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* FOLLOW JESUS.

“The Book of Joshua,'*by Principal Douglas, will send its readers back with increased deis a fitting companion to his commentary on light to the Gospels themselves. the Book of Judges. It forms one of a series of Hand-Books for Bible Classes in the course

Starlight Through the Shadows '# is a book

of gatherings from the papers of the late Miss of publication by Messrs Clark; and for those Frances R. Havergal. It contains eleven who use Joshua as a Bible class-book there is short papers, intended to form the first porno better hand-book. But, considering the tion of a daily book for Invalids.' Then

' other contents of the Bible, and the shortness follow Marching Orders, I to IX., reprinted of the period that young people can be in Bible from the Church Missionary Gleaner of 1879. classes, Joshua is not very likely to be much The last seventy pages are occupied with sixemployed for this purpose. As a commentary, teen outlines of addresses and other miscelhowever, on the book, it is one of great value. laneous papers. All of them have the clearIndeed, from its taking careful note of all the ness, fervour, and Scriptural character that recent discoveries in Palestine, it is an indis- have made Miss Havergal's other writings pensable companion to all past commentaries such favourites with multitudes of readers. upon the book. Principal Douglas is obviously a man of great learning, and fully

'Lays for Leisure Hours 'ş is a volume of acquainted with the Rationalistic comment- poetry by a lady, one of whose poems appeared aries upon the book, but he has not been led in our pages last June. The volume is of unto assign its composition to a late period in equal merit, but some of the shorter poems the history of Israel, or to ignore or deny the have not a little beauty, and show that Miss Messianic teaching of the book. In a few Dow is capable of higher things than she has skilfully put sentences in the introduction he yet done. As a specimen of the tone and shows the absurdity of supposing the Book of gracefulness of Miss Dow's pages we transfer Joshua to belong to the age of Ezra, or to

the following:-
some period still later in Jewish history. In
the fifth chapter, verses 13-15, he distinctly

• Go, follow Jesus' steps,
identifies the angel of Jehovah with the Son

And in His work take part;
of God sent forth from the Father to the

Go, comfort those who mourn,
Church even then, though made known much

And heal the wounded heart.
more obscurely to the Church of the Old Tes-

Go, gather in the lost,
tament than to us in the fulness of the time.'

There's room in Jesus' fold;
Dr Douglas would add to the valuable service

Go, gently bring the young,
he has done to the Church by his comment-

And kindly cheer the old. aries on Joshua and Judges if he would con

'Go, lead to God the soul tinue the series through Ruth and Samuel.

Oppressed with doubt and fear;

Go, speak of Jesus love, 'The Very Words of Our Lord and Saviour

Till shadows disappear. Jesus Christ,' + is a carefully printed grouping on separate pages of our Lord's words as

Go, work with heart and mind,

On Jesus' strength rely ; they occur in the Gospels. We need scarcely

Go, tell the troubled soul say that these words are of inestimable value.

Of peace and joy on high.' But, after reading through the book, we confess still preferring to read these words in

Miss Jean L. Watson's 'Life of Principal their setting as they occur in the Gospels

. Candlish'is a pleasantly-written book, and in And one of the good ends the editor of this its 178 pages conveys a very faithful'idea of book has attained is the conviction that the what its theme was. Dr Candlish was one of Gospels cannot be improved upon, and that, the most remarkable of the distinguished men after all, there is nothing like reading them in that, heralded by Dr Chalmers, appeared in the form in which they came from the pen of the first half of this century in the Established inspiration itself. The editor of this volume Church, and awakened out of the torpor of is careful to disclaim all idea of exalting one Moderatism, and by their zeal and energy part of Holy Scripture above another, and called into existence the Evangelical party, plainly holds that all Scripture is the word of which ultimately found itself compelled to Christ, the great prophet of His Church. The renounce State connection, and form for itself book is issued at a cheap rate, and we have the Free Church, that, by its many noble deeds, no doubt will be useful to invalids and those has given a new glory to our country. From who have but little time to spare, the classes the moment that his voice was first heard in for whom its compiler designed the volume. the General Assembly in 1838 down to his But we have as little doubt that its perusal death in 1873 Dr Candlish occupied a first

place, not only in his own section of the The Book of Joshua. By G. C. M. Douglas, Church, but in every society with which he D.D. Cr. 8vo, pp. 122. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1882.

Starlight Through the Shadows, and Other The Very Words of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Gleams from the King's Word. By the late Christ, gathered from the Four Gospels according to Frances Ridley Havergal. 16mo, pp. 176. London: the Authorised Version, with Marginal Quotations J. Nisbet & Co. 1882. from the Revised Version, with an Index of Passages $ Lays for Leisure Hours. By Margaret Russel and Subjects. Cr. 8vo, pp. 119. London: H. Frowde. Dow. Cr. 8vo, pp. 246. Edinburgh: Andrew Elliot. 1882.

1882.

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was associated. He had a wonderfully busy The Presbyterian Journal, I issued in Philalife, and he threw his soul into everything he delphia, although denominational in its name, set about, yet he found time to produce a is wonderfully catholic in its sympathies. We large quantity of literature. His acknow- have often transferred from its pages. To ledged works amount to some twelve or thir- those who wish to know what is going on in teen volumes, all of them thoughtful and all branches of the Christian Church in the suggestive, fresh in the treatment of their New World we know nothing better than this themes, and expressed in a nervous English, journal. It is a weekly, and costs a dollar more like that of a student who had devoted and a-half—i.e., six shillings and threepence his hours to the study of our language than

a year. that of a leader in every evangelic enterprise of his time; yet these acknowledged works issued in Boston, like the Presbyterian Journal

,

The Watchman, ş an organ of the Baptists, are but a small part of what, in the shape of is also denominational in character, but it is letters, articles, pamphlets, addresses, &c., he not the less catholic and evangelical and mismust have given forth to the world. Men sionary in its aims. Its name is familiar on who take the foremost place in public affairs

our pages from the many admirable papers are sometimes supposed to suffer in their piety. The incessant activities of their public life than the Presbyterian Journal, and costs two

we have taken from it. It is somewhat larger leave little time for devotion. Dr Candlish dollars and a half in the year. had simply to be heard in prayer, say at the annual opening of the Free College, or in his

Service,' || by Mrs Pennefather, is a sequel ordinary ministrations in the sanctuary, to see

to a volume that we briefly noticed last Octoin the simplicity, fervour, and evangelic savour

ber. It is formed of sketches and addresses of his utterances that, amidst his multifarious touching on the many questions likely to be public duties, he was living in daily communion mooted among young or inexperienced workers with God.

in the Lord's vineyard. Mrs Pennefather has *Canada'*. is the first of the Colonists' obviously a large experience, and her counsels Hand-Books issued by the Tract Committee are wise and loving. Her book is one that of the Society for Promoting Christian Know- Christian workers, whether young or old, canledge, in accordance with the plan noticed in not read without profit.

is fitted to be highly useful to emigrants, from band I that will be prized by all that knew the information and valuable counsels it con- him. She has been singularly successful in tains. As might be expected from its source, catching the tone in which the life of such a it gives full information regarding the Epis- man should have been written, and the book copal Church in Canada, but it says nothing is not too long, as biographies are apt to be. of other Churches. In an appendix it gives a Indeed, in many respects it is quite a model form of a commendatory letter, and suggests biography. It calls up Dr Raleigh to the that any clergyman giving a letter commenda- very life. tory to a parishioner should copy out the Dr Raleigh was born in Castle-Douglas, in letter in his own hand in preference to using Kirkcudbright, in 1817. His father was a a printed form, and that his letter would member of the Reformed Presbyterian conprobably be still more valued, and likely to gregation in that town. Outdoor preaching be more useful, if it could be written on the

was common among the Reformed Presbyback of a photograph of the parish church or terians at that period, and at one of these the cathedral of the diocese, or have such a outdoor meetings he was baptised. A year photograph appended to it. The appendix also after Raleigh's birth, the Reformed Presbycontains five forms of prayer for emigrants. terian congregation at Castle-Douglas received It is to be regretted that a book otherwise John Osborne as its first minister. Osborne, so excellent should unmistakably teach bap- from all accounts, was a man of great powers tismal regeneration, a doctrine which, carried as a preacher, and attracted multitudes to out to its full consequences, can only end in hear him. In summer he seems usually to this life in landing its recipient in the Church have preached in the open air, and he was of Rome.

singularly effective in weaving into his dis'Wonderful Words of Life: A Manual for courses allusions to the scenery around him. Home Missions,' + is a book of well-selected Early in his career he began to develop tenScripture texts, by Mrs Ashby, with a preface dencies that ultimately led to his separation by Mrs Pennefather, giving some practical from his brethren. In 1841 he published a details of a Flower Mission. To those engaged in such a mission the book is fitted to be The Presbyterian Journal. 15 North Seventh highly useful.

Street, Philadelphia.

$ The Watchman, 14 Tremont Temple, Boston, * Colonists' Hand-Books. No. I. Canada. Cr. Mass. 8vo, pp. 48. London : Society for Promoting Cbris- ! 'Follow Thou Me Service. By Mrs Pennetian Knowledge. 1882.

father. Cr. 8vo, pp. 194. London : John F. Shaw + Wonderful Words of Life: A Manual for Home & Co. 1882. Missions. Compiled by Mrs Edinund Ashby, with | Alexander Raleigh : Records of his Life. Edited a Preface by Mrs Pennefather. 18mo, pp. 92. Lon- by Mary Raleigh. Cr. 8vo, pp. 318. Edinburgh : don : John F. Shaw & Co. 1882.

Adam & Charles Black. 1881.

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are the

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volume, entitled 'Introduction to the Philo- that will give them a permanent place among
sophy of Man, Harmonising Revelation and our commentaries upon Holy Scripture.
Science.' From this book it is not easy to
make out what his views were, save that he which is Mine?' and

• The Oracles of God, “Three Pictures! and exceedingly disliked the forms in which truth last tracts issued by Dr Ryle, the Bishop of

The City, had been presented by his former brethren, and is unsparing in his condemnation of these Liverpool. They have all the excellences that forms. Raleigh sat under this brilliant and writers of our time. "The Oracles of God' is a

have given him a first place among the tracterratic preacher until his eighteenth year, wise statement on the inspiration of the Bible, when he followed his father to Liverpool. and the privileges and duties of those who Although he was altogether a different man from Osborne, yet it is not difficult to see in possess such a precious book. The other two

are the substance of sermons preached at St
Dr Raleigh's sermons, in their avoidance of
doctrinal statement, and in his views about Mary's, Oxford, and both are valuable in a
inspiration,

and his dislike of the term Cal high degree.
vinism, and yet in his admiration of the
Covenanters, that his first minister had given

SIN PROGRESSIVE. The woman looked an abiding impress to his mind. In Liverpool at the fruit. She admired its beauty. She young Raleigh attended the ministry of the desired to know its taste and to experience its Rev. John Kelly, then beginning his ministry effect. She touched it, plucked it

, fondled it

, in Bethesda Chapel. Osborne was far from tasted it, ate it, and was ruined. First, disbeing an attractive man in private, but Mr trust; then, disbelief; then, sinful desire; then, Kelly must have been a man of singularly deadly disobedience, and the work is done! persuasive ways to young people. Kelly's MORE EXPECTATION.-With more expecting history had been not unlike Raleigh's own. great things from God, there would be more Raleigh, after he left school, was an apprentice attempting great things for God, and greater for three years to a draper in Castle-Douglas. things would be bestowed by Him as an enKelly, when he left the Heriot's Hospital in couragement of expectation. The divinely Edinburgh, served as an apprentice to a gun appointed means of grace on the Sabbath maker in Edinburgh until an accident, that ought to be regarded as fully adapted to deprived him of one of his fingers, rendered answer the purpose for which they were aphim unfit for manual labour, and the gover- pointed, whích certainly embraces the pernors of Heriot's Hospital sent him to college. fecting' of Christians, and the conviction and Mr Kelly at once exerted a formative and conversion of sinners. Accordingly, these reconfirming influence over Raleigh's mind. In sults are to be confidently looked for, with no his twenty-first year he became a member of other thought than that God will grant them Mr Kelly's congregation. Mr Kelly advised while He hears the prayers offered on the him to study for the Christian ministry. Sabbath, and blesses the word then preached. There were many difficulties in the way, but This should be expected as the ordinary result Mr Kelly's own example was encouraging, and of the praying and preaching of the day, and in the winter of 1840 Raleigh was admitted a any failure in relation thereto should be felt student of the Independent College at Black- as a great disappointment, even such as might burn.

be felt if some special efforts had not been Mrs Raleigh very beautifully tells the story crowned with success. When regular Sabbath of his early struggles-of his failure in health, services are ineffectual

, the disappointment of their marriage, of his settlement at Rother- should be something as if unusual services, ham, and of how he there recovered health like those of protracted daily and nightly and vigour, and entered upon a career in meetings, were unsuccessful. Certainly a which he soon appeared as one of the most blessing upon the Sabbath should not be winning and successful preachers of our time. actually surprising, so as to indicate that it It was a great charm to hear him preach. His was unexpected. It is strangely incongruous voice was singularly melodious, and he had it to be disappointed by receiving a blessing under complete control. His sermons were rather than by not receiving one. Ministers read, yet he had made himself so familiar must be thus expectant, and act accordingly; with their contents by hours of previous and so must members of the Church; all feel perusal that his preaching had the attractive- ing disappointed and troubled when the ness of what is best both in spoken and in Sabbath brings no appropriate blessing. The read utterance. There was little or no doc- unsaved, also, must be made to expect gospel trinal discussion in his sermons, but they were blessings, by seeing ministers and churches full of fresh presentations of the side lights of expecting them. In this way there can be our Christianity, and they appealed to the living churches.- Boston Watchman. emotional part of our nature in a way that few preachers can. Perhaps Dr Raleigh was * The Oracles of God: A Paper for the Times, on best in unfolding character. His “ Book of the Inspiration of the Bible. 12mo, pp. 24. Three Esther' and his Story of Jonah' have not Pictures! and Which is Mine? A Word for 1882, had the popularity of his "Quiet Resting. The City; or, The Sight which Stirred St Paul.

being Thoughts on Acts xxvi. 24–29. 12mo, pp. 32. Places' and other volumes of sermons, but 12mo, pp. 32. ' By John Charles Ryle, D.D., Lord they have elements of enduring popularity Bishop of Liverpool. London: W. Hunt & Co.

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THE HISTORICAL PROOFS OF CHRISTIANITY.

BY GEORGE P. FISHER, D.D., LL.D., YALE COLLEGE, CONNECTICUT.
THE FOURTH GOSPEL THE WORK OF THE APOSTLE JOHN.

(Continued from page 142.)
NOTHER objection to the Johan- ment, to have come to the prophets, revealing

nine authorship is the alleged His attributes and will. In the Psalms and indebtedness of the author of the in Isaiah the word' is personified, and divine Gospel to Philo for the conception attributes and works are attributed to it. of the Logos, or Word, which From these sources the evangelist may have

stands at the beginning of the taken up the term which struck him as most book as a designation of Christ in His state of fit to designate the personal Revealer of God, pre-existence. The first remark to be made in whose incarnation and life in the flesh he was answer to this allegation is, that the idea of about to describe. Whether the choice of this the Logos, and the doctrine associated with it, term by the author of the Gospel is to be in the Gospel, are utterly at variance with the accounted for wholly in this way, from its Old system of Alexandrian-Jewish philosophy, of Testament use, as Weiss thinks, or whether which Philo is the leading representative. In discussions about the Logos, which were the Gospel the Logos is personal. In Philo fomented by Alexandrian speculation, may the Logos is predominantly the self-revealing have likewise influenced him in his selection potence of the hidden, ineffable Deity. If, as of phraseology, are questions into which we Zeller holds, the Logos is ever thought of by do not here enter. At all events, the term Philo as a real hypostasis, the passages having Logos' was found by him to be a proper this import stand opposed to the current of vehicle for expressing that idea of Christ his teaching. Many of the soundest exposi- which His own testimony and the impression tors of Philo do not concur in the opinion of made by His life had stamped upon the disZeller that the Logos in his writings is ever ciple's mind. Could it be proved that the conceived of as truly personal. Again, the source of this term was Alexandrian, the notion of the Logos in Philo is usually the Apostle's definition of it was none the less a Platonic idea of reason. It is this idea reversal or rectification of the Alexandrian which he more commonly connects with the idea connected with it. Philo's philosophy, it term, and not the Old Testament conception should not be forgotten, was not all his own of the Word; whereas, in the Gospel, the Pla- creation. It had its roots in prior, widely tonic conception is utterly absent. Once diffused Judaic speculation. In the reports more--and this is the most important con- of the teaching of Christ in the Fourth Gospel, sideration-the cardinal thought of the pro- the term Logos nowhere appears. It is clear logue of the Gospel, that of the Incarnation of that the author merely sums up, in the prothe Logos, is in direct antagonism to the logue, in language of his own, the instruction fundamental philosophy of Philo. His system which Christ had given concerning Himself. is dualistic. Matter, in his view, is utterly The author of the Gospel was a Jew, and a alien to the Deity. Nothing can be more Palestinian. The strong Hebraic colouring of repugnant to the system of Philo than the his style is acknowledged by Keim, as well as declaration that‘the Logos became flesh’(i. 14). affirmed by Ewald. The principal concepThe Judaic Gnosticism, which denied the tions, as 'life,'' light,'truth,' are drawn from Incarnation as anything more than an appear- the circle of Old Testament thought. The ance, or temporary connection of the divine authority of the Old Testament, the inspira. Christ with the man Jesus, was the legitimate tion of Moses and the prophets, are assumed. and actual offspring of the Philonian specula- With the characteristic elements of the Mestion. It was Cerinthus, who probably began sianic expectation the author is familiar. The his career at Alexandria, against whom, ac- same is true of Jewish opinions and customs cording to the declaration of Irenæus, John generally. Witness his acquaintance with the wrote. Cerinthus carried out the dualistic prejudice against conversing with women (iv, theory, and taught that the heavenly Christ 27), with the mutual hatred of Jews and joined Himself to Jesus at His baptism, and Samaritans (iv. 9), with the opinion that deforsook Him at the passion. The theology of formity or suffering implies sin (ix. 2). He is the Gospel and First Epistle, so far from being intimately conversant with Jewish observborrowed from Philo, is repugnant to his ances, as is seen in what he says of the last essential doctrine and to the heretical scheme day of the feast' (vii. 37)—the day added to based on it. Finally, even the phraseology of the original seven, the wedding at Cana, the John can be accounted for by supposing it burial of Lazarus. The allusions to the geodrawn mainly, and perhaps exclusively, from graphy of the Holy Land are those of one the Old Testament. The prologue makes it personally conversant with the places. Of evident that he had in mind the narrative of the Sea of Galilee, the passage across, and the the creation by the word of God, in Genesis. paths on its shores, he has an accurate recolThe word of God is said, in the Old Testa- section. Respecting the topography at the

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opening of chap. iv., Renan remarks that it mediate between the two Passovers. If, as is could emanate only from one who had often alleged, he was of an anti-Judaic spirit, why passed into the valley of Sychem. He has in should he thus cling to the Passovers? Why his mind the image of the Pavement, or plat- should he present a chronological scheme form on which Pilate's chair was placed, with which could only tend to provoke suspicion its Hebrew name, Gabbatha (xix. 13). and expose him to contradiction and detec

We have now to consider the relation of the tion? The writer, whoever he was, was eviFourth Gospel to the other three. Here the dently acquainted with one, if not all

, of the same phenomena which persuade some that earlier Gospels. Why did he not set his new the Fourth Gospel is spurious convince others portrait into the old frame? The most reasonthat it is genuine. The longer ministry of able hypothesis certainly is that he was conJesus-extending to at least two and a-half, versant with the facts, and was possessed of a and probably to three and a half, years-and conscious and acknowledged authority which His extended labours in Judea, are obvious excluded from his mind all fear of contradicpeculiarities of the fourth evangelist. But his tion. representation of the life and ministry of The alleged discrepancy between the Fourth Christ, although independent, is not contra, Gospel and the synoptists respecting the day dictory to that of the synoptists. The country of the month when Christ was crucified has of Jesus, it is to be observed, is still Galilee; been urged as an argument both by those who for this is the right interpretation of John iv. advocate and those who oppose the Johannine 44. Luke, in the long passage relating to the authorship. Was that Friday the 14th or the last journey of Jesus to Jerusalem (ix. 51, 15th of Nisan? And was the Last Supper at the xviii. 14), brings together matter a portion of usual time of the Passover meal, or on the evenwhich appears to belong in connection with ing before? It is held by many scholars that the ministry in Judea. Independently of such there is here a discrepancy between the fourth particulars as the relation of Christ to the evangelist and the other Gospels; that he, family of Mary and Martha, the lament of unlike them, makes the Last Supper to have Jesus over Jerusalem (Luke xii. 34, seq.; occurred on the evening before the day on Matt. xxiii. 37, seq.) admits of no tolerable which the Passover lamb was killed and eaten, explanation except on the supposition that and the crucifixion on the morning following: He had frequently taught there. How often' Bleek, Neander, and numerous others, admitmust have meant more than the efforts of a ting the discrepancy, bring forward considerafew days. The apostrophe plainly refers to tions to prove the superior accuracy of the the city, not to the Jewish people as a whole, Fourth Gospel in this particular, some of to whom Baur would arbitrarily apply it. In which are drawn from incidental observations Luke, the verse immediately before reads, in the Synoptists themselves. The Tübingen 'For it cannot be that a prophet perish out of school insisted on the opposite inference. Jerusalem. This passage establishes, on the They have contended that the author of the authority of the synoptists, beyond the reach Fourth Gospel purposely misdated these of doubt or cavil, the longer Judean ministry events in order to make the crucifixion synof Jesus, and thus confirms the testimony of chronise with the slaying of the Paschal lanıb, the Fourth Gospel in this essential particular. his intent being to convey the idea that the Luke (vi. 1) distinctly implies the interven- Passover is supplanted by the offering of tion of at least one Passover between the be- Christ, the Lamb of God.' ginning and the close of his public life. Who The renewed examination of the Gospels can avoid seeing that the profound impression has led me more and more to doubt whether made by Jesus is far better accounted for if the fourth evangelist really differs from the we accept the chronology of the Fourth Gospel synoptists as they are ordinarily understood. than if we conceive His ministry limited to I cannot but think that the more conservative about a twelvemonth? The truth appears to critics, as Meyer, Weiss, Westcott, Ellicott, be that in the early oral narration of the life have asserted with an unwarranted degree of and teaching of Christ, perhaps for the reason confidence the interpretation of John which that His labours in Jerusalemn and the neigh- places the Last Supper on the day prior to bourhood were more familiar to the Christians that of the Paschal meal. It is still a very there, the Galilean ministry was chiefly de- doubtfnl question of exegesis.

On the supscribed. The matter was massed under the position, however, that the discrepancy really three general heads of His baptism and inter- exists, there is no just ground for the conclucourse with John the Baptist, His work in sion unfavourable to the accuracy of the Galilee, and the visit to Jerusalem at the Fourth Gospel. The motive assigned by the Passover when He was crucified. If the Tübingen school for the alleged falsification author of the Fourth Gospel was

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of the date is totally insufficient. In the first apostolic writer of the second century, no place, if the author of the Gospel had wished satisfactory reason can be conjectured for his to represent Christ as the antitype of the deliberate departure from the apparent chro- l'aschal lamb, he had no need to alter the nology of the received authorities. He might chronology for this end. Christ is termed by easily have brought Jesus into conflict with Paul 'our Passover' (1 Cor. v. 7). In the Pharisees more frequently elsewhere than in second place, it is not even certain that the Judea. He might have invented visits inter- evangelist designs thus to represent Christ.

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