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ters? Well, then, observe, and I be- f of inquiry was, whether Lord Wellingseech you to bear in mind, that it is now ton's last campaign had, or had not, betas positively asserted, that the armies and tered the situation of England in the Pethe people of France are the WILLING ninsula ; and, if it was found that it had AGENTS of Buonaparté; and are exhibit- not, if the last intelligence left him at his ed as fully participating in all the hateful old ground; if he had been compelled to qualities, and in all the crimes, that have retreat to the spot whence he started at been, and are, imputed to him.---Bear the commencement of the campaign; if the these things in mind, and you will not be enemy had retaken all that he had acquired again exposed to the mischievous delusion by his advance into Spain ; if this was the which has so long prevailed. Before case, the conclusion in my inind would this sheet issues from the press, the fate of have been, that, upon the whole, he had, Buonaparte will, in all probability, be by his deeds during the campaign, ren. known; but, I beg the reader to guard dered his country no service at all, and, himself betimes against the error of regard of course, merited, on that score, not a ing even the death of Buonaparté as decisive farthing of the public money.--The batof the fate of the people of France; for he tle of Salamanca was glorious to the arms may be assured, that the people of France of England. I was amongst the loudest in are just what they were before Buonaparté praises of the General upon that occasion ; appeared at their head, and that our coun- but, in estimating that General's services try will stand in need of all the wisdom and to his country, I must take into view the all the valour it can muster, to defend itself consequences of that battle as well as the against those, who (as our writers now battle itself; and, if I find, that those confess) are animaled with his spirit. consequences have not been beneficial; if I

find that they have led to retreat and to GRANT TO LORD WELLINGTON. On great loss of lives ; if I find that they have Monday, the 7th instant, the House of been injurious to the cause of the country; Commons yoted the sum of one hundred if I find that the advance and the retreat thousand pounds to the Marquis of Welling- both taken together; if I find, that the ton on account of his recent services in the campaign, as a whole, may be fairly consiPeninsula. I am one of those who dis- dered as leaving the cause in a worse state approve of this grant. Not as to the amount; than it was before, upon what ground am I for I disapprove of it altogether. I would to concur in a grant for services rendered have yoted against any sum being voted by the man who has had the absolute com. him on that account.- My reasons for mand in that campaign ?---Mr. While this may be gathered from two previous bread, who seems, upon this occasion, to articles that I have written upon the sub- have been very eager to stand in the front ject; but, I shall here state some of those rank of the eulogists of Lord Wellington, reasons over again in the remarks that I am observed, that as much glory was to be about to offer upon the debate (as published acquired by retreats as by advances, and in the news papers), which took place be quoted some instances of French Geneupon the voting of the grant.- Sir rals having gained great fame in this way. FRANCIS BURDETT, who objected to the He did not quote any instances where regrant till time had been allowed to inquire treats had gained for French Generals into the cause of the retreat which had either money or lilles. No: he did not succeeded the victories of Lord Welling- quote any instances of this sort; and yet, ton, took a view of the whole of the cam. he should have done this to make his cases paign, and insisted, that, as in other cases, applicable to the question before him. a judgment ought to be formed upon it as Besides, it is not the mere manner of cona whole, and that, as a whole, it pre- ducting the retreat that we are talking of sented us with the spectacle of a complete here: it is of the necessity of retreating; failure. Several persons spoke after the nor do we blame Lord Wellington for that Honourable Baronet, and all in favour of necessity; we do not say that it was posthe

grant ; but no one answered, or attempted sible for him to foresee that such a neces to answer, his argument. -When a re- sity would arise; we are ready to give him ward was proposed for services, the first credit for as much foresight as any man question naturally was, whether, since the can be expected to possess ; we cast, no last reward had been bestowed, any service blame ; all we say is, that, upon the had been performed by the person pro- whole, he has failed in this campaign, posed to be rewarded. Then the object and, that, therefore, he ought not to be rewarded. --When Mr. WHITBREAD | adverse to his reputation and his cause ; (who really appears to have been qualified and, in the evening of the same day, you for Secretary of War) was comparing the heard the House of Commons vote lands merits of Lord Wellington's retreat with to the amount of 100,000l. 10 Lord Wel. that of Massena, he seems to have forgotten | lington, who had just retreated from the the length of time which elapsed between Capital of Spain. Observe, too, that Nathe advance and the retreat of Massena : połeon's retreat was occasioned by an event he seems to have forgotten how long the of the most tremendous nature; an event French General kept our arıny hem nied up which no being with a human heart in his within its lines at Lisbon, what enormous hosom could have anticipated ; an event no expenses he put us 10 for the support of more to be guarded against than an earththat army, and what relief he obtained quake or a storm at sea. There was no such thereby to the French armies in Spain. event occurred at Madrid. The French, though Massena retired to the spot from which be we say they are abborred by the people of had staried; but he was Hiere ready to Madrid, did not set fire to that city and degive battle ; he did give battle; and, in stroy its inhabitants rather than suffer them fact, the whole of his campaign was a very to afford shelter to the English. The glorious one. Yet, he got no money and French did not act thus even by enemies; no lille. He got no thanks even. Buona- King Joseph did not thus sacrifice people, parté is poor. The French nation are who, as we are told, detest him. Therefore, either without means ; or, they have not Lord Wellington had not to meet such an such liberal rulers as we bave. - It hap- event as it fell to the lot of Napoleou to face. piens rather importunely for the advocates Madrid was found what it must have been of this grant, that, at the very same time, expected to be. Yet, we praise Lord Wel. they are representing the retreat of Buo- lington for his campaign; we extol him to naparté as a proof complete of his failure. the skies; we reward him with titles and Yet, he began his campaign in Poland ; estates; and all this we do at the very mohe has (as far as we know) retreated over ment that we are affecting to treat even with only a part of his ground; if he reaches ridicule the campaign of the Emperor of Poland, he will then have cit off a limb of France. --Again: We are told, that the the Russian Empire equal in population to people of Spain are devotedly our friends. one half of Spain; he will have done this Lord Wellington liad, then, a friendly counduring his campaign; and yet have the try to advance into ; every door was open bired writers the impudence to represent to him whether advancing or retreating; his retreat as proof of failure and as a all the resources of the country the people mark of indelible disgrace, while they re- were ready to lavish on him; they, we present the retreat of Lord Wellington as were told, were in ecstasies of joy at being entitled to praise and reward. They tell delivered from the French; every arın, we uis, they tell this thinking, this “ most were told, was lifted for the assistance of thinking people,” that the retreat of Na- the English army. Just the reverse of all poleon is a proof of failure; that it is a this was said to exist in the case of the Emmark of disgrace ; that it must tarnish his peror of France; and yet, oh! “mosl thinkfame; that it must for ever rob him of the ing people” as we are, we affect to speak confidence of his soldiers; and, at the contemptuously of his campaign, while we same moment, in the same news-paper, heap rewards upon Ld. Wellington far his! and in the very same column, they have - The campaign, and, indeed, the life, of the impudence to tell us, that the retreat- the Emperor of France, may, by this time, ing of Lord Wellington, so far from di- possibly be closed ; but, speaking of that minishing his merit, constitutes a great campaign as far as we have any information augmentation of that merit; that it is a regarding it, it leaves a quarter . part, and proof of his skill, his prudence, his ta- the best quarter, of the Russian Empire, in lents as a general, and must give fresh the hands of Napoleons. Not so; not any confidence to his troops as well as to our thing like this the campaigo of Ld. Wetallies the Spaniards. Curious indeed is lington, which leaves in our hands (as far the scene before us. On Monday, all the as our intelligence goes) not one inch of day of Monday, you heard in the city, on territory that we did not before possess ; the Change, in the streets, in the shops, yet, we give rewards to the latter, while in every hole and corner, you heard the we affect to believe, that the campaign of retreat of Napoleon from the Capital of the former will, at the least, wholly deprive Russia spoken of as a proof of every thing him of his military, reputation, if not of his

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crown and his life ! -Verily, we are a | not blame the taste of Lord Wellington; " most thinking people !”-Mr. Whit- for, I would really sooner have the property BREAD, said, in concurrence with Lord of the Manor of that name, than the chance Castlereagh, that Lord Wellington had of all the land of Spain wnich the French beaten Massena, Soult, Ney, Victor, and will leave to any sovereignty but their own. Marmont. I do not recollect the instances I may be deceived; but it still continues to in which he beat any one but the latter. be my firm conviction, that, unless we

That, however, would be sufficient to satisfy adopt, and that very speedily, an entirely me, if he had held his ground ; but I can- new principle whereon to carry on the war not, and I never will, consider that as a in the Peninsula, we shall never rescue it viciory, which is almost immediately follow- from the grasp of France.—Mr. GANNING ed by a retreat. --With regard to the siege made, in his debate, an observation, with of Burgos, it was, according to Mr. Whit the noticing of which, I shall conclude bread, unsuccessful, not because the attack an article, which, pertaps, has too long' was injudicious, but because the defence was detained the reader. He said, “Withso good! Why, this is

most comprehen- “ out going over the details of Lord Welsive justification for a failure, for it will “ lington's services, he would call upon apply to battles in the field full as well as 66 the House to recollect how different to sieges of fortresses. When a general is were the feelings of the country, both as beaten at any future time, we have only to " to its safety and military prowess, besay, that it was not owing to his not plan- 66 fore the Noble Lord had commenced his : ning and fighting well, but to the good career on the Peninsula. He was still planning and fighting of the enemy; and young, and we might fairly hope for thus are we at all times, and under all cir- many future glories and advantages in cunstances, secure from even the chance of the course of it. Before Lord Wellingdisgrace. It was said, upon this occasion, “ ton's career begun, the country never enby Lord Castiereagh, that Lord Welling- tertained the hope of driving Ike French ton's career had been " one continued beyond the Tagus, or the Douro. It was " series of victories, unchequered with any not the Tagus, but the Thames that we

reverses, except retreals, which were as .66 Then thought of defending. To fortify our " honourable to him as the proudest vic- " coasts, and flooding the country, we then " tories.”—This sweeping assertion invites " looked as military measures to ensure us to a general view of our affairs in the our safety. How different is the pros- · Peninsula, where Lord Wellington has had pect now!" Why, Mr. Canning, the the Chief command for four years, and yet, prospect, to short-sighted people, is, inwhere there is even now scarcely a single deed, widely different ; but, to those who British Soldier beyond the confines of Por- see a little beyond the present moment, tugal. If we have spent four years in gain- it is not so materially changed even ing victories, and in retreats as glorious as in a military point of view, though you victories, and if we have, with all this, made will please to observe, that this deso little progress, how long is it to be before scription of persons never thought of dewe shall see an end to this Peninsular war? fending England by flooding or by forlifIf four years of victories, which have cost cations, or by barracks. Those who reus about 70 or 80 millions of money, set our fect a little, see that we have exhausted army only on the confines of Spain, what is ourselves by keeping only a part of the arto be the time and what the money required inies of France at bay; they see, that, in a for the obtaining of ultimate success ? vain attempt to force commerce, we have And, what a prospect does this assertion of got into a war with America, which has the minister hold out to this " most think- ruired no small part of our manufacturers, ing people?" Lord CASTLEREACH said, that planters, and ship-owners; they see, that, Lord Wellington had had money voted him for the present, the maritime efforts of Naby the Spanish Government, and that he had poleon are suspended, but that they may, refusedlo accept of it, a refusal which he very and, in all probability, will be resumed, much applauded. I do not see any reason

unless he himself be overthrown; they see, for this applause, especially as he has not that, in four years, we have gained very refused the title of Duke conferred on himn little ground in the Peninsula ; they see, by the Spaniards. If we are fighting the that, if he should, aye, if he should, finally battles of Spain and Portugal, why should succeed in the North, our prospect will be they be excused from contributing towards infinitely more gloomy than ever; and, in these grants

and rewards ? However, I do short, they see, that we are in a state which

presents very little of hope, and a great extension? They never seem to think of deal to fear. In my view of the matter, no- this; they appear to look upon failure 23 thing can be more unwise than to hold forth impossible. They, in fact, do not appear the notion, that the safety of England de- to reflect at all, but to be hurried on by a pends, in any degree, upon the result of sort of senseless dread of Napoleon, withthe war in Spain and Portugal; for, if that out any regard to what may probably hapwere the case, what would be the feeling pen even before the end of a year. To me of the people here, in case of a total failure it has long appeared plain, that the war in in that war? That that war would have the Peninsula was, upon our principle, an been ended long ago, if Napoleon had unwise measure, and every day serves to not been bent upon his objects in the North, strengthen this opinion, which I distinctly no one can, for a moment, doubt. One state ; because, if I am wrong in my opihalf of the French army which has march- nions, I by no means wish to disguise the ed against Russia, would have put an end fact from the public. As to the military to the Peninsular war a year ago; and, if merits of Lord Wellington, those who have that army, by any means, should return to served with him say they are great. I do the South of Europe, why is not the same not dispute the fact. I take it for granted. effect still to follow? In answer to this, I All I say is, that he appears to me not to shall, perhaps, be told, that the French have been successful in this campaign, and, army in the North is totally destroyed; therefore, I would have voted against the that it is annihilated : and just so were we grant.

WM. COBBETT. told, only three months, three short months London, 11th Dec. 1812. ago, with regard to the French arınies in Spain. We were told, that they were bad appointed to be lield on the first Saturday in

N. B. The Meeting at Winchester, which I totally broken up; that their scattered re- December, was, by myself and the Gentlemen mains were collecting in order to escape, if who communicated with me on the subject, agreed to possible, to France. The public will hardly be postponed till the Meeting to petition for Peace have forgotten this; and yet, we now find, Gentlemen, who did not communicate with me, that, so far from those armies having been were, for want of notification, disappointed at annihilated, they have rallied in sufficient not finding me at Winchester on Saturday last. force to make those who were said to have annihilated them resign all their conquests,

OFFICIAL PAPERS. and retreat over the ground on which they had advanced. With these facts before

LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY, our eyes, can we so readily believe in every story we hear of the annihilation of French

(Continued from page 725.) armies ? Can we be persuaded to believe, whole army approached our positions on the that it is quite certain that final success Tormes, and they attacked the troops in must attend us in the Peninsula? I say final Alba with 20 pieces of cannon and a consisuccess; because, it is by the end, that I, derable body of infantry. They made no for my part, am resolved to judge. It is impression on them, however, and withuseless for Lord Casılereagh to tell us about drew the cannon and the greater part of the his four years of victories, if we, in the troops on that night; and this attack was end, are compelled to suffer the French to never renewed. I enclose Lieut. Gen. remain master of Spain and Portugal, or Hamilton's report to Sir R. Hill of the even of Spain. If we fail in the end, the transactions at Alba, which were highly failure will be greater and more mischiev- creditable to the troops employed. From ous than if we had failed at the beginning ; the 10th till the 14th the time was passed and the reason of this is as plain as it would in various reconnoissances, as well of the be in the case of a gamester, who should fords of the Tormes as of the position persevere till he had lost a hundred bets which the troops under my command occuinstead of leaving off with his first loss. If pied on the right of that river, in front of we should fail in the end, there will be Salamanca; and on the 14th the enemy all the dangers to us from without which crossed that river in force, at three fords the possession of the Peninsula by the near Lucinas, about two leagues above Alba. French presents, and, in addition to them, I immediately broke up from St. all the dangers and miseries which the ex- Christoval, and ordered the troops to move penses of that war will have created within. towards Arapiles; and, as soon as I had If we should finally fail in that war, what ascertained the direction of the enemy's an account will there then be to settle with march from the fords, I moved with ibe those who have promoted it and urged its ad division of infantry, and all the cavalry

I could collect, to attack them; leaving Sir Edw. Paget, who was taken prisoner Lieut. Gen. Sir R. Hill, with the 4th, and on the 17th. He commanded the centre Lieut. Gen. Hamilton's divisions, in front column; and the fall of rain having greatly of Alba, to protect this movement, and the injured the roads and swelled the rivulets, 3d division in reserve on the Arapiles, to there was an interval between the 5th and secure the possession of that position. 7th divisions of infantry. Sir Edward The enemy, however, were already too nu- rode to the rear alone, to discover the cause merous, and too strongly posted at Mozar- of this interval, and, as the road passed bes, to be attacked ; and i confined myself through a wood, either a detachment of the to a cannonade of their cavalry, under co-enemy's cavalry had got upon the road, or ver of which I reconnoitred their position. he missed the road and fell into their hands

In the evening I withdrew all the in the wood. I understand that Sir Edtroops from the neighbourhood of Alba to ward was not wounded, but I cannot suffi. the Arapiles, leaving a small Spanish gar- ciently regret the loss of his assistance at rison in the castle, and having destroyed this moment. In my dispatch of the 7th the bridge. In the course of the night and inst. I communicated to your Lordship my following morning I moved the greatest opinion of the strength of the enemy, as part of the troops through Salamanca ; and far as I could judge of it from the reports I placed Lieut. Gen. Sir E. Paget with the had received, and from what I had seen. Ist division of infantry on the right, at I have since learnt that Gen. Caffarelli, Aldea Tejada, in order to secure that pas- with the army of the North, certainly resage for the troops over the Zunguen, in mained joined with the army of Portugal. case the movements of the enemy on our Joseph Buonaparté left Madrid on the 4th right Alank should render it necessary for inst. and arrived at Penaranda on the 8th, me to make choice either of giving up my leaving at Madrid the Civil Authorities of communication with Cuidad Rodrigo or Sa- his Government, and a small garrison. lamanca. On the 15th, in the morning, These Authorities and troops evacuated I found the enemy fortifying their position Madrid on the 7th, and marched for Casat Mozarbes, which they had taken up the tile; and Col. Don Juan Palarea, the Me. night before; at the same time that they dico, took possession of that city.

-Your were moving bodies of cavalry and infantry Lordship will have seen General Ballastetowards their own feft, and to our commu- ros's Letter of the 24th of October, to the nications with Cuidad Rodrigo. It was Regency, from which you will observe, obvious that it was the enemy's intention that he had disobeyed the orders of the Goto act upon our communications; and as vernment, given to him at my suggestion, they were too strong, and too strongly post- to march his troops into La Mancha, and ed, for me to think of attacking them, I de- hang upon the enemy's left flank, because termined to move upon Cuidad Rodrigo. the Regency and Cortes had offered me the I therefore put the army in march in three chief command of the Spanish armies.columns, and crossed the Zunguen, and The whole of the enemy's disposable force then passed the enemy's left Bank, and en- in Spain was, therefore, upon the Tormes camped that night on the Vamusa. We in the middle of this month; and they continued our march successively on the were certainly not less than 80,000 inen, 16th, 17th, 18th, and this day, when part but more probably 90,000; of these 10,000 of the army crossed the Agueda, and the were cavalry; and as the army of Portugal whole will cross that river to-morrow.- alone had 100 pieces of cannon, it is proThe

enemy followed our movement on the bable that they had not less in all the ar16th with a large body, probably the whole mies than 200 pieces. of the cavalry, and a considerable body of infantry, but they did not attempt to press

(Enclosuré, No. 1.) upon our rear. They took advantage of

Alba de Tormes, Nov. II. the ground to cannonade our rear guard, Sir,-I have the honour to report the consisting of the light division, under Major steps I have taken to carry into effect your Gen. C. Alten, on the 17th, on its passage instructions for the defence of this place, of the Huebra at San Munoz, and occasion. which, I'am happy to say, have obliged the ed some loss. -The troops have suffered enemy to withdraw the greatest part of the considerably from the severity of the wea- force opposed to us; and I feel almost conther, which, since the 15th, has been worse fident we shall be able to retain our position than I have ever known it at this season of as long as you may deem expedient. -I the year.-—-I am sorry to add, that we yesterday garrisoned and provisioned the have had the misfortune to lose Lieut. Gen. castle, and, by the exertions of Capt. Gold

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