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the fittest persons to be employed therein, as being least known or suspected by the Heathen : but for want of light, we can determine nothing about it.
In the following ages we find several other inventions before bells to call religious assemblies together. In Egypt they seem to have used trumpets, after the manner of the Jews. Whence Pachomius 2, the father of the Egyptian monks, makes it one article of bis rule, that every monk should leave his cell as soon as he heard the sound of the trumpet calling to church.' And the same custom is mentioned by Johannes Climacus 43, who was abbot of Mount Sinai in the sixth century; whence we may conjecture, that the old usage continued till that time in Palestine also. But in some monasteries they took the office by turns of going about to every one's cell, and with the knock of a hammer calling the monks to church; which custom is often mentioned by Cassian +4, and Palladius 45, and Moschus
42 Regul. c. 3. ap. Bibl. Patr. t. 15. Loyiav. p. 629. (ap. Galland. t. 4. p. 718 b.) 46 Prat. Spirit. Nocturnum pulCum audierit vocem tubæ ad col. sare signum, &c.—[Ap. Bibl. Patr. lectam vocantis, statim egrediatur. Gr.-Lat. s. Auctar. Ducæan., (t. 2. p.
43 Scala Paradisi, Gradu 19. ap. 1076.) where the following passage Bibl. Patr. t. 5. p. 244. (Oper. Paris. occurs: Cum quadam nocte surrexis1633. p. 264. ad calc. col. dextr.) ’E. sem ut pulsarem signum, ea quippe πιτηρήσωμεν και ευρήσομεν, της πνευ- cura mihi, &c.-Ibid.c.104.(p.1099.) ματικής σάλπιγγος σημαινούσης, κ.τ.λ. Ut pulsaret signum, &c.—See also
44 Instit. 1.2. c. 17. (p. 28.) Is au- c. 73. according to Cotelerii Eccles. tem, cui religiosi conventus commo- Græc. Monument. (Paris. 1681. t. 2. nitio, vel synaxeos cura committi- p. 395 c.) Ainyńoato ņuiv...o'ABtur, non passim, ut libitum est, nec βας Θεοδόσιος .... λέγων, ότι εν μια prout nocte fuerit expergefactus, aut προ του κρουσαι το ξύλον το νυκτεριopportunitas eum somni proprii seu vòv, K.7.1., -antequam pulsaret nocinsomnii coarctaverit, fratres etiam turnum lignum.-Also c. 74. (ibid. p. ad quotidianas vigilias exsuscitare 396 b.) "Erepos dé tis ....dinynoato presumit, &c.-Ιbid. 1. 4. c. 12. (p. ...λέγων, ότι εν μια προ του κρούσαι 55.) Itaque considentes inter cubi- rò túlov, K.7.d., -antequam pulsaret lia sua, et operi ac meditationi stu- signum, &c. It is remarkable that dium pariter impendentes, cum so- Cotelerius has rendered túlov by nitum pulsantis ostium ac diverso. lignum in the first place, and by rum cellulas percutientis audierint, signum immediately afterwards. Posad orationem eos scilicet seu ad o- sibly the latter is a typographical pus aliquod invitantis, certatim e error.—The learned Author, who gecubilibus suis unusquisque prorum- nerally cites the Pratum Spirituale
according to the edition of Ducæus 45 Hist. Lausiac. c. 104. (ap. Bibl. in the second volume of the BiblioPatr. Gr.-Lat. t. 2. p. 1023 d. 12.) theca Patrum, Paris. 1624, appears ..... Και πληρώσας τον συνήθη των in this instance to have had in view ευχών κανόνα, το τηνικαύτα τα έξ- the Latin rendering of the first pasVTVLASTIKQ opupia Tàs távtwv 8 Kpov- sage from chapter 73, according to εν κέλλας, συνάγων αυτούς εις τους the edition of Cotelerius, which I ευκτηρίους οίκους προς ορθρινήν δοξο- have given above. ED.]
as used chiefly for their night-assemblies, whence the instrument is termed by them the night-signal, and the wakening mallet. In the monastery of virgins, which Paula, the famous Roman lady, set up and governed at Jerusalem, the signal was used to be given by one going about and singing, Hallelujah! for that word was their call to church, as St. Jerom 47 informs us.
In other parts of the East, they had their sounding instruments of wood, as Bona 18 shews at large out of the Acts of the second Council of Nice, and Theodorus Studita, and Nicephorus Blemides, and several other writers. And the use of bells was not known among them, as he observes 49 out of Baronius 30, till the year 865; when Ursus Patriciacus, Duke of Venice, made a present of some to Michael, the Greek Emperor, who first built a tower to the church of St. Sophia to hang them in. But whether it be that this custom never generally prevailed among the Greeks, or whether it be that the Turks will not permit them to use any bells, so it is at present that they have none, but follow their old custom of using wooden boards or iron plates full of holes, which they call σήμαντρα and χειροσήμαντρα, because they hold them in their
47 Ep. 27. [al. 108.] Epitaph. opus est. Auctor Vitæ Sancti NicoPaulæ. p. 178. (t. 1. p. 706 b.) Post nis cognomento Metanæitæ: Et ligni Alleluia ? cantatum, quo signo vo- pulsatione omnes fratres convocat. cabantur ad collectam, nulli residere Et tubæ quidem ac mallei usus ad licitum erat.
sola monasteria pertinuisse videtur. 48 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 22. n. 2. Ligna autem ab omnibus ecclesiis (p. 230.) Usi sunt etiam Græci lig- Orientalibus usurpata fuerunt, lonnorum percussione, quorum usum goque spatio permansit eorum conantiquissimum esse ex Actis Secun- suetudo, quia ... dæ Synodi Nicænæ constat.
receperunt. nim Act. 4., ex Libro Miraculorum [Ibid. (p. 230.) Campanas vero Sancti Anastasii Martyris, legimus, usui Græcis esse cæpisse anno 865, quod quum ejus reliquiæ Cæsareæ refert Baronius ex Historiæ Venetæ appropinquarent, cives omnes, læ- scriptoribus asserentibus, Ursum titia magna perfusi, ligna sacra pul- Patriciacum, Venetiarum Ducem, santes, obviam facti sunt. Eorun- primum omnium dono misisse duodem frequens habetur mentio apud decim mirificæ artis et valde sonoras Græcos scriptores. Theodorus, Pe- Michaëli Imperatori, qui eas in turri treorum episcopus, in Vita Sancti ad Sanctam Sophiam exstructa colTheodosii Archimandritæ : Monachi, locavit. Grischov.] ait, lignum pulsabant præter solitam 50 An. 865. (t. 10. p. 319.) propemodum horam. Nicephorus Ble- Ad hunc quoque annum referunt mides in Vita Sancti Pauli Latren- scriptores prosequuti res Venesis : Imperat, ut ante tempus lignum tas, ærea instrumenta, quæ campacongregans monachos pulsetur, et sa- nas dicimus, usui esse cæpisse Græcra mystagogia peragatur. Theodo- cis, missis ipsis a Duce Venetiarum, rus Studita in Carminibus : Veluti Urso Patriciaco, ad Michaelem Imtuba percute lignum tempore suo, ut peratorem.
hands, and knock them with a hammer or mallet to call the people together to church, as we are informed by Allatius 50, and a late learned writer 51 of our own, who has been an eyewitness of their customs.
Who first brought bells into use in the Latin Church, is a thing yet undetermined; some ascribing them to Pope Sabinianus, St. Gregory's successor, anno 604; and others to Paulinus, bishop of Nola, contemporary with St. Jerom. This last is certainly a vulgar error, and seems to owe its rise to no other foundation, but only that he was bishop of Nola in Campania (where bells perhaps were first invented, and thence called nolæ and campanæ,) and some bold modern writer thence concluded that he was therefore the author of them. And it might make the story look a little more plausible, because that he also founded a church in Nola. But then it happened unluckily for this fiction, that he himself describes his church, and that very minutely, in his twelfth Epistle to Severus, but takes no notice of tower or bells, though he is exact in recounting all other lesser edifices belonging to his church : which, as Bona truly observes, is a shrewd argument, joined with the silence of all other ancient writers, to prove that he was not the inventor of them. Yet Bona after all would have it thought that they began to be used in the Latin Church immediately upon the conversion of Christian emperors, because the tintinnabula or lesser sort of bells had been used before by the Heathens to the like purpose. Which is an argument, I think, that has very little weight in it, since there is no ancient author that countenances his conjecture. For he produces none before Audænus Rothomagensis 52 that mentions the use of the tintin
50 [In Dissert. 1. de Recentiorum do in alteram, prope vel eniinus ah Græcorum Templis. (p. 102. lin. ult.) ipsa sinistra, ita lignum diverberat, Sacerdotes Græci ligneo instrumento ut ictum nunc plenum, nunc graad Græcos in ecclesiam convocan- vem, nunc acutum, nunc crebrum, dos utuntur. Id est, lignum bina- nunc extensum edens, perfecta murum decempedarum longitudine, du- sices scientia auribus suavissime moorum digitorum crassitudine, latitu- duletur. Grischov.] dine quatuor, quam optime dedola- 51 Dr. Smith's Account of the tum, non fissum aut rimosum, quod Greek Church, (p. 70.)....... They manu sinistra medium tenens sacer- make use of a wooden board, &c. dos vel alius, dextra malleo ex eo- 52 [Dado, Gallice Ouen, archbishop dem ligno cursim hinc inde trans- of Rouen, an. 640. Canonized by currens, modo in unam partem, mo- the Roman Church. Ed.]
BINGHAM, VOL. III.
nabula, nor any before Bede, that uses the name campana ; both which authors lived in the seventh century, and that is an argument that these things were not come into use among Christians long before, else we might have heard of them in writers before them, as we frequently do in those that follow after.
I need not now tell any reader, that the Popish custom of consecrating, and anointing, and baptizing of bells, and giving them the name of some saint, is a very modern invention. Baronius 52 carries it no higher than the time of John XIII, anno 968, who consecrated the great bell of the Lateran church, and gave it the name of John, from whence he thinks the custom was authorized in the Church. Menardus 53 and Bona 54 would have it thought a little more ancient, but yet they do not pretend to carry it higher than one age more to the time of Charles the Great, in whose time some Rituals, Menardus says, had a form of blessing and anointing bells, under this title or rubric, Ad signum ecclesiæ benedicendum, A form for blessing of bells. And it is not improbable but that such a corruption might creep into the Rituals of those times, because we find among the Capitulars of Charles the
52 An. 968. n. 86. (t. 10. p. 797 c.) dictione cælesti, &-c. In Codice RaSed ad Joannem Pontificem rever- toldi: Ad signum ecclesiæ benedicentamur, qui, Capuæ his peractis, in dum. In primis, intingue ter in aqua, urbem rediens, cum imperator ibi et laves in ea, quæ benedicenda est adhuc moraretur, contigit primari- his verbis : Benedic, Domine, 8c. am Lateranensis ecclesiæ campanam 54 Bona, Rer. Liturg. l. 1. c. 22. miræ magnitudinis, recens ære fu- n.7. (p. 232.) Usum quidem benesam, super campanile elevari: quam dicendi campanas scribit Baronius prius idem Pontifex sacris ritibus a Joanne XIII. traxisse originem, Deo consecravit, atque Joannis no- qui anno 968. campanam Lateramine, puto Baptistæ, cujus ecclesiæ nensem miræ magnitudinis, anteesset usui, nuncupavit. Qui sacer quam super campanile elevaretur, ritus in ecclesia perseveravit, ut eo sacris ritibus Deo consecravit, atque modo, quo ipse usus, campanæ in Joannis nomine nuncupavit, qui riecclesiis collocandæ, Deo, primum tus, inquit, in ecclesia perseveravit. imposito eis nomine, dicarentur. Sed multo antiquiorem esse ex Ri
53 Menard. Not. in Sacrament. tualibus Libris integro sæculo ante Greg. p. 207. (t. 3. p. 438 c. 5.) Joannem XIII. conscriptis palam Porro his de basilicæ dedicatione fit, in quibus formula benedicendi notatis, subjungendus est ordo in et ungendi campanas reperitur, hoc benedictione signi, hoc est nolæ seu præfixo titulo, Ad signum ecclesiæ campanæ, qui exstat in Codicibus benedicendum, ut eruditissimus Me. Rhemensi et Ratoldi abbatis. In nardus testatur in notis ad Libr. Codice igitur Rhemensi ita habetur: Sacrament. p. 207. ex Codice RheAd signum ecclesiæ benedicendum. mensi, tempore Caroli Magni exaBenedic, Domine, hanc aquam bene- rato.
Great 55 a censure and prohibition of that practice, Ut clocas
churches. 1. AFTER having taken a distinct survey of the chief parts, What the and buildings, and common utensils of the ancient churches, it ancients,
meant by will not be amiss to cast our eyes upon the ornamental parts their ana
themata in thereof, and consider a little after what manner the first
churches, Christians beautified their houses of prayer. The richness and splendour of some of their fabrics, and the value of their utensils belonging to the altar, many of which were of silver and gold, I have already taken notice of: what, therefore, I shall further add in this place concerns only the remaining ornaments of the church, some of which were a little uncommon, and but rarely mentioned by modern writers. The general name for all sorts of ornaments in churches, whether in
55 Cited by Durantus de Ritibus litur et insonat campana, fides et &c., l. 1. c. 22. n. 2. (p. 72.) Plura caritas in animis hominum augeade tintinnabulis Rhodiginus. Appel- tur, facessant omnes insidiæ diaboli, lantur item clocæ, vocabulo Germa- grando, fulmina, venti, tempestates, nico, ut in Capitularia Caroli Magni, et omnis intemperies mitigetur : ubi Ut clocas non baptizent, &c.
crucem illam oleatam linteo detersit, 56 Comment. 1. 21. p. 388. (p. 608. septem alias cruces in ea format, sub im.) Consimili ratione tractan- intus vero solum unam : postea, tur campanæ. Et primo quidem sic psalmos aliquot recitans, campanæ eas pendere oportet, ut circumire thuribulum subdit, et suffitum facit, possit episcopus, qui, cum psalmos eique bene precatur. Plerisque in aliquot 'demurmuravit, aquam et locis epulum dari consuevit et persalem consecrat, simulque miscet ; agi convivium, non secus atque in eaque foris et intus campanam dili- nuptiis. genter lavat, post extergit, et oleo 57 De Templ. l. 4. c. 9. P. 113. sacro formam crucis in ea describit, (p. 391.) De Consecratione CampaDeumque precatur, ut, quum impel- narum.