males of full age, a territorial legislature might be elected. The first Governor was General Arthur St. Clair, who was President of Congress when elected. He entered upon his duties in July, 1788, at Marietta. The first territorial legislature met at Cincinnati September 16th, 1799.

In May, 1800, the Territory was divided; the western portion being called the Territory of Indiana, of which W. H. Harrison, afterward President, was made Governor. April 30th, 1802, Congress passed an act to enable the people of the eastern division to form a constitution and State government. The convention met at Chillicothe, November 1st, framed a constitution, and adjourned on the 29th. The constitution was not submitted to the people. On the 19th of February, 1803, Congress passed an act making Ohio a judicial district of the United States, and thus constituted it a State.1

Louisiana, April 30th, 1812.

LOUISIANA came next into the Union, April 30th, 1812. About the time Ohio was admitted, February 19th, 1803, a treaty was made with France, in which that power ceded to the United States the vast territory known then as Louisiana, lying between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. By this purchase the area of the United States was more than doubled. From it the following States have been formed: Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, most of Minnesota, (the rest being from the North-west Territory), and a large part of Colorado.

1 The day of adjournment of the convention, November 29th, 1802, is sometimes given as the date of admission, because of the language of the enabling act-"the said State, when formed, shall be admitted into the Union." But the same words are in the enabling acts for Indiana, Illinois, and most of the States admitted since, yet for each of them there was a distinct act of admission. There is no reason why an enabling act and the framing of a constitution should be sufficient for Ohio and not sufficient for all other States. In January, 1803, President Jefferson nominated to the Senate persons for public office at Marietta in "the North-west Territory." The President of the U. S. regarded this region as then a Territory and not a State. March 1st, just after the act of February 19th, constituting the State of Ohio, he nominated Charles W. Byrd for U. S. District Judge in "the State of Ohio."

of Orleans.

A temporary government was provided the year of the treaty, 1803, and March 26th, 1804, Congress divided the region into two territories—the Territory of Orleans and the The Territory District of Louisiana. March 2d, 1805, an act was passed authorizing a constitution and State government in the Territory of Orleans when its free inhabitants should number 60,000. On the 20th of February, 1811, an act was passed to enable the people to form a constitution and State government. This was done January 22d, 1812, and the State was admitted into the Union by act of Congress, April 8th, 1812, to take effect April 30th of that year.


INDIANA, formed from a part of the North-west Territory, was admitted December 11th, 1816. The Territory of Indiana, formed May 7th, 1800, was divided January 11th, December 11th, 1805, and the Territory of Michigan established. 1816. It was again divided, February 3d, 1809, and the Territory of Illinois established. The people of Indiana Territory having applied for admission into the Union, an enabling act was passed by Congress, April 19th, 1816, and a constitution was formed June 29th. A joint resolution admitting Indiana into the Union was approved December 11th, 1816.

MISSISSIPPI, formed from territory ceded by South Carolina August 9th, 1787, and by Georgia, April 24th, 1802, was admitted December 10th, 1817. Congress established December 10th, the territorial government April 7th, 1798. An


1817. act to enable the people of the western part of the Mississippi Territory to form a constitution and State government was passed March 1st, 1817. A constitution was formed August 15th, 1817, and the State admitted by act of Congress December 10th, 1817.


ILLINOIS was formed from the North-west Territory, and admitted December 3d, 1818. The Territory of December 3d, Illinois was established February 3d, 1809. A memorial of the legislative council to be allowed to form a State government having been presented to the House of


Representatives in January, 1818, an enabling act was passed
April 18th.
The constitution was formed August 26th, and the
State was admitted by joint resolution December 3d, 1818.

ALABAMA, formed from a part of the territory ceded to the United States by South Carolina and Georgia, was admitted December 14th, 1819. The eastern part of Missis- Alabama, sippi Territory was made a separate territory, under December 14th, the name of Alabama, by act of Congress, March 1819. 3d, 1817. Congress, having been memorialized, passed an enabling act March 2d, 1819, and a constitution and State government were formed August 2d, 1819. The State was admitted by joint resolution December 14th, 1819.

Maine, March 15th,




MAINE was formed from a part of Massachusetts, and became a State March 15th, 1820. A project was entertained as early as 1786 to erect a separate State from that part of Massachusetts known as the District of Maine, and a convention had once met at Portland to consider it. It was, however, abandoned for the time. the 19th of June, 1819, the legislature of Massachusetts gave their consent to the formation of a new State, if the people of the district desired it, and would consent to certain conditions. This having been done, a convention formed a constitution October 29th, which was ratified by the people December 6th. A petition was then presented to Congress, and the State admitted by an act passed March 3d, 1820, to take effect March 15th.



This was the third State formed from a part of another. The others, Vermont and Kentucky, were admitted, with two Representatives each; but Maine was declared to be entitled to seven, Massachusetts having thirteen; Massachusetts had twenty before. The new States which had been Territories had each but one Representative till the next census after their admission. MISSOURI, formed from the Louisiana purchase, was admitted August 10th, 1821. As before stated, the act of March 26th, 1804, divided the territory purchased from France, known as

A. C.-24.

the Louisiana purchase, into two Territories.


From Louisiana.

What is now

the State of Missouri was a part of the northern territory, which was called the District of Louisiana. For Missouri, August 10th, about a year this was under the Governor and Judges of Indiana Territory. On the 3d of March, 1805, a separate government was provided, and the name changed to that of Territory of Louisiana. On the 4th of June, 1812, the name was changed to that of Missouri Territory. March 2d, 1819, the southern part was separated and erected into a new Territory, called Arkansas Territory. Congress having been memorialized to admit Missouri as a State into the Union, an act was passed March 6th, 1820, authorizing the formation of a constitution and State government. There was a division in Congress as to Missouri, whether it should be admitted with slavery. The enabling act was a compromise. It provided that Missouri might be admitted as a slave State, but that from all other parts of the Louisiana purchase lying north of the south line of Missouri-36° 30' north latitude-slavery should be forever excluded. This act was known as the "Missouri Compromise."

On the 19th of July the people formed a constitution, which was laid before Congress November 16th. March 2d, 1821, a resolution providing for the admission of Missouri into the Union on a certain condition was approved. The condition having been accepted June 26th, 1821, the President issued a proclamation, August 10th, 1821, declaring the admission complete.1

ARKANSAS, formed out of part of the territory ceded by France in 1803, was admitted June 15th, 1836.

The Territory of Arkansas was established March 2d, 1819, having been taken from the Territory of Missouri. On the 30th of January, 1836, a constitution was formed by a con

1 The constitution of Missouri excluded from the State all free people of color. The condition imposed by Congress was that the legislature should declare by solemn act that no law should ever be passed to carry into effect that provision of the constitution.

Arkansas, June 15th,




vention, and this was laid before Congress March 1st, with a memorial, asking admission into the Union. An act to admit was approved June 15th, 1836. There was no enabling act passed by Congress in the case of Arkansas. All the States admitted up to this time that had existed as Territories except Tennessee, had been authorized by Congress to form constitutions and State governments. Tennessee claimed the right of admission under the deed of cession from North Carolina to the United States; and Arkansas claimed a like right, by virtue of the treaty with France ceding to the United States the Province of Louisiana. This treaty provided that "The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States." It has been held by legal writers that the action of these Territories in forming constitutions and State governments without authority from Congress was irregular, and that Congress was not required to admit them at the time of application.

MICHIGAN, formed from the North-west Territory, was admitted January 26th, 1837.


The Territory of Indiana was divided and that of Michigan established January 11th, 1805. The legislative council, in accordance with a vote of the people, having me- Michigan, morialized Congress for admission into the Union, January 26th, a bill was reported as an enabling act for that purpose February, 1833; but, on account of the dispute between Ohio and Michigan as to boundaries, it was not passed. On the 6th of September, 1834, the legislative council of the Territory provided for taking the census, and, afterward, for forming a constitution. constitution having been ratified by the people October 5th, 1835, a State government was organized. A copy of the constitution


From the North-west


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