also, for the one is made the explication of the other. And here also it is termed paratorium, because, when the offerings were received, preparation was made out of them for the eucharist. There is little question to be made but that the ancient churches had something answerable to this, but it went under other names; for we never meet with a prothesis, or paratorium, or oblationarium, in express terms, in any ancient writer : but the thing itself we often find. Cyprian seems to speak of it under the borrowed name of the corban, rebuking a rich and wealthy matron for coming to celebrate the eucharist without any regard to the corban, and partaking the Lord's Supper without any sacrifice of her own, hut rather eating of the oblations which the poor had brought.' In the fourth Council of Carthage 16 this place goes by the general name of the sacrarium, or sanctuary, as being that


sage from the Ordo Romanus as erant altaria, quandoque etiam tria. above in illustration, as well as Ubi duo, alterum in medio et majus, Anastasius Bibliothecarius in his et áyia Tpáteča: alterum minus, et Life of Gregory the Third and ad sinistram ejus et prothesis diciother places, adding, that the offi- tur, id est, propositio; ideo fortasse, cial, termed by the Greeks douéotikos inquit Hervetus, quod panis, qui est των υποδιακόνων, was by the Latins a sacerdote consecrandus, in eo primo called oblationarius. from this it ponitur. In eo autem sacerdos, que would seem that the side-table, sunt ad sacrificandum necessaria præwhich my ancestor terms oblationa- parat. Hujus ti podégews seu altaris rium was the patriarchium of the propositionis frequens passim menpreceding citation, though the phrase tio, &c. This seems to justify my e patriarchio, out of, or from within ancestor's view of the oblationarium the patriarchium, seems to indicate and the paratorium as corresponda closet, or cupboard, or recess out ing terms in the Latin offices : yet of which the oblations were brought, I still think that according to Du rather than a table, shelf, or side- Fresne's interpretation, coupled with board, from which they were lifted the internal evidence of the context up and removed. Paratorium oc- in the Ordo Romanus as cited, the curs also in the same context of the former means an official, and the Ordo Romanus, viz, at p. 659, thus : latter a robing room or vestry, and Calicem autem subdiaconus accipit not a side-altar, which the nepodéois sequens et dat acolyto, et ille revocat surely was, as Suicer shews. Ed.] in paratorium: and at p. 664, thus : 15 De Oper. et Eleemos. p. 203. Calicem ... dat acolyto, quem revo. (p. 141.) Locuples et dives es; et cat in paratorium. This surely was dominiciim celebrare te credis, quæ a room: Secretarium ecclesiæ, says corbonam omnino non respicis; quæ Du Fresne, (ubi supr. col. 155.) seu

in dominicum sine sacrificio venis; locus ubi pontifex et qui sacra fac- quæ partem de sacrificio, quod pauturi sunt sese parant, &c. The apó- per obtulit, sumis? θεσις, as purely a Greek term and 16 C. 93. (t. 2. p. 1207 b.) Oblabelonging to the early Liturgies, is tiones dissidentium fratrum, neque thus described by Suicer, Thes. Ec- in sacrario, neque in gazophylacio cles. (t. 2. p.842.) In bemate ... duo recipiantur. BINGHAM, VOL. III.


part of the sanctuary where the oblations for the altar were received: for they had two repositories for the offerings of the people, the one without the church, called gazophylacium, or treasury, and the other within the church, which was this sacrarium, or corban. And therefore it is, that that Council forbids the offerings of such Christians as were at variance one with another to be received, either in the treasury or the sanctuary. Paulinus is more exact in describing this place than any other ancient writer, yet he gives it a different name, calling it one of the secretaria of the church ; for he tells us 17 there were two secretaria, one on the right hand, and the other on the left hand of the altar. That on the right hand was the same with the prothesis, or paratorium, we are speaking of, and the use of it he describes in these verses, which were set over it ;

Hic locus est veneranda penus qua conditur, et qua

Promitur alma sacri pompa ministerii ;This is the place where the holy food is reposited, and whence we take provision and furniture for the altar. That on the other side was the same with the diaconicum bematis, the use of which he describes in part in these two other verses, set over it also ;

Si quem sancta tenet meditandi in Lege voluntas,

Hic poterit residens Sanctis intendere Libris ;If any one (that is, any of the priests, whose apartment this was) is minded to meditate on the law of God, here he has room to sit and read the holy books. A little before 18 he makes the like description of these two secret apartments in prose, telling us, that the one was the place which prepared the host, or oblation of joy, for the priest ;' whence, doubtless, in after-ages, as I noted before, it got the name of paratorium: and the other was a place, whither the clergy retired after the sacrifice was ended, and the people were dismissed, to make their concluding prayers in private.'

17 Ep. 12. ad Sever. p. 154. (p. orantes. 152.) Tamen cum duabus dextra 18 Ibid. See the preceding note. lævaque conchulis intra spatiosum (For patet the Author would read sui ainbitum apsis sinuata laxetur, parat, and instead of post saceruna earum immolanti hostias jubi- dotem he suggests post sacrificium. lationis antistiti patet; altera post See the original edition, Lond. 1711. sacerdotem capaci sinu receptat v. 3. p. 211. Ed.]

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23. This latter place was a sort of vestry within the church, of the whither the deacons brought the vestments and vessels and soeuophy

lacium, or utensils belonging to the altar out of the greater diaconicum, diaconicum to be in readiness for divine service. And in this respect it had also the name of σκευοφυλάκιον, the repository of the sacred utensils, because hither they were carried back immediately by the deacons, as soon as the service was ended, or whilst the post-communion-psalm was singing by the people, as the author of the Chronicon Alexandrinum 19 represents it.. Here the priests also put on their robes they used to officiate in; and hither they came again, when the public service was ended, to make their private addresses to God, as has been noted already, out of Paulinus : and in the Liturgies inscribed to St. James, St. Mark 20, and St. Chrysostom 21, there are the forms of prayer appointed to be used in this place; one of which, particularly in St. James's Liturgy, is ushered in with this title, or rubric 22, . The prayer to be said in the sceuophylacium, after the dismission of the people.' The deacons commonly had the care of this place, and thence it is often called the diaconicum, and bematis diaconicum, to distinguish it from another diaconicum, which we shall find in the next chapter, among the exedræ, or outer buildings of the church. Du Fresne 23 thinks


19 [Al. Paschale,]p.892. [Ed. Ρaris. κας ημίν, δέσποτα, τον αγιασμόν εν τη p.39ο.] (ap. Byzant. Ηist. Scriptor. μετουσία του παναγίου σώματος και t.4. p.311a. 7.) Επενοήθη ψάλλεσθαι του τιμίου αίματος του μονογενούς μετά το μεταλαβείν πάντας των αγίων σου Υιού, κ.τ.λ. μυστηρίων, εν τω μέλλειν τους κληρι- 21 Liturg. Chrysost. ibid. (p. 88 κούς επί το σκευοφυλάκιον αποκαθι- b. 9.) Ει δέ έστι διάκονος, και αυτός στάναι τα τίμια ριπίδια, δισκάρια, και ποιεί ο δε ιερεύς απέρχεται εν τω ποτήρια, και άλλα ιερά σκεύη, μετά σκευοφυλακίω, και εκδύει εαυτόν, λέτο εκ των παρατραπεζίων την διάδοσιν γων τρίς το "Αγιος ο Θεός και το, αποτεθήναι πάντα εις την αγίαν τρά- Παναγία Τριάς και το, Πάτερ ημών" πεζαν, και ψαλθήναι τον τελευταίος τότε λέγει το απολυτικόν του Χρυσοστίχον του κοινωνικού, λέγεσθαι και στόμου, κ.τ.λ. τούτο το τροπάριον: Πληρωθήτω το 22 Liturg. [s. Miss.] Jacob. ibid. στόμα ημών αινέσεως, Κύριε, όπως (p. 23 c. 7.) Ευχή λεγομένη εν τω ανυμνήσωμεν την δόξαν σου, ότι ήξί- σκευοφυλακίω μετά την απόλυσιν. ωσας ημάς των αγίων σου μετασχειν

23 În Paul. Silent. p. 581. (ap. μυστηρίων. Τήρησον ημάς εν τω σώ Byzant. Ηist. Scriptor. t.13. p. 225. αγιασμό, όλην την ημέραν μελετών- n. 68.) Sed et non desunt, qui toτας την δικαιοσύνην σου. 'Αλληλουΐα. tum bematis extra altaris vela, atque Vid. Cotel. Not. in Constit. Apost. adeo extra majorem concham, spa1. 8. c. 12. (v. I. p. 398. n. 65.) where tium, diaconicum appellatum vothe Chronicon is cited.

lunt: quod quum intra vela seu 20 Liturg. Μarc. ap. Bibl. Patr. παραπετάσματα solis sacerdotibus Gr.-Lat. (t. 2. p. 41 c. 7.) ο ιερεύς consistere liceret, que bermatis para εύχεται έν τη διακονικώ λέγων: "Έδω- inde ιερατείον proprie dicta est, reli

also, that the name of diaconicum was sometimes more pecu-
liarly given to that part of the bema, or chancel, which was
between the veils of the chancel and the veils of the ciborium,
or altar; and that the place within the veils of the altar was
distinguished particularly by the name of presbyterium, be-
cause it was the place of the presbyters, as the other was the
place of the deacons; alleging for this a canon of the Council
of Laodicea 24, which others understand, in a different sense 25,
for the whole chancel or sanctuary of the church.

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Of the baptistery, and other outer buildings, called the

exedræ of the church. Baptiste- 1. We have hitherto taken a view of the several parts of the ries ancien

ancient churches within the walls. It now remains that we conly buildings distinct

sider a little such buildings as were distinct from the main from the church. body, and yet within the bounds of the church taken in the

largest sense, which buildings are all comprised under one ge

qua diaconis permissa esset, ut qui idem Thessalonicensis. Atque inde
ad utramque conchulam, prothesin colligitur, quid statuat Canon 21.
scilicet et diaconicum, pro officii ra- Synodi Laodicenæ, dum ait: Oủ dei
tione, pergendi, et in iis consistendi, ÚTypétas zápavě zelv év tỘ SLAKOVIKỘ
necesse haberent. Nam Symeon id enim solis diaconis licebat. Ita
Thessalonicensis, (Lib. de Templo,) porro hunc canonem capiendum par
ait, nulli licere in sacro synthrono est credere, etsi Balsamon et Zona-
sedere, præterquam sacerdotibus, ac ras diaconicum de munere diaconi
ne ipsis quidem diaconis, quibus a- interpretati sint. Priori sane sen-
lius attributus est locus, os åkohoú- tentiæ favet Isidorus Mercator, qui
θως ωνόμασται διακονικόν, ένθα και διακονικόν, secretarium vertit: Secre-
kaðņotai toutous oủk åkólutov di- tarium, inquit, quod Græci diaconi-
aconicum nempe locus sic dictus, cum vocant: quæ totidem verbis ha-
in quo considere eis licitum sit. beatur in Concilio Agathensi, can.66.
Huic quidem sententiæ nescio an ita ut per secretarium conchulam
faveat Lexicon Gr. MS. quod exstat intellexerit, quam Græci diaconicum
in Bibl. Reg. Cod. 2062 : ubi Trapa- nuncupant; quæ a diaconis in ea
πέτασμα το διακονικόν, το παρακά- ministrantibus nomen sumpsit, uti
Auuua, esse dicitur : videtur enim observavimus. Nam vix est simile
dakovikov appellari velum altaris; vero, diaconicum pro exedra extra
quasi totum bematis spatium, quod ædem ita nuncupata sumi debere;
extra vela altaris patet, diaconicum cum et in ea quibusvis ecclesiæ mi-
sit, et quia in eo et consistere et nistris consistere fas esset, et ex ea
progredi, pro fun his suæ ratione, clerici omnes ad altare procederent.
non autem sacrarium ingredi illis 24 C. 21. (t. 1. p. 1500 e.) "Oti oủ
liceret: quemadmodum subdiaconis δεί υπηρέτας έχειν χώραν εν τω
eaderm bematis spatia : cum subdia- διακονικό, και άπτεσθαι δεσποτικών
coni et lectores in solea extra bema- Okev@v.
tis cancellos consisterent, ut docet 25 See before, 8. 4. p. 81. n. 64.

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neral name of the exedræ of the church. For Eusebius 26, speaking of the church of Paulinus at Tyre, says, 'when that curious artist had finished his famous structure within, he then set himself about the exedre, or buildings that joined one to another by the sides of the church ;' by which buildings, he tells us, he chiefly meant the place which was for the use of those who needed the purgation and sprinkling of water and the Holy Ghost; that is, doubtless, the baptistery of the church. He describes the church of Antioch, built by Constantine, after the same manner; telling us 27, ‘that it was surrounded with exedræ and buildings, that had lower and upper stories in them.' So that, as Valesius and other critics have rightly observed, exedræ is a general name for any buildings that stand round about the church. And hence it is easy to conclude, that the baptistery, which Eusebius reckons the chief of the exedræ, was anciently a building without the walls of the church. Which observation, because I find it questioned by some, who place the font, after the modern way, in the narthex of the ancient churches, it will not be improper here to confirm by a few plain instances out of other authors.

Paulinus, bishop of Nola, setting forth the great munificence of his friend Severus 28, says, “ he built two churches and a baptistery between them both. And so Cyril of Jerusalem describes the baptistery as a building by itself, which had first 29 its προαύλιον οίκον, that is, its porch or ante-room, where the catechumens made their renunciation of Satan, and con


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28 L. 10. C. 4: P. 381. (ν. 1. p. 474. χανον επάρας ύψος εν οκταέδρου μεν 20.).... Και τόδε γούν λίθω μαρμάρω συνεστώτα σχήματι' οίκοις δε πλείευ μάλα κόσμο παντί λαμπρύνας, ήδη οσιν, εξέδραις τε εν κύκλω, υπερώων λοιπόν και επί τα εκτός του νεώ μετή- τε και καταγείων χωρημάτων απανταει: εξέδρας και οίκους τους παρ' εκά- χόθεν περιεστοιχισμένον. τερα μεγίστους επισκευάζων εντέχνως, 28 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 140.) Tu επί ταυτόν εις πλευρά τω βασιλεία vero etiam baptisterium basilicis συνεζευγμένους, και ταϊς επί τον μέσον duabus interpositum condidisti, ut οίκον εισβολαις ηνωμένους και και αυ- nos in horum quoque operum, quæ τα τοις έτι καθάρσεως και περιρραν- visibiliter exstruuntur, edificatione τηρίων των διά ύδατος και αγίου Πνεύ- superares. ματος έγχρήζουσιν, ο ειρηνικώτατος 29 Catech. [19.] Mystag. Ι. Π. 2: ημών Σολομών, και τον νεών του θεού (p. 306 d.) Εισήειτε πρώτον εις τον δειμάμενος, άπειργάζετο.

προαύλιον του βαπτιστηρίου οίκον 27 De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 50. και προς τας δυσμάς εστώτες ηκού(ibid. p. 6o5, 39.) Μακροις μεν έξωθεν σατε και προσετάττεσθε εκτείνειν την περιβόλοις τόν πάντα νεών περιλαβών χείρα, και ως παρόντι απετάττεσθε το είσω δε, τον ευκτήριον οίκον εις αμή- Σατανά.

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