« ForrigeFortsett »
stood, the date of the building of the various His army. The roll of these distinguished walls, and the names of the engineers who men who have lived since Immanuel returned planned and built them. Indeed, such a mine to His Father's Court seems to be long and of information was he on this subject, and with illustrious, and among others, my friend deso much zest did he throw himself into the lighted to enlarge upon the histories and works narration, that while I remained in the City of Justin Martyr, Origen, Athanasius, Chryof Refuge I took many opportunities of con- sostom, Augustine, Wycliffe, Huss, Savonarola, versing with him, and spent many a bright Luther, Calvin, Knox, and many others, of afternoon and calm golden evening in saunter- whom it is impossible now to speak partiing round the town, and exploring every trench cularly. These great men, natives of far and bastion under the guidance of such an separated provinces, and of far separated efficient cicerone. He had now for some time ages, had not only, he said, left enduring taught as one of the Professors in the military evidences of their skill in this city, but also college. The old gentleman, indeed, was some- in the fortifications of many others of the what garrulous, as is the wont of old military fortresses of Immanuel. They were all, so he men, and he had, as I thought, one failing (for stated, now resting from their labours in the even Immanuel's servants are not free from Celestial Court, but had left their work behind such)viz, that he was more conversant with them as a monument more enduring than any the battles of his youth, and even with the brazen tablet. Finally, my instructor showed wars of ancient times, than with the conflict me that the lower and most ancient courses of which was being waged at the very time of my all the walls had been laid by the Apostles visit in various parts of Immanuel's vast and prophets, that their successors had built Empire, and that he did not duly appreciate upon their foundation, and that the baseeither the valour or stragetic skill of the mili- ment course was let down into the living tary heroes of the present day, but often hinted rock, which is named the Rock of Ages,t and that the former days were better than these.* that of this rock Immanuel had declared that I may just say, in a word, that under his guid- He would build His Church upon it, and that ance I received a pretty full history of the the gates of hell should not prevail against ancient wars waged against Immanuel and His it. I army by the armies of the aliens, Jews and I should wish to tell something of the
surHeathen, Arians and Pelagians, Papists and rounding country as well as of the chief city, Imperialists, and many others with outlandish but what I have to say must be reserved to names, and that he delighted to descant upon another occasion. the warlike feats of Immanuel's generals, and
(To be continued.) the buttresses raised by the great engineers in
+ 1 Cor. iii. 10, 11; Eph. ii. 20. * Eccles. vii. 10.
Matt. xvi. 18; Is, xxvi. 4 (margin).
THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.
HE large map of Western Palestine, ! under consideration. The first volume con
in which are embodied the re- tains sheets I. to VI., and comprises all the sults of the survey recently com- details necessary for illustrating the regions of pleted by the Palestine Fund, Tyre and Galilee—the one intimately conhas been already noticed in our nected with the most important portion of the
pages. Three volumes have history of the remote past, the other possessing just been issued, containing further collateral an even greater interest as the scene of the life information on the topography, archæology, and ministry of the Founder of Christianity. and nomenclature of the country, as well as The ancient sites are pointed out and, in most a collection of special papers relating to the instances, identified ; where this cannot be exploration of Bible lands.
done with certainty, the various identificaBy the method adopted in the Memoirs,' tions which have been proposed are given and the chapters follow the arrangement of the the reasons for each stated. In order to inmap into sheets for convenience of reference, crease the value of the work, the editors have and are further subdivided into sections supplemented the accounts given by the which treat of the orography, hydrography, | officers of the Fund by a careful digest of all topography, and archæology of the districts the additional information which could be collected from the pages of Renan, Guérin, Herodotus visited. The cathedral at Tyre has Sepp, and other eminent Continental explorers been recently excavated by the German and archæologists. These passages are dis- Government, in the hope of discovering the tinguished from the rest of the matter by remains, or, at least, the resting-place, of the being printed in smaller type, and form a Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, around whose complete abstract of Palestine bibliography. name a legend has grown similar to that
The survey was commenced on the 25th of which attaches to our own King Arthur-that November 1871, and was completed on the he is not dead, but sleeps in all his majesty in 27th of September 1877; it covers 6040 square some mysterious cave until the time shall miles of country, and extends from the river come for him to lead the nation on to victory Câsimiyeh, immediately north of Tyre, to Beersheba, on the south, the eastern and One of the most remarkable objects at Tyre western boundaries being the Jordan Valley is the so-called Kabr Hiram, the reputed tomb and the Mediterranean Sea respectively, thus of the famous King who supplied Solomon taking in the whole of Western Palestine with the wood used in building the Temple proper. Tyre, with which the first sheet is at Jerusalem. Doubts have been thrown chiefly occupied, was one of the most import- upon the authenticity of the tradition, which ant cities of antiquity, and the details given does not exist among the peasantry, but the of its history and of the ruins which are found monument itself is of high antiquity, and may, in and around the site are deeply interesting as M. Renan suggests, belong even to the old Tyre was founded, as the priests of Melcarth Canaanite period. The history of the Crutold Herodotus, 2300 years before his visit- sades receives great light from the facts coli.e., about 2750 B.C. The relations of Hiram, lected and contained in these memoirs ; plans King of Tyre, with David and Solomon afford of the crusading castles of Hunin, Banias, evidence of the flourishing condition of a city Belfort, Toron, Safed, &c., being given, towhose ruler supplied Solomon with cedar gether with interesting archeological details wood, precious metals, and workmen for the relating to them, the whole reviving with rebuilding of the Temple, and even furnished markable vividness that eventful period of him with sailors for his expeditions to Ophir. history, to which belong the exploits of In 721 B.C. the city was attacked by the Richard Cæur de Lion and his chivalrous foe, Assyrians under Shalmaneser; the water sup- Saladin. In sheet II. the most interesting ply was cut off outside the city, but, wells site described is Banias, the ancient Panium, being dug within the walls, it was enabled to or Cæsarea Philippi. On the hills above the hold out for five years. The prosperity which village-once a magnificent town and the it enjoyed for 150 years after the siege is de- Royal residence of Herod and Agrippascribed with remarkable detail by Ezekiel. stands a grand old crusading castle ; some The later siege by Nebuchadnezzar lasted distance below it there rushes out of the nineteen years. In the invasion of Greece by living rock a foaming torrent—the principal Xerxes, the Tyrians sent a contingent of ships. source of the Jordan. This is Tell-el-Kady, In 332 B.C. the most terrible disaster of all over- The Judge's Mound, the site of Dan, or, as it took the city in its conquest by Alexander the was more anciently called, Laish. The Arabic Great. The siege lasted seven months, and word kady is identical in signification with the the city was at length taken by the union of Hebrew dan, and is a curious instance of the the island upon which it stood with the main- manner in which the ancient nomenclature is land. It continued, however, to flourish up to preserved in the country. comparatively modern times, and its ruins yet First in importance among the towns show vestiges of its former greatness. The which figure on sheet III. is St Jean d'Acre, shell-fish from which the famed Tyrian purple the Accho of the Old Testament and the Ptowas manufactured is still found along the lemais of Josephus and later historians. coast, although no use is now made of it. Sheets IV. and V. contain, also, some interest, Among the curiosities of the neighbourhood ing spots, among which may be mentioned noticed by the Palestine Fund surveyors is a the 'Rock of Achabara,' which was fortified by small Muhammedan shrine dedicated to the Josephus during the insurrection of the Jews, prophet Mashûk. Professor Palmer, in the and is still found with its old name, as Akbara, volume which contains his interpretation of almost unchanged ; Kades, the Kadesh menthe Arabic name lists, shows that the word tioned with other Galilean towns by Thothmes Mashûk, which means ' beloved,' is probably a III., under the name of Kedishu; El Jish, the survival of the ancient title of Baal Moloch or Giscala of Josephus, and, according to tradiMelcarth, the Tyrian Hercules, who was wor- tion, the birthplace of the parents of St Paul; shipped by the Egyptians under the name of to say nothing of Nazareth, Carmel, and Mi-amun, or Memnon, “the beloved of Ammon,' several places which have less known names, to whom, as Lucian distinctly tells us, an but in which are to be found some splendid Egyptian temple existed at Tyre. The name specimens of ancient Jewish synagogues, may be compared with that of Abraham, who many of which must have been standing in the is designated by Muhammedans Khalil Allah, time of our Lord. 'the friend of God.' The supposed tomb of Sheet VI. includes the Sea of Galilee, with a Moslem saint, then, is all that remains of all the sacred memories which cluster around the once famous Temple of Melcarth which its shores. Here, amid the prosaic details of
a topographical survey, one meets with names prove an inexhaustible mine of information. of the most thrilling interest Chorazin The Palestine Exploration Fund are now (Kerázeh), Tell Hum
(Capernaum), Tubariyeh occupied in making a survey on a similar scale (Tiberias), Mount Tabor, and other places of the country east of the Jordan, from which intimately connected with the Gospel narra- equally interesting results may be expected. tive. The very fact that these sites are de- This district has been much less subject to scribed with such technical and professional invasions in ancient times, and is scarcely accuracy constitutes the great charm of the known to modern travellers; we may, therework, for it gives a living and lasting interest fore, look for a larger find of inscriptions, and to scenes which too many are accustomed to for even morestrikingillustrations of the preserlook upon as vague and almost unreal. vation of ancient customs and traditions than
The volume of Special Papers' is not only Western Palestine affords. The final complea valuable contribution to Palestine archæ | tion of the work will be eagerly waited for by ology, but an interesting record of the experi- students of theology and ancient history. In ences and researches of individual members the meantime, the volumes before us are the of the 'Fund.' It contains an account of Pro- most important contribution to the study of fessor Palmer's exploration of the Tih, or the Bible which has been made in modern
Wilderness of the Wandering,_the first and times. The remaining volumes of the series only complete account of the Desert to the are, we understand, on the eve of publication. south of Palestine, together with a number of The Times. other monographs upon the topography and archæology of the Bible. The most important of these are, perhaps, the account of the now famous Moabite Stone and Sir Charles
THE IDEAL SABBATH. Wilson's description of the synagogues of Galilee. The remaining contents of the book The ideal Sabbath is the Sabbath at home, are as varied as they are interesting.
when the head of the household-farmer or The last of the three volumes before us is mechanic, merchant or lawyer, capitalist or taken up with the Arabic and English name operative-enjoys the weekly rest among those lists collected during the survey. The native for whom the six days of labour have been names are given in Arabic characters, with spent. Whether the Sabbatic institution was the English transliteration, and so far as can or was not created by the fourth commandbe ascertained, a definition of their meaning ment, there seems to be in those words, ‘Thou, and etymology. This part is from the pen of nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manProfessor Palmer, and may at first sight appear servant, nor thy maid-servant, a glimpse of somewhat too technical and recondite for the the restful enjoyment which the day of rest, ordinary reader; those, however, who care to in the primitive conception of it, would bring dip into it will find a vast mass of material to the families that keep it. The day of rest, for the elucidation and identification of Scrip- being rest and not revelry or dissipation, and tural names, and not a few curious incidental being therefore a day of home enjoyment, historical facts.
brings with it opportunity for sober thoughts The map and the volumes we have noticed and conference. A Sabbath-keeping people have done for the land of the Bible what will become a thoughtful people, and such Ordnance Survey maps and official statistics thoughtfulness is manliness. All men, and have done for our country.
Instead of the especially the busy millions in an advanced vague and often incorrect information with civilisation like our own, need for the mind's which even the best Biblical commentaries sake, not less than for the sake of wearied abound, it is now in the power of every one nerves and muscles, the seventh-day interwho has access to the work to obtain a com- mission of their ordinary work. A true Sabplete and accurate account of any portion of bath is something far more restful than a day the Holy Land. It would be superfluous to of noisy jollity. In its calm air the mind point out the immense aid which this affords rests by thought, not thoughtlessness; by to all engaged in Scriptural studies, especially quiet musing, by conscious or unconscious
, to clergymen; and it is not too much to retrospection; perhaps by consideration of say that it is an indispensable work of refer- what might have been, perhaps by thinking ence to every library, whether public or what may yet be, perhaps by aspiration and private.
resolve toward something in the future, that The Memoirs' were originally published shall be better than what has been in the past. only for subscribers, but the great importance The home in which Sunday is a day of rest of the information contained in them and its and home enjoyment is hallowed by the Sabunusual and general interest have induced the baths which it hallows. In the SabbathPalestine Fund to issue a further limited edi- keeping village, life is less frivolous, and at tion, with a special view to the requirements the same time industry is more productive, of libraries and other institutions. As an aid for the weekly rest. A Sabbath-keeping to Scriptural instruction and Biblical exegesis, nation is greater in peace and in war for the the 'Survey of Western Palestine' is of in- character which its tranquil and thoughtful estimable and unique value ; while to the Sabbaths have impressed upon it. --Rev. Dr mere archæologist and geographer, it will Bacon.
HURRAH FOR HARRY!'
BY MRS ANNIE A. PRESTON.
his foot was upon the 'bound' before the ball
hit him. GROUP of boys stood on the Tom Crossman stood a little apart tossing corner of Pine and Prospect and toying the bright new ball with envious Streets, just opposite the Park, eyes, and presently he called outin the busy borough of Bright This is the best ball I ever played with, River, choosing sides for a game and I mean to have it for my own. Say, Harry, of ball.
how much will you take for it?' at the same * There comes Harry Bedford !' said Frank time significantly patting his pocket, in which Wood, looking up the street. 'He's got a new he carried a portmonnaie usually too well filled ball that goes ahead of anything in this village. for a boy of his age. I saw it, and tried it this morning.'
“He told you all about it,' spoke up Frank "Where did he get it?' asked Tom Cross- Wood, quickly, and he isn't the kind of boy man (who was so ill-natured and arrogant, the to change his mind about such a matter, nor boys often called him "Tom Crossgrained'), to sell a present; and you ought not to ask speaking up quickly.
him again, Tom Crossman.' His grandmother made it for him,' replied 'I guess he would have to sell it to me, Frank. It is a yarn ball, with rubber in the even if he isn't that kind of a boy,' retorted middle. It is just large enough, and just Tom,“ if my father should speak to his father heavy enough, and just hard enough.' about it, and should tell him he would turn
'Hulloo, Harry?' as a short, stoutly-built, him off if he didn't make Harry sell the ball neatly-dressed lad came within hailing, dis- to me. Of course I am willing to pay him a tance, ‘have you got your ball with you?' good big price for it, and I should think he
For answer, the approaching lad thrust his would be glad to get a little pocket-money for hand into the right-side pocket of his jacket, once, and Tom turned about and looked checked his easy run, took a step or two back, proudly down upon the broad roofs and tall threw out his arm, and dexterously sent the chimneys of his father's great factories that ball spinning through the air toward the out- stood just below, on the grassy-banked stream. stretched hand of his friend George Snow. * Your father would not think of stooping
· Hurrah for Harry! Three cheers for to such mean business as to meddle about that Harry!' shouted the boys, as Frank deftly ball, and he would not wish to deprive him. caught the flying red prize with one hand, i self of Mr Bedford's services as bookkeeper; and, with an assuring nod, as much as to say, neither would your father approve of his only 'Didn't I tell you so?' held it for an instant, son making such speeches, said Tom Crossand then tossed it over Tom Crossman's head man's Cousin Grace, who, with her friend and into the extended hand of Johnny Harlem. schoolmate, Mary Dickinson, had just turned
When Harry came up, his playfellows were the corner of Prospect Street, and heard the all grouped together examining and knowingly last remark. criticising the new treasure.
The girls paused for a moment to chat with What will you take for it, Harry?' asked the lads, who were in the same class at school. Tom Crossman, tossing the ball from one hand Grace took the pretty new ball in her hand, to the other to test its weight and hardness. and heard its history, while admiring its even,
* I don't wish to sell it,' replied Harry. It close stitches. She had brothers who often was a present from my grandmother, who is called upon her for some little service about old and very feeble. It took her a long time their playthings, and she liked to be able to to wind it and to cover it with this pretty red help them. leather. I don't suppose she will ever be able Just then the clock in the tower of the to make me another ball, or to do much more church, which crowned the hill directly above work of any kind. So, of course, you all see them, struck six, and Harry said quicklythat I couldn't think of selling it. But we can 'I must go home now.' all play with it, and it makes little difference Oh no, no, Harry! stay for one more game,' which of us it really belongs to.'
they all shouted. . That's so,' spoke up Walter Davis. 'Come Can't, possibly,' replied Harry. My on, boys! Kurry up, Jimmy Taylor,' to a tall mother told me to come home at six o'clock boy who was just then climbing the hill. sharp, and I must be off;' and touching his
Now, Clarence Stedman, let's see who has cap gallantly, he held out his hand to Miss the first inning!' and he threw up his neat, Grace for the ball which she still held. shapely bat for the other boy to catch.
Before she could hand it to him, however, The game of 'four-old-cat' was an exciting her Cousin Tom snatched it from her, saying one, and the sides' were kept about even for to Harry, in a commanding waynearly an hour. Then the boys gathered in a Hurry along, then, but leave your ball with little knot to settle this important matter: us for another game. Some of the boys will whether Clarence had 'put out’ George fairly, give it back to you in the morning. It makes which depended upon the decision whether no difference, you know, who owns the ball