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DEFENSES. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Criminal Law,

2–4; Evidence, 1-2; Grand Juries, 1; Procedure, 1.
DEMONSTRATIONS. See Constitutional Law, III, 5-6.
DENIAL OF RECOGNITION. See Constitutional Law, III, 2, 4;

IV, 2.
DETERRENT TO CAPITAL CRIMES. See Constitutional Law, ,

II, 2; Criminal Law, 1.
DETROIT. See Constitutional Law, III, 3; Justiciability.
DIRECT APPEALS. See Appeals, 1; Constitutional Law, VII, 1.
DISCLOSURE OF EVIDENCE. See Constitutional Law, I, 3;

II, 1; Criminal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1–2; Procedure, 1.
DISCRETIONARY AUTHORITY. See Constitutional Law, III,

1; Immigration and Nationality Act; Judicial Review, 1.
DISCRETION OF JUDGE OR JURY. See Constitutional Law,

II, 2; Criminal Law, 1.
DISCRIMINATORY PENALTIES. See Constitutional Law, II,

2; Criminal Law, 1.
DISMISSAL OF TEACHERS. See Constitutional Law, I, 5;

Procedure, 3.
DISORDERLY CONDUCT. See Constitutional Law, III, 6.
DISORDERS. See Constitutional Law, III, 3; Justiciability.
DISRUPTION OF SCHOOLS. See Constitutional Law, III, 5–6.

DIVIDEND POLICY. See Taxes, 1-3.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. See ,

Constitutional Law, III, 3;
Justiciability.
DRUGS. See Confessions; Constitutional Law, III, 8; IV, 2;

Grand Juries, 1.
DUE PROCESS. See Constitutional Law, I, 1-5; II, 1-2; III,

6, 9; Criminal Law, 1-4; Evidence, 1-2; Paroles, 1-3;

Procedure, 1-3.
DUTY TO DISCLOSE EVIDENCE. See Constitutional Law, I,

2; II, 1; Criminal Law, 2-4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.
ECONOMIC EFFECTS. See Administrative Procedure, 1-5;

Interstate Commerce Commission, 1-5; Judicial Review, 2-6.
EIGHTH AMENDMENT. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1-2;

Criminal Law, 1-4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.

ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE. See Grand Juries, 1.
EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEES. See Constitutional Law, I, 5;

III, 9; Procedure, 2–3.
ENTRY OF ALIENS. See Constitutional Law, III, 1; Immi-

gration and Nationality Act; Judicial Review, 1.
EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS. See Constitutional

Law, II, 2; III, 5–6; Criminal Law, 1.
ESTATES AND TRUSTS. See Taxes, 1-3.
EVIDENCE. See also Administrative Procedure, 1-5; Consti-

tutional Law, I, 1-4; II, 1; V; Criminal Law, 2–4; Interstate
Commerce Commission, 1–5; Judicial Review, 2–6; Mootness;

Paroles, 1-3; Procedure, 1; Witnesses.
1. Pretrial motion for disclosureCriminal trialItems of evi-
dence helpful to the defense.—The evidentiary items (other than a
diagram) on which petitioner bases his suppression claim relate to
a witness' misidentification of petitioner as "Slick" and not to the
identification, by that witness and others, of petitioner as the
person who made the incriminating statements. These evidentiary
items are not material under the standard of Brady v. Maryland,
373 U. S. 830. Moore v. Illinois, p. 786.

2. Pretrial motion for disclosureMurder trialItem of evidence
helpful to the defense.—A diagram showing the positions of cus-
tomers at a bar where a shotgun slaying occurred does not support
petitioner's contention that the State knowingly permitted false
testimony to remain uncorrected, in violation of Napue v. Illinois,
360 U. S. 264, since the diagram does not show that it was impos-
sible for a prosecution witness to see the shooting. Moore v.
Illinois, p. 786.

3. Warrant authorizing search for, and seizure of, stolen whiskey-
Searched premises owned by petitioner's fatherPetitioner not
present.—Since the Government now suggests that the warrant
was invalid, and since the record is inadequate for a determination
of whether petitioner had an interest in the searched premises that
would afford him standing under Mancusi v. DeForte, 392 U. S.
364, to challenge the legality of the search, the judgment of the
Court of Appeals is vacated and the case remanded for further
proceedings. Combs v. United States, p. 224.
EXCLUSION OF ALIENS. See Constitutional Law, III, 1;

Immigration and Nationality Act; Judicial Review, 1.
EXCULPATORY EVIDENCE. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II,

1; Criminal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1–2; Procedure, 1.

EXECUTIONS. See Constitutional Law, II, 2; Criminal Law, 1.
EXECUTIVE DISCRETIONARY AUTHORITY. See Constitu-

tional Law, III, 1; Immigration and Nationality Act; Judi-

cial Review, 1.
“EXPECTANCY” OF RE-EMPLOYMENT. See Constitutional

Law, III, 9; Procedure, 2.
EYEWITNESSES. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Crim-

inal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.
FACULTY MEMBERS. See Constitutional Law, III, 9; Pro-

cedure, 2.
FAIR TRIALS. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Criminal

Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.
FALSE EVIDENCE. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Crim-

inal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1–2; Procedure, 1.
FALSE TESTIMONY. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Crim-

inal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.

FAMILY CORPORATIONS. See Taxes, 1-3.

FEDERAL CRIMES. See Appeals, 1-3; Constitutional Law, III,

8; V; VII, 1-6; Evidence, 3; Grand Juries, 1-5; Jurisdiction.
FEDERAL ESTATE TAXES. See Taxes, 1-3.
FEDERAL GRAND JURIES. See Grand Juries, 1.
FEDERAL-STATE RELATIONS. See Constitutional Law, II,

2; Criminal Law, 1.
FIFTH AMENDMENT. See Grand Juries, 1.
FIRST AMENDMENT. See Constitutional Law, III, 1-9; IV,

2; Grand Juries, 4; Immigration and Nationality Act; Judi-

cial Review, 1; Justiciability; Procedure, 1-2.
FOREIGN WITNESSES. See Constitutional Law, VI; Moot-

ness; Witnesses.
FORT HOLABIRD. See Constitutional Law, III, 3; Justiciability.
FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT. See Confessions; Constitutional

Law, I, 1-5; II, 1-2; III, 2, 4-7, 9; IV, 1-2; Criminal Law,

1-4; Evidence, 1-2; Paroles, 1-3; Procedure, 1-3.
FOURTH AMENDMENT. See Constitutional Law, V; Evi-

dence, 3.
FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION. See Constitutional Law, III,

1-2, 4; IV, 2; Immigration and Nationality Act; Judicial
Review, 1.

FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION. See Constitutional Law, III, 2,

4-6; IV, 2.
FREEDOM OF SPEECH. See Constitutional Law, I, 5; III,

9; Procedure, 2-3.
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. See Constitutional Law, III, 7–8;

Grand Juries, 4.
FREIGHT CARS. See Administrative Procedure, 1-5; Inter-

state Commerce Commission, 1-5; Judicial Review, 2–6.
GENERAL IMMUNITY FROM CRIMINAL LAWS. See Ap-

peals, 2–3; Constitutional Law, VII, 2–6; Grand Juries,

2–3, 5.
GEORGIA. See Constitutional Law, II, 2; Criminal Law, 1.
GIFTS. See Taxes, 1-3.
GOOD-FAITH EFFORTS. See Constitutional Law, VI; Moot-

ness; Witnesses.
GOVERNMENT BENEFITS. See Constitutional Law, III, 9;

Procedure, 2.
GRAND JURIES. See also Appeals, 2–3; Constitutional Law,

III, 8; VII, 2–6.
1. Grand jury investigation-Refusal to testifyQuestions based
on information from intercepted conversations.—Where a grand
jury witness is adjudicated in civil contempt under 28 U. S. C.
$ 1826 (a) for refusing "without just cause shown to comply with
an order of the court to testify,” the witness may invoke as a
defense 18 U. S. C. § 2515, which directs that “[w]henever any
wire or oral communication has been intercepted, no part of the
contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom
may be received in evidence in any ...

. . proceeding in or before
any ... grand jury ...," since a showing that the interrogation
would be based upon the illegal interception would constitute the
"just cause" that precludes a finding of contempt. Gelbard v.
United States, p. 41.

2. Interrogation of Senator's aide-Scope of questioning.-Aide
may be questioned by the grand jury about the source of classi-
fied documents in the Senator's possession, as long as the question-
ing implicates no legislative act. The Court of Appeals' protective
order in other respects would suffice if it forbade questioning the
aide or others about the conduct or motives of the Senator or his
aides at the subcommittee meeting; communications between the
Senator and his aides relating to that meeting or any legislative
act of the Senator; or steps of the Senator or his aides preparatory

GRAND JURIES—Continued.
for the meeting, if not relevant to third-party crimes. Gravel v.
United States, p. 606.

3. InvestigationTestimonial privilege.-Senator's aide had no
nonconstitutional testimonial privilege from being questioned by
the grand jury in connection with its inquiry into whether private
publication of the Pentagon Papers violated federal law. Gravel v.
United States, p. 606.

4. Newspaper reportersGrand jury subpoenasProtection of
confidential sources.—The First Amendment does not relieve a news-
paper reporter of the obligation that all citizens have to respond
to a grand jury subpoena and answer questions relevant to a crim-
inal investigation, and therefore the Amendment does not afford
him a constitutional testimonial privilege for an agreement he
makes to conceal facts relevant to a grand jury's investigation of
a crime or to conceal the criminal conduct of his source or evidence
thereof. Branzburg v. Hayes, p. 665.

5. Senate subcommittee meetingClassified documents in public
record-Grand jury investigating private republication.—The Speech
or Debate Clause does not extend immunity to the Senator's aide
from testifying before the grand jury about the alleged arrange-
ment for private publication of the Pentagon Papers, as such
publication had no connection with the legislative process. Gravel
v. United States, p. 606.
GROSS COERCION. See Confessions; Constitutional Law, IV, 1.
GROSS ESTATES. See Taxes, 1-3.
HABEAS CORPUS. See Constitutional Law, VI; Mootness;

Witnesses.
HARMLESS ERROR. See Constitutional Law, I, 3; II, 1; Crim-

inal Law, 2–4; Evidence, 1-2; Procedure, 1.
HARRISBURG. See Grand Juries, 1.
HARSH PENALTIES. See Constitutional Law, II, 2; Criminal

Law, 1.
HASHISH. See Constitutional Law, III, 8; Grand Juries, 4.
HEARINGS. See Constitutional Law, I, 1-2, 4-5; III, 9; Paroles,

1-3; Procedure, 2–3.
HIGH SCHOOLS. See Constitutional Law, III, 5–6.

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