAN the jurors were, Thomas Rhodes of Hampstead

LEGION CAVALRY from Bury, under the Road, John Davis of Southampton Place, James « command of General Auckland. Five of the Ellis of Tottenham Court Road, John Richards “ ringleaders were tried by a Court-Martial, and of Bayswater, Thomas Marshani of Baker Street, * sentenced to receive 500 lashes cach, part of which Robert Heathcote of High Street Marylebone,

punishment they received on Wednesday, and John Maud of York Place Marylebone, George k a part was remitted. A stoppage for their knup- Baxter of Church Terrace Pancras, Thomas “sacks was the ground of the complaint that ex- Taylor of Red Lion Square, David Deave of St al cited this mutinous spirit, which occasioned John Street, William Palmer of Upper Street “ the men to surround their officers, and demand Islington, Henry Favre of Pall Mall; that the « what they deemed their arrears. The first Prime Ministers during the time were Spencer “ division of the German Legion halted yesterday | Perceval, until he was shot by John Bellingham,

at Newniarket on their return to Bury." and after that Robert B. Jenkinson, Earl of Li That, on the 1st July, 1809, I published, in the verpool; that the prosecution and sentence took Political Register, an article censuring, in the place in the reign of King George the Third, and strongest terms, these proceedings; that, for so that, he having become insane daring my impri. doing, the Attorney General prosecuted, as sedi-sonment, the 1,000 pounds was paid to his son, ·tions libellers, and by Ex-Officio Information, the Prince Regent, in his behalf; that, during my me, and also my printer, my publisher, and one imprisonment, I wrote and published 364 Essays of the principal retailers of thc Political Register; and Letters upon political subjects; that, daring that I was brought to trial on the 15th June, the same time, I was visited by persons from 197 1810, and was, by a Special Jury, that is to say, cities aud towns, many of them as a sort of depuby 12 men ont of 48 appointed by the Master of ties from Societies or Clubs; that, at the expira, the Crown Office, found guilty; that, on the tion of my imprisonment, on the 9th of July, 1812, 20th of the same month, I was compelled to give a great dinner was given in London for die purbail for my appearance to receive judgment;pose of receiving me, at which dinoer upwards of and that, as I came up from Botley (to which 600 persons were present, and at wbich Sir place I had returned to my family and my farm Francis Burdett presided; that dinners and other on the evening of the 15th), a Tipstaff went parties were held on the same occasion in many down from London in order to seize me, per other places in England; that, on my way horne, sonally ; that, on the 9th of July, 1810, I, toge. I was received at Altou, the first town in Hampther with my printer, publisher, and the news shire, with the ringing of the Church bells; that man, were brought into the Court of King's a respectable company wet me and gave me a Bench to receive judgment; that the three dinner at Winchester; that I was drawn from former were sentenced to be imprisoned for more than the distauce of a mile into Botley by some months in the King's Bench prison; that I the people; that, upon my arrival in the village, was sentenced to be imprisoned for two years in I found all the people assembled to receive me; Newgate, the great receptacle for malefactors, that I concluded the day by explaining to them. and the front of which is the scene of numerous the cause of my imprisonment, and by giving hangings in the course of every year; that the them clear notions respecting the flogging of the part of the prison in which I was sentenced to be Local Militia-men at Ely, and respecting the em, confined is sometimes inhabited by felons, that ployment of German Troops; and, finally, which felons were actually in it at the time I entered is more than a con:pensation for my losses and all it; that one man was taken out of it to be trans- my sufferings, I am in perfect health and strength, ported in about 48 hours after I was put into the and, though I must, for the sake of six children, same yard with him; and that it is the place of feel the diminution that has been made in my confinement for men guilty of unnatural crimes, property (thinking it right in me to decline the of whom there are four in it at this time ; that, offer of a subscription), I have the consolation to besides this imprisonment, I was sentenced to see growing np three sons, upon whose hearts, I pay a thousand pounds TO THE KING, and to trust, all these facts will be engraven. give security for 'my good behaviour for seven

WM. COBBETT. years, myself in the sum of 3,000 pounds, and Botley, July 23, 1812.

Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent Garden.

LONDON: Printed by J. M'Creery, Black Horse-Court, Fleet-street.


Vol. XXII. No. 9.] LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 29, 1812.

[Price Isa


(258 N.B,- The Indexes and Tables to Vo: to have excited half so much joy as was exa lume XXII of the Register are published, cited by the death (not the killing) of the as usual, and to be had, of course, through late prime minister Perceval; at which I the same channels that the Register is had. rather wonder, because, as I have before

observed, the victory is something for us to be proud of, whatever it may lead toz

and it is the more worthy of our applause, BATTLE OF SALAMANCA.

as it forms such a contrast with the events BATTLE OF SALAMANCA.--The rejoic of the campaigns on the continent, which ings, on account of the result of this battle, ended at Dunkirk and the Helder. Our though very loud and long immediately army has here beaten a French arny. We under the eye of the government, do not were, it may be said, greatly superior in appear to have reached very widely over numbers. I do not mind shat; for we the country, for which I can, however, see were not so much superior in numbers as to no reason, except that of a conviction in the prevent a French Marshal from giving us people's ininds, that the victory only tended battle.. Our army has beaten a French to prolong the war; for, in point of glory, army, and our General has beaten a French it is certainly the greatest victory that has Marshal. We have, too, taken 7,000 mera been gained by England in our day, and, prisoners of war, with a due proportion of indeed, since the reign of Queen Anne. officers. This is, therefore, a victory, and, By sea we have been accustomed to beat in a military point of view, something to be every body. Battles at sea are much more proud of; but, while I think the country matters of skilt than of personal valour. has received the victory rather coldly, I The men engaged scarcely see their enemy. must say, that the hired news-papers have The danger may be as great, but it is not been as indiscreet on the other side. Ta seen. - Men'in a ship are like men in a for- hear them, one would think that England tified place. A battle at sea is an affair of never won a victory before; that this was ropes and sails and rudders. The victory her first-born in the way of victories; and depends, in a great measure, upon the that, in short, she was beside her sensea dexterity of the parties engaged. But, in with joy upon the occasion.-- Reflection a land battle, the result generally depends , should make them more moderate; for, afupon the degrees of personal courage pos- ter all, Marshal the Duke of Albufera has sessed by the parties engaged. In a sea sent to France at least six times as many battle no man cau skúlk from his post if he prisoners as all our generals put together would. The greatest coward is as efficient, have taken during the whole war. The generally speaking, as the bravest man. boastings, therefore, should have soma But, in a land battle, men may generally bounds; for, if we are thus to boast at the skulk if they will. There are so many op- taking of 7,000 prisoners, what would the portunities of avoiding bodily danger, that French be justified in doing at the taking of a coward will seldom fail to avail himself of more than 100,000 prisoners in this same some one or other of them. From a ship war of the Peninsula ? And what would there is no deserţion during a battle; from they be justified in doing at the taking of an army there may be much. For these the more, perhaps, than two millions of reasons I am always inclined to be more prisoners, whom they have taken since the proud of victories (I mean real ones) gained commencement of their revolution ? Our by land, than of victories gained by sea, hired writers should think of these things though in the sea service it often happens in the midst of their excessive joy, or, rathat there are occasions for performing pro- ther, their affectation of that joy; for, as digious feats of valour.---- Nevertheless, it to any feeling upon the subject, they have is certain, that, throughout the country, the no more than the table upon which I am news of the victory of Salamanca has been writing.---There was one transaction, revery coldly received. It does not appear lating to the London rejoicings, which I


must not omit to notice in a particular man- " the merits of Lord Wellington's characner. There were, it appears, numerous 66. ter. Upon these occasions, the carriage acts of violence committed against persons was stopped at St. Paul's, the Mansionwho did not choose to illuminate their “ house, and in the square of Somersethouses; and this is quite decisive as to the 66 house.

At the Mansion-house Lord real cause of the generality of the illumi- " Wellesley apprized the crowd that the nation. When we are told, that those who Lord Mayor was a warm friend of Lord did not illuminate, had their houses demo-" Wellington, and, with the chief Officers lished, in whole or in part, we need not be " of the City, had often expressed approtold what was the general motive of those " bation of his services, upon which they who did illuminate. In the country, where " cheered the Lord Mayor loudly. The there was no smashing of houses, there " crowd halted at Carlton-house, and were no illuminations. Here are cause

« cheered the Prince Regent most cordially. and effect as clear as day-light; and all the “ At St. James's they stopped, and cheered efforts of all the hired writers in London his Majesty; and Lord Wellesley having will not remove them from the mind of any." proposed the Duke of York and the Army, rational man.--But, the transaction, to his Royal Highness was loudly cheered. which I particularly allude, is of another On arriving at Apsley-house, Lord Welsort: it relates to the Marquis Wellesley," lesley took leave by returning thanks for and it is well worthy of the reader's atten- " the gratifying marks of attention he had tion. I copy the account from the Courier " received ; assuring them at the same time, news-paper of the 19th of August, in the " that he had NOT THE VANITY to following words : —-"Lord Wellesley's apply them in the smallest degree TO " went out on Monday night in a plain HIMSELF personally. Upon which they carriage to view the illuminations, and shouted, we mean them for YOU “ near the Admiralty was recognized by " TOO." "I receive them, then," said " the people, who proposed to draw his “ Lord w. "as the most unequivocal carriage, which he endeavoured to disproofs of public spirit-of zealous allach" suade them from carrying into effect, ex- ~ ment for your Princeof loyalty to your, "cusing himself with many expressions of " King--and of love for the irue interests " thanks. They suffered him to proceed of your country.

I receive them as a " towards Whitehall, but on his return to most gratifying proof of your opinion, “ Charing.cross they took off his horses, “ that the services of Lord Wellington, of w and drew his carriage along the Strand,myself, and of my family, have always " Fleet-street, &c. to St. Puul's, and the been directed to maintain the honour and Mansion-house, and back again by the dignity of the Crown, and to the promo

way of Pall Mall, Sl. James's-street, and " lion of your best interests."--Now, Piccadilly, to Apsley-house. The carri- in the first place, it was an odd sort of cu

age was followed by an immense crowd, riosity that must have taken Lord Welles66 who halted frequently for the purpose of ley out at such a time. To " view illumi

cheering the name of Lord Wellington, “nations!" I suppose he has a taste in « and of haranguing Lord Wellesley in that way. Aye; but he went out in a “ language of warm congratulation. His plain carriage. But, why go in any carri

Lordship repeatedly addressed the multi-age at all, and especially alone; for nothing 6 lude. He stated shortly, but with great is said of any one being with him : he seems " force, the eminent services of his gallant to have had all the cheering to himself. 66 brother in India, as well as in Europe, Then, what an odd whim it was in " the " and the prominent features of his charac- “ people" (for they were here the people) " ter, which had obtained for him the una- to draw him first away from his home and k nimbus esteem and love of his army, then to his home! What should they draw " and the applause which his countrymen him into the city for? Why should they 66

were then bestowing upon him. They suppose, that such a jaunt would be agree. 66 might applaud him, he said, for his at- able to him? The reader, however, will 4 tention to the comforts and wants of his want nothing more than the publication it“ menHIS CARE OF HIS WOUND. self to make him understand the whole of “ ED-his attention to the sufferings of our the transaction, from first to last. It is, 66 allies—and bis humanity to the enemy indeed, too plain to need any thing more 66 when subdued or captured. His Lord than the bare publication of the account. s ship was interrupted with cheers that ----Since writing the above, I have,

rent the skies between each instance of through the news-papers, received the French account of the Battle of Salamanca, | like what the drummers call a'ruffle; that from which it appears, that the Duke of is to say, a little play upon the head of the Ragusa was wounded before the Battle be- drum, preparatory to some regular beat ; gan. We have not, therefore, beaten a and, I should not wonder if the hireling French Marshal ; but, we have beaten his who wrote this was in expectation of being army under a French General, and that is called upon to beat the relreat in a short quite glory enough. --The French cover time.

- The French cover time. If this should be the case, and it is the disaster as well as they cau; but they very far indeed from being impossible, confess a defeat, a thing that is never done what shall we have got for our 3,561 Engby our ministerial papers. The word de- lish soldiers, killed, wounded, and missing? feat, as applied to us, is an useless part of If our army should be compelled to retreat, our language. This confession of a deseat what will have been gained? Really noentitles the French, accounts to the more thing; but, a great deal will have been credit; and, indeed, their Bulletins have all lost. The army will have been greatly along proved, in the end, to have been fa- weakened; it will have got farther from tally true.---The French papers also in- its resources; it will have encumbered itform us, that, in the East of Spain, the self even with its prisoners; it may meet Spaniards have suffered a severe defeat, and with great disasters, and it will be sure to the object of our expedition from Sicily has suffer very much from fatigue.--I repeat been frustrated. ---In a military point of it, that if this battle be followed by a speedy view, therefore, the consequences of the retreat, it will have been an event most disvictory of Salamanca do not promise to be astrous to the war in the peninsula. great. Our army is not strong enough to The accounts from France may, however, remain long in the heart of Spain unsup- not be true, or, at least, not to the extent ported by any other force; and, I am, for mentioned in our news-papers. Yet, as once, inclined to believe the Times news- the Times now confesses, it is, I believe, paper, which confesses, that that army is but too true, that " our gallant little army

surrounded by enemies, except in its " is surrounded every where by enemies is rear," from which it has swept them." except in its rear, from whence it has

The passage (in the Times of Aug. 25) " itself wiped them away;" which, if it in which this observation is made, is very mean any thing; if it really have a meancurious, and worthy of note at this mo- ing, means, that the whole country is inment:- -56 We cannot close this account habited by enemies to our army and its “ without speaking more on the affairs con- cause ; a meaning that is very clear indeed, !nected with this quarter of the Peninsula. but that gives the lie direct to all the past General Maitland has, we hear, returned assertions of this same print, relative to from Port Mahon tó Sicily, in conse- the disposition of the people of Spain, whom

quence of orders conveyed to him by it has represented as holding the French “ General Donkin. All our expectations, and their cause in the utmost abhorrence ;

therefore, of an efficient diversion on the as hating them and loving us; as ready to

eastern coast of Spain, must, we fear, be | perish to the last man rather than submit 66 relinquished; and without such diversion, to French sway. —- The present is an what can our gallant little army, with its awkward time to make this new discovery;

heroic Chief, perform in the heart of the but, reader, it indicates a retreat ; be as"' country, surrounded every where by ene- sured, that he who wrote this paragraph

mies except in its rear, from whence it for the Times news-paper, has reason, or " has itself wiped them away? With that thinks he has reason, to believe, that the

diversion, so much hoped for, and so con- Battle of Salamanca will be speedily fol

fidently expected, Lord Wellington would lowed by a retrear. -How often have I 6

have had the power of either pursuing called upon the hired writers to get out of the remains of Marmont's army to Bure the dilemma in which they were placed by

gos, or of marching directly to Madrid. their assertions relative to the disposition " Without it, he can do neither; for, un- of the people of Spain? I have said to

happily, there is no efficient army organ-them: You tell us, that the people of Sized in Gallicia, as there ought to have Spain are unanimous in their detestation “ been, to assist his Lordship in clearing of the French; that the people of Spain are “the north of Spain; and as to our march-brave; that the people of Spaia are hearty

ing to Madrid, Suchet is now disengaged ' in our cause, which they know to be the to advance thither, and join Joseph'cause of freedom; and that they are Buonaparte."--This sounds very much ready to perish in that cause. Now, if

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these things be not true, you are guilty of perhaps, a good third part of the country, promulgating falsehoods; and if these must have been divided and sold. . The things be true, what an army, what ge- tithes are no longer paid, or yielded in nerals, what soldiers, ipust Napoleon have kind ; and, in short, the fruit of the earth, in Spain; seeing that, in spite of all the which was before taken in so great a part efforts of eleven millions of brave people, for the use of those who did not labour, fired with haired against the French, and now necessarily finds its way into the prodigal of life in their hostility, and in mouths or the pockets of those who do spite also of all the assistance given to those labour. Whether this change be right; eleven millions of people by an English whether it ought to have been made ; whearmy and an English Aleet, the French still ther the people be or be not guilty of sin in keep possession of the Capital of Spain, liking such a change, and in being glad at and of the far greater part of the pro- getting rid of various other burdens; whevinces : -— They never have answered me. ther they ought to like the French for bea' They have never attempted to get out of ing the cause of this change, or ought to this dilemma. But now, the Tiines news- hate them for it: these questions I do not paper confesses, that our army, in the pretend to answer ; but, I humbly beg heart of Spain, is surrounded with ene- leave to think, that they do not dislike the mies.- Wonderful as this fact may seem French for having produced this change, to some persons, I believe it most fully. and that the real cause of our army being Sir John Moore found enemies in Spain; surrounded by enemies in Spain, is, that and, I have never yet heard any one of the people of Spain look upon us as hostile our generals say, in any official paper, that to the change that has taken place. he found many friends there. We wonder, We say, and, perhaps, with some little or, at least, most of us do, that there reason, that if Napoleon get safe and quiet should be found upon the whole earth, any possession of Spain, he will have in his human creature not to abhor the French, hands the means of doing us inortal misand particularly the Emperor Napoleon. chief ; that Ireland will then be exposed to Some in this country hate him because they liis attacks; and that, in short, our-indefear that his power may finally overset, de- pendence will be in jeopardy. This is a grade and ruin them; while others, having very good reason for our wishing to drive 110 means of judging themselves, believe Napoleon out of Spain; but, with all subwhat they are told respecting him, and, mission to the dust of Mr. Perceval, it is of course, look upon him as a being some- no reason whatever for the people of Spain what like the Devil, and not to hate whom 10 wish to drive him out. We wish to would be immoral in the highest degree. drive him out, because his being in would

-But, the people of other countries be injurious to us; and, as soon as we have other grounds whereon to form their can convince the people of Spain that they judgment, and their consequent liking or are now worse off than they were before, disliking vf Napoleon. We feel nothing of they too will wish to driv: him out ; bat, him. We judge from mere report. Some until sach conviction be produced in their of them feel, and they judge and act upon minds, we may be well assured, that they that feeling. -The people of Spain, for will not be very zealous in our cause; or instance, have felt and are feeling the con- in the cause of any body whose object it is sequences of Napoleon's taking possession to effect a counter-revolution. It is not, and assuming the sovereignty of their coun- as I have often said; it is not the sword try. Amongst those consequences has been which will decide the fate of Europe. It is the abolition of the Inquisition, a thing a moral cause that is at work. There is a which

we, from the cradle, have been change in the mind of man. He will no taught to hold in utter detestation. The longer be what he has been. Spain will people of Spain have also been freed from never submit to her old government, or to the burden of maintaining innumerable any thing nearly resembling it; while her swarms of monks and their like, much colonies are openly employed in forming more destructive to the country than the governments for themselves, founded on locusts ever are to any of the countries they the very principles upon which the Amevisit with their depredations. Many of the ricans and French made their revolutions, great landholders have fled, and of neces- and which principles, indeed, were of sity their lands fall to the lot of men who English origin; the principles of reprebefore possessed little, or none, of the soil.sentative government, which run through The estates of the monasteries, forming, the whole of our ancient laws, written and

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