tating incursions of their forefathers. This of the population of Praga, which was at new display ought to have frozen Europe last extinguished in blood and Aames. Men with terror, and made her seek, in her of Poland--for the time is come to make strongest precaution, the means of meet- that name ring in your ears ; a naine which ing this new danger: she ought to have is your own, which you ought never to have shut her ports against the ambitious Prince given up, see here the detestable means who came to initiate himself in all the se- by which Russia has arrived at the possescrets of her arts, only, with them, to arm sion of your finest provinces ; see here the her against the hands of his ferocious and titles, the only titles, which she can assert slavish people; and when Pultowa seemed over you. Force has chained you; force only to have decided between Charles and can break the chains which it has forged, Peter, Europe was conquered almost at the and they shall be broken. What can same moment with Sweden. Poland in- you doubt it when you look at what is passstantly felt the effects of this aggrandize- ing on every side of you? Look! see if, ment of the Russian power. Placed on the of all that caused your ruin, a single feature borders of its territory, she felt its first as remains ! In the immense change which she has felt its last blows. Who can enu- draws the world in its current, what do you merate them from 1717, when she tried find to remind you of the ancient dangers of her first influence by tampering with the your country? Instead of the jealousy of Polish army? From that era what mo- the great powers which nurtured in Europe ment has been exempt from her influence an anarchy like that which tore your own and her outrages? In the first instance she bosom, a single spirit seems to animate the interfered with that liberty of choice which entire, your plains are covered with standhad always fixed the Sovereigns of our ards astonished at their new fraternity. country, she practised against the rights, Instead of neighbours eager for your spoils of which the Nation had always exhibited and accomplices in your ruin, all have the keenest jealousy. In a short time our united their arms to your's—instead of richest inheritances were the reward of the those shadows of armies which the entire of favourites of our Sovereigns; our children, your early territory once scarcely furnished, dragged into her armies, were forced to shed numerous legions springing up as if by enthe blood which none but Russians should chantment, from a corner of the same soil, have poured; our harvests were gathered glittering in the splendour of recent victory, for her soldiers; every new war saw the formed in the school of the greatest of all Russian standards floating over the plains Captains, by the example of the greatest of of Poland ; it was by trampling the Polish all armies, threaten your spoilers with their soil that the Russian power approached sabres of steel, raised froin the same soil gradually the body of Europe, over which from which themselves have risen, and it aspired to have the sole dominion. If burn to hear the hour of vengeance strike. this crafty power ever united itself with Po. Instead of the feeble help which France land, it was to impose on her as in 1764, once gave to the necessities of Poland, she that fatal guarantee, which connected the now gives her whole vigour. France and integrity of our frontier with the perpetual | Poland have always been friends-love has existence of anarchy, to make of that anar- always been returned by love. The first chy an instrument of its ambition. The complete use which Poland made of her world know what their conduct has been liberty of election was, to call a Prince of since that fatal era. It is since that time the blood of France to the Throne. It was that from division to division, Poland has at to France that Casimir looked for consolalength totally disappeared, without guilt as tion in his sufferings on the Polish throne, without revenge. It is since that time that - it was in France that Stanislaus realized the Poles have heard with inward indigna- the benevolent projects which he had destintion the insulting language of the Repnins, ed for Poland. It is with nations as with of the Sivers, whom they have seen laying men, the sympathies of interest form the an audacious hand on the reins of Govern- most indissoluble bonds. But those ties ment. It is since that time that an hundred were strongest between France and Poland. times the Russian soldier has been bathed Those powers were necessary to each other. in the blood of their countrymen, as a pre- What do we say ? Poland was necessary lude to that day, for ever accursed, (do we to Europe. She was necessary as a barrier require to have it brought to our memories ?) against those hordes of half-refined barbawhen in the midst of the boastings of an rians who had always the strongest temptaabsurd conqueror, Warsaw heard the cry tion to lay waste and to conquer the softer

climates of the South. Their atteinpts and the ardent love of their country suggested, invasions were becoming worthy of com- - let us unly avoid the dangers which have bined European policy to defeat. Within deprived so many confederations of the efthe last fifty years, Russia had deluged the fects which they ought to have produced. South of Europe with her armies. The Their experience must not be lost upon us. Turkish crescent was half broken ; Frede- We must impress on our Consederation a rick himself camot defend his capital. In character of the 'strictest union,—we must those later times, Italy has received them make it a central point, round which to gawith horror among her smiling plains, and ther without confusion, or without requirin vain invoked a new Marius. . Who could ing more than to know what is to be done believe it, the cries of the Scythian Savage when we have assembled. Then what force were heard round the tomb of the Mantuan of man can stop the unanimous movement Swan? In their daring imprudence, thou- of a great people, ---the forward spring of a sands of those slaves, mowed down by the people recovering its ancient existence, and sabres of Frenchmen, came to falten with which, to secure it more fully, forgets all its their blood the free soil of Switzerland. It past sufferings, and offers itself to fly from required the arm of an Hero to stop at Aus- sacrifices to sacrifices ? Oh! happiest of terlitz the progress of their battalions; at a days, day of triumph and rejoicing; before still more recent time, the arm of the same thee disappear all the days which ought to Hero was required to throw them back into be blotted from our history, and the metheir native forests. Those dangers have at mory of man. Among all days, this day length caught the nature and the necessity of shall be renowned.—The descendants of their remedy; and that Prince, whose cal- the Piasts and the Jagellons may yet bear culations embrace the future with as much the name before which the tyrants that opfacility as the present—the founder of a vast pressed them have grown pale. Now Siempire-has not been wanting to give it gismonds and new Sobieskis will arise ; and solidity. He knows that there must be a the world shall learn, that to produce the barrier, eternal and impenetrable, against fruit of all the nobler virtues, the soil of the invasions of ignorance and barbarism. Poland has only to be tilled by the hands of He knows that there must be a frontier, freemen. And you, venerable citizen (the which will separate policied' nations from Count Czartoriski appointed Grand Marsavage; that it must be fenced with iron shal of the Diet), who for near a century of and the sword. He knows that the people, virtue have yielded to the wishes of your placed in the advanced guard of Europe, fellow-citizens to preside over the most surmust have all the strength adequate to se- prising scene of their history, how tender cure its repose.

Thus, if once all things and touching a lesson does the reward of conspired our ruin, all things now unite for your integrity this day offer; placed, if we our restoration. Poland shall exist at last. may use the expression, at the two extremes At last! she exists now, or rather she has of the life of your country, you will have never ceased to exist. What have the per assisted at the twilight of its first life, and fidy, the plots, the outrages under which she the dawn of its second ; you will have seen sunk, to do with her rights ? Yes, we are it sink into the tomb, and rise in the purity Poland, and we are so by all the rights of resurrection. It is to accomplish the which we have from nature, froni the laws generous resolution for the liberty of Poof society, from our forefathers, froin all land, that your Committee has the honour those consecrated titles which the human of presenting the Act of the following Conrace have established. Avd not we only, federation :-but those vast countries which look up to us for their liberation. Our country, like Act of the General Confederation of Poland. a fond parent, always holds open for the return of her children, and all its We, the undersigned, composing the Ge. Members have at all times the right to re-neral Diet, assenrbled at Warsaw, feel the turn to the family from which they were moment that in which every thing around torn. Polanders, you shall not be long excites our admiration, and pervades our withheld from the joyful acclamation, that hearts with ardent patriotism. We feel the kingdom of Poland, and the existence our nation called upon to make the most of the body of the Polish territory, is re-energetic exertions, that the eyes of the established. Bus to give this movement an world are fixed upon us, and that posterity, irresistible force, let us interrogate the his- in judging of our conduct, will either bless fory of our ancestors, let us inquire what or execrate our memories. Being desirous


of seriously contemplating our actual rela- 1 à Council General, which shall be assisted tions, we have appointed a Committee to by the Marshal, and shall hold its sittings consider of, and report to us those relations ; at Warsaw; and as an enterprise originatthus wishing to profit by all those means ing in motives so virtuous justly merits it, Heaven has dispensed to us, in order to ar- we have sent a deputation to his Majesty, rive at the object of our desires. Our ef the King of Saxony, to honour it with his fort is completed; in the Report of our formal approbation. The cause of sufCommittees are portrayed those sentiments fering innocence cannot be regarded but as which animate us, and at the same time, that of God; so brilliant a procedure must the line of conduct is pointed out which we extend its influence throughout Europe. should follow. And according to these This renovation, which will afford to the important representations, we have resolved world an example of what should be done to unite, and forın a general Confederation. for oppressed humanity, which will restore In order to evince the purity of our motives Poland to its ancient prosperity, will preand our objects, we declare, in the face of sent to the first Empire in the world an Heaven and Earth, and of the Polish Na- Ally, equally faithful and worthy. An tion, that we have no other view than the Ally which, from its geographical situation restoration of our country, hitherto dismem- and national character, it will have nothing bered by unprincipled violence, and to re- to apprehend from, but every thing to generate its pristine prosperity and inde- hope; and therefore we must fondly conpendence, that we unite in general confe- clude, that such an Empire will not refuse deration, with consent, and under the au- to our virtuous undertaking its powerful asthority of our gracious Sovereign, Frederic sistance. We shall lay at the feet of that Augustus, Grand Duke of Warsaw, and Throne the assurance of our confidence and King of Saxony, having at our head the devotion, and implore ihat its creating Prince Adam Czartoriski, Staroste, Gene- word may complete that existence which ral of Padolia, Nunceo (Nonce) of Warsaw, we have incipiently received from it. But a citizen respectable by his age and virtues in order to render ourselves worthy of this -hat we continue faithful to the religion glorious protection, we most solemnly aver, of our fathers, the Catholic and Apostolic, that no possible event shall chill that paat the same time we dispense a perfect tole triotic ardour which unites us, that we rance to all other taiths, following thus the shall persevere in our glorious career, until examples of our ancestors, in times when we have re-united to our bosoms all those all Europe was afflicted with sanguinary re- members of our common family, those broligious wars--that we respect the authori- thers of our love, which the hand of tyties of the throne, the laws of the nation, ranny has separated from us.-Polanders! and that we cherish in all its purity that you whom we thus call again to our bonational spirit, which for ages has been the som, judge of our feelings by your own. distinguishing characteristic of the Polonese. We implore you in the name of our com

Guided by similar considerations, we mon mother to unite mutually all your are unwilling to arrive by any but the most powers, and to fly to her support. Let her legal means, at our glorious object. And again press you to her heart; she presents well recollecting the disastrous events which to your exertions the equal road to virtue have passed, we solemnly declare that the and to glory. Let us join in brotherly general confederation will never aberrate union, and the Divine Justice will not from the path it has prescribed, nor role withhold our deserved recompense.

We rate abuses, which must end but in the ruin shall again see the arms of Lithuania grace of the country. In consequence the admi- our escutcheons, and hear the fertile fields nistration of justice will vest in the legal of Volhinia, as well as the vast plains of authorities : while the consideration shall Podolia, and the Ukraine resound with the exercise in full plenitude, those powers joyous shouts - Live, Poland ! - live our which appertain to a general assembly of Country! It is therefore decreed as folthe nation, lubouring in the grand work of lows:--Art. 1. The Diet constitutes itself restoring the country, and propagating with a General Confederation of Poland.-9. all its energies a national enthusiasm. The General Confederation of Poland, exIn order to confer on the Confederation, ercising in all their fullness the powers composed of the Members of the Diet, the which belong to the General Association of whole Public National Authorities, &c. the the Nation, declares, that the Kingdom of means of proceeding with activiiy, we dele- Poland, and the Body of the Polish Nation, gate the power with which it is invested, to are re-established.-3. All the Dietines of the Duchy shall be convoked, and shall ad- Francis Count Lubientski, Deputy of the here to the Confederation. They shall district of Skamierz and Hebdow; Charles transmit the Acts to the Council General of Skorkowski, Deputy of the city of Cracow; the Confederation.—4. All the Poles are Cajetan Kozmian, Secretary of the General invited, and authorized to join the Confede- Confederation.-11. The number requisite ration, whether collectively or individually, to form a deliberation, shall be five.-12. and to communicate as speedily as possible The Secretary. General shall have a delibetheir adhesion to the Council General.-5. rative voice.-13. All the adıninistrative, All the portions of the Polish territory are judicial, and military authorities shall coninvited to join the Confederation, in pro- tinue the exercise of their functions.-14. portion as the enemy's removal shall enable A deputation shall be sent to his Majesty them to do so. They are invited forthwith the King of Saxony, Duke of Warsaw, to to form Dietines which shall send Deputies request of him to accede to the General to convey their acts of adherence to the Coun- Confederation of Poland.-15. A deputa. cil General. These shall become Members tion shall also be sent to his Majesty the of the Diet of the General Confederation.- Emperor Napoleon, King of Italy, to pre6. All officers, soldiers, civil and military sent to him the Acts of the Confederation, agents, Poles by birth and inhabiting the and to beg of him to encircle the cradle of Polish territory, unjustly retained by the reviving Poland with his powerful protecRussians, are summoned to abandon the tion.–16. The Confederation, in the face service of that power.—7. All the military of Heaven and earth, in the name of all the men shall be replaced under the colours of Poles, comes under a solemn obligation to Poland; and all the civil agents may be re- prosecute to the end, and by all the means placed, each in a corresponding department in their power, the accomplishment of the of the Polish Administration.-8. All great work which is this day commenced. the ecclesiastical, civil, and military autho--17. The Confederation declares, that, rities shall each in his department make under circumstances in which all its labours, known the existence, the spirit, and the ob- all its wishes, tend only to the re-establishject of the Confederation. For this pur- ment of the country, and to the union of all pose the Bishops shall issue their charges; its parts, it cannot regard as a true Pole, as the Prefects, Subprefects, and Mayors shall a good citizen, whosoever shall dare to publish to those under their jurisdiction all search into the past for motives of division, the acts relative to this Confederation, and or accusation : in one word, whosoever calculated to enlighten or support the spirit shall resort to any measure calculated to of the districts confided to their care. `All plant the germe of discord in the bosom of the Commanders and Chiefs of corps in the a family, which every thing conducts to. army shall do the same to those under their wards union. — 18. The Ministers are orders.-9. All those Members of the Con- charged, each in his own department, to federated Diet, who do not form part of the make known, through the medium of the General Council, are authorized to return to journals or otherwise, all the Acts which their homes, till invited anew; and the have emanated from the Confederation, or Confederation expects from the zeal and which shall be in future addressed to it. patriotism of which they have just given proof, that they will employ that interval in increasing, each in his sphere, the patriotic dispositions of their fellow-citizens.

OFFICIAL PAPERS. 10. The Confederation, during its recess,

(Continued from page 254.) delegates all the powers with which it is invested to the Council General selected AMERICAN STATES.--Correspondence on from itself, residing at Warsaw, and com- the Orders in Council.Mr. Foster posed of the following Members - Stanislas

to Mr. Monroe.--Washington, June 4, Count Zamoyski, Senator Palatine ; John

1812. Golaszewski, Bishop of Wigry: Alexander Linowski, Counsellor of State; Martin Ba- Sir,---Since I had the honour of seeing deni, Counsellor of State; Antony Ostrow- you at your office yesterday, I have perski, Nuncio of the district of Brzeziny; ceived an article in the public prints, stated Frederick Count Skorzewski, Nuncio of the to be extracted from an English news-paper, district of Bromberg; Joachim Owidzki, and purporting to be an official declaration Nuncio of the district of Lublin ; Francis of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, Wezyk, Nuncio of the district of Biala ; that the Orders in Council will be, and are,


absolutely revoked, from the period when made through a note, might have shared the. Berlin and Milan Decrees shall, by the fate of the rest. You will recollect, some authentic act of the French Govern- that it was at your own request that I acment, publicly promulgated, be expressly ceded to the dispatch being communicated and unconditionally repealed. A consider to the Presideni; and that it was also at able time has elapsed since, by order of my your instance, as being the only regular way Government, I had the honour of urging in which the subject could come before the to you the expediency of procuring such an American Government, that I determined authentic act from the French Government; to write to you a note founded upon it. and in all probability the above declaration You were aware, at the latter end of last may have been issued in the confident ex- week, that such was my determination, peciation, that the Government of the which I repeated to you through Mr. Gra. United States would have been able to pro- han, who called upon me the 30th ult. to duce it ere this. -At all events, Sir, ask me when I contemplated sending it to considering the important nature of the your office. The notice must have reached above-mentioned article, and the probabi- you, and been read, before any message lity that I shall have soon to be the organ could have been sent from the Executive to of some official communication to the Ame- Congress.- -I cannot, Sir, consider my rican Government in relation to it, I cannot note as liable to the charge of ambiguity, but trust, that no measure will, meanwhile, which you now impute to it. The abanbe adopted by the Congress, which would donment of our most important maritime defeat the endeavour of procuring a com- rights is more extensively than ever conplete reconciliation between our two coun- nected by France with a demand of the retries. Should any embarrassments arise peal of our Orders in Council; and while in consequence of the declaration on the you are entirely silent as to how far Amesubject of the proposed revocation of the rica concurs with her on this point of vital Orders in Council above alluded to resting interest to Great Britain, without even a at present upon a mere statement in the prospect of a reply from you to our just news-papers, it will no doubt occur to your complaints, as expressed in my note on the recollection, that on the enactment of those coincidence of the attitude taken by AmeOrders a measure was taken by Congress rica with the hostile system of France, I for the purpose of meeting them, when they cannot but be aware of the difficulties to were as yet known but through the public which I should expose myself in entering prints. I have the honour to be, &c. &c. into an explanation on any insulated pas

A.J. Foster.

sage in it. I might, perhaps, by continued silence on your part, never afterwards

have an opportunity of making further exMr. Foster lo Mr. Monroe. Washington, planation; and you are well aware how June 4, 1812.

frequently points taken unconnected with

what precedes or follows them, are liable Sir,-I must rely upon your candour to to misconstruction. But, Sir, as a reason feel for the embarrassment into which your paramount to every other for my not comnote of this day lias thrown me. Willing mitting myself to an explanation on any to comply with the request contained in it, i single topic without the discussions between yet cannot but be sensible that in making us were to be continued, is the publication any portion of a dispatch from His Ma of the highly important declaration of his jesty's Secretary of State to me the subject Royal Highness the Prince Regent, to of a correspondence between us, I should | which I had the honour to allude in my not be justified to my own Government. I note to you of this morning. You will believe there is no example of a correspon- there find stated, in as explicit and authendence of such a wature, and I should be tic a manner as language can convey, the very loath to establish the precedent.--- grounds upon which His Majesty's Orders When I had the honour to make the com- in Council will be revoked. I cannot, it is munication of Lord Castlereagh's dispatch true, as yet, refer you officially to this do. to you in consequence of its being left to my cument; but I may now be in the expectaown discretion to do so, I did it because I lion of receiving it, in a formal state, withhad reason to think, from the number of in a few days, and together with it, every my letters which there remained unanswer- explanation possible which you may reed at your office, such a communication, if quire.


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