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almost as general a name as that of the oikol, or exedræ of the church.

12. Whether the libraries belonging to churches were any of the part of these pastophoria, is not easy to determine ; but thus schools and

libraries of much we are certain of, that there were such places anciently the church. adjoining to many churches, from the time that churches began to be erected among Christians. Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, in the third century, built a library for the service of that Church, where Eusebius 98 tells us he found the best part of his materials to compose his Ecclesiastical History. Julius Africanus founded such another library at Cæsarea in Palestine, which Pamphilus and Eusebius much angmented. St. Jerom 99 says Pamphilus wrote out almost all Origen's works for the use of this library, which were reserved there in his time; and he often mentions 1 his own consulting it upon necessary occasions in his emendations of the text of the Holy Scriptures : telling us further 2, that there was a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in the original Hebrew, as it was first written by him, exstant in his time. Another of these libraries we find mentioned in the Acts of Purgation of Cæcilian and Felix ), belonging to the church of Cirta Julia, or Constantina, in Numidia, where Paulus, the bishop, is accused as a traditor, for delivering up the goods of the Church in the time of the Diocletian persecution. These were all founded before the

98 L. 6. c. 20. (v. I. p. 284. 20.) t. 3. p. 113. (t. 1. p. 152 d.) Beatus Ai [émuotolai] kai eis ruas epuláx- Pamphilus martyr....quum Demeθησαν εν τη κατά την Αιλίαν βιβλιο- trium et Pisistratum in sacre bibliθήκη, προς του τηνικάδε την αυτόθι othece studio vellet equare.. διέποντος εκκλησίαν 'Αλεξάνδρου επι- maxime Origenis libros impensius σκευασθείσης αφ' ής και αυτοί τάς prosequutus, Cesariensi ecclesie ühas tñs metà xeipas ÚTodégews étrà dedicavit, &c.-In Tit. c. 3. (t. 7. ταυτό συναγαγείν δεδυνήμεθα. p. 734 e.) Nobis curæ fuit, omnes

99 De Scriptor. Eccles. c. 75. (t. Veteris Legis libros, quos vir doc2. p. 901.) Pamphilus presbyter, tus Adamantius in Hexapla digesseEusebii Cæsariensis episcopi neces- rat, de Cæsariensi bibliotheca desarius, tanto bibliothecæ divinæ scriptos, ex ipsis authenticis emenamore flagravit, ut maximam par- dare, &c. tem Origenis voluminum sua manu 2 De Scriptor. Eccles. c. 3. (t. 2. descripserit ; quæ usque hodie in p. 819.) Ipsum Hebraicum habetur Cæsariensi bibliotheca habentur. Sed usque hodie in Cæsariensi biblioet in duodecim Prophetas viginti theca, quam Pamphilus martyr stuquinque éényhoewv Origenis volu- diosissime confecit. mina, manu ejus exarata, reperi, quæ 3 Ad calc. Optat. p. 267. (CC. t. tanto amplector et servo gaudio, ut 1. p. 1444 d.) Posteaquam pervenCræsi opes habere me credam. tum est in bibliothecam inventa sunt

| Ep. 141. [al. 34.] ad Marcel. armaria inania, &c.

1

Church had any settled times of peace. In the following ages we find St. Austin 3 making mention of the library of the church of Hippo; and St. Jerom 4 commending Euzoius, the Arian bishop of Cæsarea, for his care in repairing the library of Pamphilus, which was fallen to decay. St. Basil 5 speaks of the Roman libraries or archives at least; and the author of the Pontifical 6, if any credit may be given to him, ascribes the building of two to Pope Hilary near the baptistery of the Lateran church. But that which exceeded all the rest was the famous library of the church of St. Sophia ; which Hospinian 7 thinks was first began by Constantine, but was afterward vastly augmented by Theodosius Junior, who was another Ptolemy, in whose time there were no less than an hundred thousand books in it, and an hundred and twenty thousand in the reign of Basiliscus and Zeno, when both the building and its furniture were all unhappily consumed together by the firing of the city in a popular tumult. He, that would see a more ample account of these foundations in other ages, must consult Lomeier's discourse De Bibliothecis 8, where he pursues the history of libraries from first to last as well among Jews and Heathens, as every age of Christians. It is sufficient to my present purpose to have hinted here briefly a succinct account of such of them, as were anciently reckoned parts or appendants of the Christian churches.

And for the same reason I take notice of schools in this place, because we find them sometimes kept in the churches, or buildings adjoining to the church; which is evident from the observation which Socrates 9 makes upon the education of

3 De Hæres.c. 80.(inPerorat. t. 8. Tvávous ouvodø, åtò 'Póuns Bum p. 27 b.) Audivi scripsisse de here- βλίον, και παρ' ημίν κατάκειται, την sibus Sanctum Hieronymum, sed αυτήν ταύτην πίστιν έχον. ipsum ejus opusculum in nostra 6' Vit. Hilarii.(CC. t. 4. p. 1031 d.) bibliotheca invenire non potuimus. Fecit oratorium Sancti Stephani in

4 De Scriptor. Eccles. c. 113.(t. 2. baptisterio Lateranensi. Fecit aup.927.)...Plurimo labore corruptam tem et bibliothecas duas in eodem jam bibliothecam Origenis et Pam- loco. phili in membranis instaurare cona- 7 De Templis, 1.

6. tus est.

(p. 369. col. sinistr.) Imprimis au5 Ep. 82. [al. 244.] ad Patrophil. tem, &c. (t. 3. part. 2. p. 549 d. n. 5.) "OTL 8 Ultrajecti, 1680. 8vo. (Zutphaδε εν τη Ρώμη έγγραφος αυτών όμο- nice, τ669. 12mo.) λογία της εν Νικαία πίστεως απόκει- 9 Lib. 3. c. 1. (p. 168. 10.). ... ται, τούτο ουκ εννοούσιν ουδε ότι διά Εις την βασιλικήν, ένθα τότε τα παιτης εαυτών χειρός επέδωκαν τη εν δευτήρια ήν κ.τ.λ.

3. c.

P. 101.

2

Julian, the apostate, that in his youth he frequented the church, where in those days the schools were kept.' He speaks of the schools of grammar and rhetoric, which it seems were then taught at Constantinople in some apartment belonging to the church. Here also it is probable those famous catechetic schools of Alexandria and Cæsarea were kept: for Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, is said by Ruffin 10 to have authorized Origen to teach as catechist in the church. Which, as I have noted in another place 11, cannot be understood of preaching publicly in the church; for Origen was then but eighteen years old, and not in orders, when he first entered upon the catechetic school; but it must mean his private teaching in the school of the church. Which, whether it was in the catechumenia within the church, or in the baptisteria or pastophoria without the church, is not very easy, nor very material to be determined, since it appears to have been in some place belonging to the church, but not precisely determined by any ancient writers.

Whilst I am upon this head I cannot but take notice of a canon attributed to the sixth general Council of Constantinople, which promotes the setting up of charity schools in all country churches. For among those nine canons which are ascribed to this Council in some ancient Collections, and published by Crabbe, there is one 12 to this purpose; • That presbyters in country towns and villages should have schools to teach all such children as were sent to them, for which they should exact no reward, nor take any thing, except the parents of the children thought fit to make them any charitable present by way of voluntary oblation. And another of those canons 13 speaks of schools in churches and monasteries subject to the

10 L. 6. c. 3. (p. 132 b.). ... De- literas eis commendare vult, eos non metrius episcopus.... catechizandi renuant suscipere. .... Nihil autem ei, id est, docendi magisterium in ab eis pretii exigant, nec aliquid ab ecclesia tribuit. [Conf. Euseb. 1. 6. eis accipiant, excepto quod eis pac. 3. (v. I. p. 261. 14.) 'ETTELOT, rentes eorum charitatis studio sua έώρα φοιτητές ήδη πλείους, κ. τ.λ.] voluntate obtulerint.

11 B. 3. ch. 1o. s. 4. V. 1. p. 346. 13 C. 4. (ibid. c.) Si quis ex and nn. 10, II.

presbyteris voluerit nepotem suum 12 C. 5. ap. Crabb. t. 2. p. 415. aut aliquem consanguineum ad scho(ap. Labb. t. 6. p. 1204 d.) Pres- las mittere in ecclesiis sanctorum, byteri per_villas et vicos scholas aut in cænobiis, quæ nobis ad rehabeant. Et si quis [al. quislibet] gendum commissa sunt, licentiam fidelium suos parvulos ad discendas id faciendi concedimus.

church.

bishop's care and direction. From which we may conclude, that schools were anciently very common appendants both of cathedral and country churches, and therefore it was not improper to hint thus much of them here, though a more full account of other things relating to them will make a part in

this work hereafter in its proper place. In what 13. Eusebius, in his Description of the Church of the Twelve sense dwelling houses, Apostles built by Constantine at Constantinople, takes notice gardens, of some other buildings and places belonging to the church. and baths, For that church, he says 14, was surrounded with a large parts of the atrium, or area, on each side of which were porticoes or

cloisters, and along by them first, oikou Barlaelol, which Valesius renders basilice, but I think Musculus something better, domus basilica; for they seem not to mean royal palaces, but the houses of the clergy adjoining to the church. Then he adds dovtpà, which in this place neither signifies the baptistery, nor the fountain before the church, but baths belonging to the church, which in a law of Theodosius 15, that speaks also of the several parts of the church, where men should be allowed to take sanctuary, are called more plainly balnea, and in the Greek copy doutpà, as well in the Code, as in the Acts of the Council of Ephesus, where the same law is recited. Eusebius adds to these åvakauttúpia, which Musculus translates deambulatorii recessus, taking them, I presume, for walks about the church.

I But Valesius more properly renders them diversoria ; for they seem to mean the little hospitals, or houses of entertainment

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14 De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 59. 15 Cod. Theod. 1.9. tit. 4. De his, (v. 1. p. 659. 24.) 'Aupi TOūTOV qui ad ecclesias confugiunt, leg. 4. [yewr) aiôpios no aŭin Tampeyéons, (t. 3. p. 363.).... Ut inter templum, είς αέρα καθαρόν αναπεπταμένης εν quod parietum descripsimus cinctu, τετραπλεύρω δε ταύτη στoαι διέτρε- et januas primas ecclesiae, quicquid yov, jégov avto veơ ai plov áno- fuerit interjacens, sive in cellulis, Taußávovoai oikoi te Bagiheroi tais sive in domibus, bortulis, balneis, στοαίς, λουτρά τε, και ανακαμπτήρια areis, atque porticibus, confugas inπαρεξετείνετο, άλλά τε πλείστα κατα- terioris templi vice tueatur. [Vid. Joyla tois TOÙ TÓTrov "povpois éTTITN- Edict. Theodos. et Valentin. De deiws eiyaquéva. [Valesius, (ibid. his, qui ad ecclesiam confugiunt ; 25.) Præterea basilicæ, lavacra, &c. ad calc. C. Ephes. (t. 3. p. 1235 d.) -For Musculus's Latin Version, of ... Kai tây npótwv metà tous onthe Ecclesiastical Historians, see Ed. μοσίους τόπους της αγίας εκκλησίας Basil. 1549. or, Cum scholiis Grynæi, Oupôv tepleykeiueva, cite év oiBasil. 1570.-Chrystophorson, (Col- κίαις, ή έν κήποις, είτε εν αυλαίς, on. Agripp. 1570. p. 325.) following ή λουτρούς, ή και εν στοαίς τυγχάνει, Valesius, renders it regia domus. ED.) K.T.N. ED.]

for the poor and strangers; which are the cellulæ, the little cells or lodgings, if I mistake not, spoken of in the foresaid law of the Theodosian Code. And perhaps they might serve as lodgings also for such as fled to take sanctuary in the church: for these might neither eat nor lodge within the church, but only in some of these outward buildings, which upon that account were made as safe a retreat as the very altar itself, by the forementioned law of Theodosius. And so were the karayóyla, as Eusebius calls them, the habitations of the porters or keepers of the church : and likewise the gardens, and area, and cloisters enjoyed the same privilege, being within the bounds of the mepißolos, or outward enclosure of the church : and so far, as to what concerns the privilege of yielding sanctuary, all these places were reckoned as parts of the church. But of this more in the last chapter [of this Book,] which treats particularly of the laws relating to the asyla, and the privilege of taking sanctuary in the church.

14. I should here have put an end to this chapter, but that when orsome readers would be apt to reckon it an omission, that I

gans first

came to be have taken no notice of

organs
and bells

among

the utensils of used in the the church. But the true reason is, that there were no such things in use in the ancient churches for many ages. Music in churches is as ancient as the Apostles, but instrumental music not so. For it is now generally agreed by learned men, that the use of organs came into the Church since the time of Thomas Aquinas, anno 1250: for he in his Summs 16 has these words : Our Church does not use musical instruments, as harps and psalteries, to praise God withal, that she may

not seem to Judaize.' From which our learned Mr. Gregory, in a peculiar Dissertation 17 that he has upon this subject, concludes, that there was no ecclesiastical use of organs in his time.' And the same inference is made by Cajetan 18 and Navarre 19

church,

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16 Secund. Secund. quæst. 91. art. mula. (Ed. Lugdun. 1588. p. 326.) 2. (t. 22. p. 389.) Instrumenta mu- Inter hæc igitur, &c.— Vid. etiam sica, sicut citharas et psalteria, non ap. Hospin. de Templis, 1. 2. c. 26. assumit ecclesia in divinas laudes 19 De Orat. et Hor. Canon. c. 16. ne videatur Judaizare.

n. 46. (ap. Oper. Lugdun. 1597. t. 3. 17 Discourse of the Singing of the p. 377 d. 8.) ..... Nova cæremonia Nicene Creed. (int. oper. posthum. laudandi Deum in ecclesia cathop. 51.)

lica. 18 In loc. Aquin. citat. et in Sum

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