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jurists whose works are accepted by the legal profession as of the highest authority. For several years, there has been a growing conviction among educators, that civil government should be added to the list of studies in all our schools of the higher grades, and in the advanced classes of the common school. The school-boy of to-day becomes the voter of to-morrow. The millions of youth now in the schools of America are soon to decide all the grave questions of national interest which concern us as a people. The ballot more than the bullet must determine the destiny of our country. The ballot in the hands of the ignorant may do more mischief than the torch of the incendiary in the towers of the metropolis. If the publication of this work shall contribute to a more extended acquaintance by the masses of American youth with the fundamental principles of our government, the purpose for which it was written will be realized.

THE AUTHOR. RochestER, N.Y., October, 1868.

1.

INTRODUCTION.

BY REV. JAMES E. LATIMER, D.D.

IN these days, a new book can vindicate its claims to public notice and favor only on the ground that the topics of which it treats are absolutely new, or that it discusses a known subject in such a manner as to make us instantly feel that it meets an acknowledged want. Such is the claim we make for the book before us. It treats a common subject, — one that was ably presented by the distinguished Judge Story, some thirty years since, in convenient form for the use of schools, and, since, by several authors of less distinction, though of acknowledged ability. But the peculiar merit of our author consists in the analytical method which he adopts. His aim is purely didactic, and to teach exactly what the Constitution contains. This book is one that was not made, but grew. Prof. Townsend, the author, has for years made civil government a speciality in lessons and lectures before the teachers' institutes of New York. What was small and unpretending in the beginning has thus grown into importance on his hands, until it has become the full, well-rounded treatise which is here presented. He has been urged to the preparation and publication of this work by the myriad voices of educators and teachers who have listened to his instructive lessons upon a subject

which is usually so dry and repulsive.
7

He has drawn the materials for his work from original sources, and from commentaries of classic excellence. We see traces of interminable rummagings of the Madison Papers, the Federalist, Elliot's Debates, Story and Rawle on the Constitution, Kent's and Blackstone's Commentaries, as well as the most patient gleanings from official, statistical, and chronological tables. In reading the author's manuscript, as I was permitted to do, I was struck with its absolute freedom from all political bias, the pure ether of impartiality that marks every page, the clear and well-defined statement of fact, and, above all, the almost faultless analysis and symmetry of the entire work. The author has published the analysis in chart form, separate from the book, in large type, suitable for display in the schoolroom; and has thus furnished an invaluable aid in the study of the book and in class-rehearsals. We commend the book as a conscientious one, made on honor, and calculated to last. Not only graded schools, but colleges and the higher institutions of learning, will find it of advantage to introduce it into their course of study. The student of civil government will thank the author for such a book, as it will surely kindle a taste for the study of this subject. Besides, it will do much to remove the popular ignorance regarding our institutions, too long prevalent in this country, where the humblest citizen is invested with the attributes of political sovereignty.

JAMES E. LATIMER.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

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--- CHAPTER XIV.

Departments of Government .

I.

Declaration of Rights, - -

II.

Declaration of Independence .

III.

Articles of Confederation . -

IV. "

Constitution of the United States

V.

Analysis of the Constitution .

Appendix . - • - -

Art. III. Term . - t

IV. By whom chosen

44 V. en chosen .

* VI. How classed .

VII. Vacancies .

VIII. Vote . - -

“ IX. Presiding Officer

44 M. Senate-Powers .

CHAPTER III.

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106

132

133

134

. 135
. 136
. 137
. 137
. 141

PROVISIONS COMMON TO BOTH HOUSES.

Article I. Membership . .

II. Quorum - - -

III. Journal - -

IV. Yeas and Nays .

-- W. Business-Rules .

VI. Penalties .

VII. Prohibitions

VIII. Official Oath

* IX. Salaries

148

148

149

150

151

. 151

152

153

. 154

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