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in another place. These vessels we here see were of silver in the church of Cirta, as well as others.

Their candlesticks or lamps were of the like precious substance, and some golden, as Prudentius 93 represents them, when he brings in the tyrant demanding of Laurentius, the Roman deacon, the golden lamps which they used in their night-assemblies. These are frequently mentioned by Athanasius 94, and the Apostolical Constitutions 95, which allow oil to be offered for the lamps. Paulinus 96 also and St. Jerom 97 speak of them, and seem to intimate that in their time they were lighted by day as well as by night; which was an innovation upon old custom ; for the first and primitive use of them was owing to necessity, when Christians were forced to meet in nocturnal assemblies for fear of persecution : at which time they did not allow or approve of lighting them by day. Nor does St. Jerom say, there was any order of the Church, or so much as general custom to authorize it; but only it was tolerated in some places, to satisfy the ignorance, and weakness, and simplicity of some secular men; and all he pretends to offer in justification of it is only, that there was no idolatry in it, as Vigilantius had heavily laid the charge upon it. However there was this difference between the age of St. Jerom and those which went before, that the former ages positively condemn it. For not to mention what Lactantius 98 and


93 Peristeph. H. 2. vv.71,72. (v.1. Nocte dieque micant: sic nox splenp. 183.)

dore diei Auroque nocturnis sacris

Fulget: et ipsa dies, cælesti illustris Astare fixos cereos.

honore, 94 Ep. ad Orthodox. t. 1. p. 946. Plus micat innumeris lucem gemi(t. I. part. 1. p. 90 d. n. 4.).... Tàs nata lucernis. λυχνίας παρ' αυτά εν τω τοιχίο απε- 97 Ep. 53. [al. 109.] ad Ripar. (t. τίθεσαν, τους κηριόλους της εκκλησίας 1. p. 720 c.) Accensique ante eorum τοίς ειδώλοις ανηπτον.

tumulos cerei, idololatriæ insignia 95 C. 3. (Cotel. (c. 2.] v. 1. p.437.) sunt? &c.—Cont. Vigilant. t. 2. p.

Μη εξόν έστω προσάγεσθαι τι 123. (t. 2. p. 394 b.).... Aliqui per προς [al. έτερον εις] το θυσιαστήριον imperitiam et simplicitatem secula

[. ) και [al. ή] έλαιον εις την [αγίαν] rium hominum ... hoc pro honore λυχνίαν, και θυμίαμα τω καιρώ της martyrum faciunt. θείας αναφοράς [al. αγίας προσφο- 98 Instit. 1. 6. c. 2. (t. 1. p. 432.) pas].

Mactant igitur opimas et pingues 96 Natal. 3. Felic. (p. 541.) . )

hostias quasi esurienti; proClara coronantur densis altaria lych- fundunt vina, quasi sitienti; accen

dunt lumina, quasi in tenebris aLumina ceratis adolentur odora pa- genti.


nis :

others say to expose the like custom among the Heathens, the Council of Eliberis expressly forbids it in a very plain canon 99, though the reason be something dark that is given for the prohibition. “Let no one presume to set up lights in the day time in any cemetery or church; for the spirits of the saints are not to be molested.' I shall not now stand to inquire into the meaning of this reason; it is sufficient that the thing was then prohibited in plain terms: from whence it is evident the contrary custom must be new, though prevailing both in the East and West in the time of Paulinus and St. Jerom.

Some also plead hard for the antiquity of censers and incense, deriving them down from apostolical custom and practice. So Cardinal Bona and others of the Romish Church. But there are no footsteps of these things in the three first ages of the Church. The Canons under the name of the Apostles 2 indeed mention incense in the time of the oblation: but it still remains a question, whether those canons belong to any of the three first ages! Hippolytus Portuensis is another author produced by a learned person 3 of our own Church in this cause : but besides that his authority is as questionable as the former, all that he says may be interpreted to a spiritual or figurative sense. For, speaking of the times of Antichrist, and the desolations of the Church in those days, he says “, “ the Church shall mourn with a very great mourning, because her oblation and incense are not duly per

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99 C. 34. (t. 1. p. 974 d.) Cereos append. p. 81.) Immo quidem Hipper diem placuit in cæmiterio non polytus Portuensis Episcopus, Cleincendi. İnquietandi enim sancto- mentis Alexandrini discipulus, ac rum spiritus non sunt.

propterea ejusdem fere ac Tertul1 Rer. Liturg. l. 1. C. 25. n. 9. (p. lianus ætatis, in Oratione de Con262.) Turibulum sive thymiamate- summatione Mundi disertissimam rium, quod etiam suffitorium dicitur hujus rei mentionem facit, dicens : ab Anastasio, vas est, in quo tura et Ilevdowol ¢KKAnoiau Trévôos péya, varii odores incenduntur in solemni διότι ούτε προσφορά ούτε θυμίαμα oblatione, idque ex apostolica tra- éktedeitai, k. 7. . ditione, et Mosaicæ legis exemplo. 4 De Consummat. Mundi. (ap. Nulla est ecclesiastica cærimonia, Bibl. Patr. Gr.-Lat. t. 2. p.357 a. 7.) cujus crebrior mentio fat in antiquis Πενθουσι δε και αι εκκλησία πένθος et recentioribus omnium gentium μέγα, διότι ούτε προσφορά, ούτε θυliturgiis, quam turis et thymiarmatis, μίαμα εκτελείται, ούτε λατρεία θεάquod sæpe inter sacrificandum ado- peotos. Note, The words are not letur.

in the genuine Hippolytus published 2 C. 3. See n. 95, preceding. by Combefis in his Auctarium No

3 Vid. Bevereg. Cod. Canon. Vin- vissimum. [Paris. 1672. part. 1. pp. dicat. 1. 2. c. 2. n. 5. (Cotel. v. 2. 26, seqq. Ed.]


formed: which may mean no more than that the liturgy or service of the Church will be abolished. For the prayers and worship of the saints are called the Christian incense, (Rev. 5, 8.) and so I think we are to understand those words of St. Ambrose 5 also, who, speaking of the angels appearing to Zacharias, standing on the right side of the altar of incense, says, ' I wish the angel may stand by us when we incense the altar and offer our sacrifice. Yea, doubtless the angel stands by us, at the time that Christ stands there and is offered

upon the altar. Here, I take it, the sacrificing of Christ, and the incensing of the altar are both of the same nature, that is, spiritual and mystical; and therefore hence nothing can be concluded for the use of incense and censers in the most strict and literal sense as yet in the Christian Church. Neither do we find any mention made of censers in any part of the Constitutions under the name of the Apostles; which is an argument that when the author of those Collections wrote, they were not yet become utensils of the altar, as they were when Evagrius 6 wrote his history; for he mentions golden censers, as well as golden crosses, given by Chosroes to the church of Constantinople. By which we may guess that crosses and censers were the product of one and the same age, and came into the Church together.

Images and relics upon the altar are usages also of later ages. And so are many utensils of the present Greeks, as the lancea, asteriscus, dicerion, tricerion, and cochlear, which Bona 7 says were never known in the Latin Church, much less in the ancient Church. So I shall not stand to explain them;

5 In Luc. 1, 11. p. 599. (t. 1. p. ignota, nempe lanceam sive gla1275 e.) Utinam nobis quoque ado- diolum, lanceæ figuram habentem, lentibus altaria, sacrificium deferen- quam (leg. qua] hostiam consecrantibus, assistat angelus, immo præ- dam ab integra panis massa secant. beat se videndum. Non enim du- Asteriscum, qui duobus arcubus conbites assistere angelum; quando stat radiis ad instar stellæ fultis, quo Christus assistit, quando Christus hostias consecrandas cooperiunt, ne immolatur.

vela eas tangant et ordinem particu6 L. 6. c. 21. (v. 3. p. 469. 37.)... larem turbent. Dicerion, quod est Kaì Avulatýplov, rà távra xpuoâ. cereus bisulcus; et tricerion, quod See the context before, s. 20. p. 104. est cereus trisulcus, quibus episcon. 76. (Evagrius wrote at the close of pus celebrans sæpe populo benethe sixth century, an.594 or 596. Ed.] dicit, et utrumque frequenter mani

7 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 25. n. 6. (p. bus gestat. Cochlear ab ipsis labida 261.) Alia quædam sacri ministerii dictum, quo utuntur ad commuinstrumenta habent Græci, Latinis nionem fidelibus porrigendam.


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nor say any thing here of the Bible, the diptychs, and their ritual books, which were both utensils and ornaments of the altar, because these will be spoken of in other places.

The altaria portatilia, or moveable altars of the Latins, and the antimensia, or consecrated cloths of the Greeks, to be used in places which have no altars, I omit likewise, as being a modern invention of later ages. Habertus s, indeed, is very solicitous to have their portable altars thought as old as St. Basil, because St. Basil, in one of his Epistles, speaks of tòcal Tpátečal, private tables, in some churches. But he wholly mistakes his author's meaning; for he is only speaking of the rudeness of some heretics, who, according to their usual custom, pulled down the catholic altars, and set up their own altars, or tables, in the room. So that it is not those portable altars he is discoursing of, but heretical altars set up in opposition to the Catholics, which Habertus would hardly own to be the altars of the Romish Church. Durantus 9 and Bona 10 do not pretend to find them in any author before the time of Bede and Charles the Great, and therefore we may conclude they were a modern invention.

8 Archierat. ad Rit. Var. Altar. vel altaria consecrentur, et in capelobserv. 2. (p. 664.) ... Portatilia illa lis etiam, quæ consecrationem non altaria videntur dici a Basilio idiau merentur, tabulam quisque presbyter, Tpátečai, Epist. 72. [al. 251.(ap.Oper. cui necessarium fuerit, de marmore Basil. Paris. 1839. t. 3. part. 2. p. vel nigra petra, aut litio honestis560.) Tà Baoileidov toù Ilapaayóvos simo, secundum suam possibilitatem, θυσιαστήρια ανέτρεψε παριών την honeste afectatam habeat, et nobis Παφλαγονίαν Ευστάθιος, και επί ιδίων αd consecrandum aferat; quam seτραπεζών έλειτουργει. ED.]

cum, cum expedierit, deferat, in qua 9 De Ritibus, &c., l. 1. c. 25. n. 7. sacra mysteria secundum ritum ec(p. 89.) Vitus Amerbachius ad finem clesiasticum agere valeat. Ex hoc Constitutionum Caroli Magni, testa- decreto palam fit, quinam veteri ritu tur, se vidisse in monasterio Sancti altaris portatilis usus sit; nimirum Emerani altare, quo Carolus Magnus cum in altaribus fixis nondum conin castris utebatur.

secratis, vel in oratoriis privatis, 10 Rer. Liturg. l. 1. C. 20. n. 2. (p. quæ consecrari nec solent nec de223.) Sunt et alia altaria portatilia bent, celebrandum est. Ipsa vero et motoria; quæ episcopi iter agentes privata oratoria in domibus princisecum olim ferebant, ut in his pos- pum et nobilium virorum permitsent extra ecclesiam, in locis ab ea tuntur, ut notissimum est : et de iis remotis, celebrare. Horum meminit canonicæ sanctiones insertæ sunt Ven. Beda, Hist. C. 11., et Hincma- Capitularibus Caroli Magni, 1. 6. c. rus Remensis, in Capitulis editis 101. et c. 105. et l. 7. c. 329., proanno 12. sui episcopatus, hoc de hibetur, ne missæ celebrentur in illis sancivit : Nemo presbyterorum in locis non consecratis et inconin altari ab episcopo non consecrato gruentibus, nisi causa hostilitatis et cantare præsumat. Quæ propter si longinqui itineris; et id in altaribus, necessitas poposcerit, donec ecclesia ab episcopo consecratis, &c.

But the platidla, or flabella, are somewhat more ancient, being mentioned by the author of the Constitutions 1, who makes it one part of the deacons' office, in the time of the oblation, to stand on each side of the altar, and, with these instruments in their hands, (brushes, or fans, we may English them,) to drive away all such little insects as might drop into the cups, or infest the altar. The author of the Fasti Siculi, or Chronicon Alexandrinum 12, calls them τίμια ριπίδια, and reckons them among the holy utensils of the altar, which were laid up among the rest, in the sceuophylacium, or vestry, of the church: for which reason I thought it not improper to mention them, whilst we are speaking of the utensils of the

altar. Of the ob- 22. In many churches, besides the communion-table, in one lationarium, or

of the lesser recesses, or conchæ of the bema, there was a place prothesis. where the offerings of the people were received, out of which

the bread and wine was taken that was consecrated at the altar. In the Liturgies under the names of Chrysostom 13, and St. James 14, and other modern Greek writers, this is called πρόθεσις and παρατράπεζoν, the side-table. In the Ordo Romanus 15 it has the name of oblationarium, and prothesis


11 L. 8. c. 12. (Cotel. v. Ι. p. 398.) νου μετά θυμιάματος, κ. τ.λ. Δύο δε διάκονοι εξ εκατέρων των με- 14 Miss. Jacob. ap. Bibl. Gr.-Lat. ρων του θυσιαστηρίου κατεχέτωσαν (t. 2. p. 21 b.) Και ότε μέλλει ο διάεξ υμένων λεπτών ριπίδιον, ή πτερών κονος τιθέναι εις το παρατράπεζoν, ταώνος, ή οθόνης.

λέγει ο ιερεύς: Ευλογητόν το όνομα 12 Αl. Paschale, p. 892. [Ed. Ρaris. Κυρίου του θεού ημών, εις τους p. 39ο.] (ap. Byzant. Ηist. Scriptor. αιώνας.-Ιbid. (b. 7.) Και πάλιν, ότε Ρ. 3II a. 5.) Τούτο, το έτει, μηνί επαίρει τον δίσκον από του παρατρα'Αρτεμησίω, κατά Ρωμαίους Μαίω πέζου, λέγει, Κύριε, ευλόγησον. της ιβ Ινδικτιώνος, επί Σεργίου πα- [Ap. Bibl. Max. (t. 13. p. 658 τριάρχου Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, επε- g.) Deinde archidiaconus suscipit νοήθη ψάλλεσθαι μετά το μεταλαβείν oblatas duas de oblationario et dat πάντας των μυστηρίων, εν τω μέλλειν pontifici, &c. And again at p. 663 τους κληρικούς επί το σκευοφυλάκιον e, and f.-But I cannot satisfactorily αποκαθιστάναι τα τίμια ριπίδια, δισκά- verify the statement. The term proρια, και ποτηρία, και άλλα ιερά σκεύη, thesis I do not find at all according κ. τ.λ.

to the reference: and Du Fresne 13 Liturg. ap. Bibl. Patr. Gr.-Lat. (Glossar. Latinitat. 1681. t. 3. col. t. 2. p. 74. (int. Oper. Chrysost. t. 1o.) does not notice oblationarium 12. p. 788 b.) Πληρωθείσης δε της as a place, but only oblationarius ευχής, εύχονται όμου τον χερουβικόν as a person: Subdiaconus, interdum ύμνον, και τρίς εν τω λέγειν αυτόν et diaconus ; ad cujus ministerium προσκυνούντες' είτα και τον πεντη- pertinebat oblatas, pαnem scilicet κοστον ψαλμόν μυστικώς και προσ- et vinum, pontifci missam celebranti κυνούντες τρές, απέρχονται εν τη e patriarchio deferre, et eas archiπροθέσει, προπορευομένου του διακό- diacomo offerre. He cites the pas

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