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but they have not his approbation. Nor had they the approbation of the Catholic Church; for he says, 'the Church condemned them as ignorant, and superstitious, and self-willed persons, and daily endeavoured to correct them as untoward children.'

8. From which any rational and unprejudiced person will The piceasily conclude, that the first design of bringing pictures into

kings and churches, was only for ornament or history, and not for wor-bishops

brought ship and adoration, as St. Austin and Philostorgius have de- into the clared. And this

may

be further confirmed from what Paulinus church himself and other writers assure us of, that at first the pictures same time. of the living had their place in the church, as well as the dead, and bishops and kings were joined with the saints and martyrs. Paulinus's own picture was set, with St. Martin's, in the baptistery of the church built by Severus; and Paulinus 3 himself wrote two epigrams, by way of inscription, to be set by them, to teach men not to worship, but to imitate them, the one as a saint, the other as a penitent sinner. Baronius 4 thinks Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, was the first that had this honour done him, anno 488; but Valesius 5 judiciously corrects

about the

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tholicæ maledicere desinatis, vitupe- Martinum veneranda viri testatur
rando mores hominum, quos et ipsa imago :
condemnat, et quos quotidie tan- Altera Paulinum forma refert hu-
quam malos filios corrigere studet. milem.

3 Ep. 12. ad. Sever. (p. 142.) Ille fidem exemplis et dictis fortibus
Abluitis quicunque animas et mem- armat,
bra lavacris,

Ut meriti palmas intemerata ferat: Cernite propositas ad bona facta Iste docet, fusis redimens sua crivias!

mina nummis, Adstat perfectæ Martinus regula Vilior ut sit res, quam sua cuique vitæ :

salus. Paulinus, veniam quo mereare, 4 An. 488, ex Suida, voce Aca. docet.

cius. (t. 6. p. 442 e.) Tanti fuit hic Hunc, peccatores, illum spectate, fastus et arrogantiæ, ut sineret suas beati :

ipsius imagines adhuc viventis, quod Exemplar sanctis ille sit, iste reis. de nullo ante eum episcopo legitur, -Ibid,

in ecclesiis dedicari : qui enim ei Dives opum Christo, pauper sibi, assentabantur, ipsius effigies in ecpulchra Severus

clesiis pingere vel affigere consueCulmina sacratis fontibus instituit. verunt, de quibus ista Suidas haEt quia cælestes aulam condebat in bet : Cum omnes ecclesias in sua actus,

potestate haberet, solicitam curam Quo renovarentur fonte Deoque impendit his, qui præerant: quorum homines;

sagaciores ejus imaginem in templis Digna sacramentis gemina sub ima- consecrarunt, &c. gine pinxit,

5 Not. in Theodor. Lect. 1. 2. (v. Disceret ut vitæ dona renatus 3. p. 578. n. 2.) Scio quidem Barohomo.

nium ad annum Christi 488, existi

his error, and observes it to have been customary long before ; and the instance I have given in Paulinus sufficiently confirms his observation. Theodorus Lector 6 speaks of the same honour done to Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, in the remark that he makes upon Timotheus, his successor; “that whatever church he went into, he would never begin divine service till the images of Macedonius were first pulled down.' Suidas 7 takes notice of the picture of Gennadius, patriarch of Constantinople, being joined with that of Christ, and Christ speaking to him in these words, ' Destroy this temple, and in thy successor's days I will raise it up again.' Damasceno, a great advocate for images, pretends to carry this practice as high as Constantine, telling us, from Socrates, that Constantine ordered his own images to be set up in temples; but, as Mr. Spanheim' has observed, there is something of fraud in the relation : for Socrates 10 speaks not of Christian churches, but of Heathen temples, in which, having demolished their idols, he caused his own images to be placed in their room. But admitting it had been as Damascen pretends, it makes

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masse, eas imagines Acacio positas ιστορίας Σωκράτους, βιβλίου πρώτου, fuisse, dum esset patriarcha; sed κεφαλ. ιη. περί του αυτου βασιλέως. Baronium refellunt verba Malchi Μετά ταύτα δε ο βασιλεύς Κωνστανapud Suidam, qui ecclesiam illam τίνος, επιμελέστερος ών περί τα Χριjuxta navale, in qua imago erat Aca- ctiavôv, [al. tà tepi xplotiavio poû] cii, tesselato opere fabricatam, [leg. απεστράφη τας Ελληνικάς θρησκείας, fabricata] sub Gennadio patriarcha και παύει [μεν] τα μονομάχια εικόνας absolutam esse testatur: nec verum δε τάς ιδίας εν τοις ναούς απέθετο. est, quod idem Baronius illic obser- 9 Hist. Imagin. s. 1. p. 14. (Oper. vat, primum ex patriarchis Acacium t. 2. [Miscell. Sacr. Antiq. 1.6. c. 6.] lunc honorem affectasse. Nam ex p. 715. 23.). . . . Pessima intelligitur Suidæ loco a nobis allato aperte fides auctoris Orationis 3. de Imaconvincitur, eum morem Gennadii ginibus tributæ Damasceno, probatemporibus jam invaluisse.

turi erectionem cultumque sacrarum 6'L. 2. (v. 3. p. 578. 3.) "Otrov & imaginum etiam tempore Constanάν ποτε εισήλθεν εν [τη] εκκλησία tini M. ex his Socratis, 1. Ι. c. 18, Τιμόθεος, ει μη πρότερον τας εικόνας Εικόνας δε τάς ιδίας εν τοις ναούς απέΜακεδονίου κατέσπασε, της λειτουρ- θετο. Ρlanum enim est, loqui Soγίας ουκ ήρχετο.

cratem de gentilium templis ac deo7 Voce 'Akákios. (t. 1. p. 118 a. 10.) rum delubris, in quibus, sublatis Του γάρ έργου παντός επί Γενναδίου idolis, suas imagines substituit imτελεσθέντος, εις τον επιφανή τόπον perator. Nihil de imaginibus sacris εξετύπωσε

voav aŭtòv toù véw kai per Christi, Virginis, Sanctorumve. Niταξύ τούδε τον Σωτήρα λέγοντα το hil etiam de imaginibus ad cultum Γενναδίω, Λύσαν τον ναόν τούτον, και aut adorationem erectis. επί του μετά σε έγερω αυτόν.

10 L. 1. c. 18. juxt. Ed. Cantabr. 8 Orat. 3. de Iinagin. p. 789. (t. 1720. p. 47. See the preceding note. Ι. p. 37o b.) 'Εκ της εκκλησιαστικής

nothing to the purpose for which he alleges it, which was to prove the worship of images in churches.

9. For now, I presume, no one will suspect that the pictures But neither of bishops and kings were set up in churches to be worshipped, the living

pictures of while they were living among other men, but only designed to or dead debe an ornament to the church, or a civil honour to the

signed for persons.

worship. And the same must be concluded of the pictures of the dead, since the first introducers of them intermixed their own pictures with them. But it must be owned that this superstition presently followed upon the setting up of pictures in churches ; yet it was never approved, till the second Council of Nice, anno 787, made a decree in favour of it. Serenus, bishop of Marseilles, ordered all images to be defaced, and cast out of all the churches of his diocese; and though Gregory the Great 11 blamed him for this, and defended the use of pictures in churches as innocent, and useful for instruction of the vulgar, yet he equally condemns the worship and adoration of them. And when the Council of Nice had established it, in opposition to the Council of Constantinople of three hundred and thirty-eight bishops, held anno 754, who had before condemned it, the decrees of Nice were rejected by all the Western world, the Popes of Rome only excepted. The Council of Frankfort in Germany, the Council of Paris in France, and some other Councils in Britain, agreed unanimously to condemn them, and, for some hundred years after, the worship of images was not received in any of the three foresaid nations.

But it is as much beyond my design to pursue this history

11 L.9. Ep. 9.(CC. t.5. p. 1434 e.) ens, easdem ecclesiæ imagines conPerlatum siquidem ad nos fuerat, fregit atque projecit. Et quidem quod, inconsiderato zelo succensus, zelum vos, ne quid manufactum sanctorum imagines, sub hac quasi adorari possit, habuisse laudamus ; excusatione, ne adorari debuissent, sed frangere easdein imagines non confregeris. Et quidem quia eas debuisse, judicamus. Idcirco enim adorari vetuisses, omnino laudavi- pictura in ecclesiis adhibetur, ut hi, mus; fregisse vero reprehendimus. qui literas nesciunt, saltem in parie.... Frangi non debuit, quod non tibus videndo legant, quæ legere in ad adorandum in ecclesiis, sed ad codicibus non valent. instruendas solummodo mentes fuit fraternitas et illas servare, et ab eanescientium collocatum.-L. 7. Ep. rum adoratu populum prohibere de110. (ibid. p. 1370 e. ult. lin.) Præ- buit

, quatenus et literarum nescii terea indico, dudum ad nos perve- haberent, unde scientiam historiæ nisse, quod fraternitas vestra, quos- colligerent, et populus in picturæ dam imaginum adoratores aspici- adoratione minime peccaret.

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any further, as it is needless, there being so many excellent discourses on this particular subject, especially those of Mr. Daille 12, Bp. Stillingfleet 13, and Spanheim 14, who have omitted nothing on this head that was necessary to answer the cavils of their Romish antagonists, or give satisfaction to a curious

reader. No images 10. All I shall add further therefore upon this subject is of God or the Trinity only two observations, which Petavius himself 15 has made for allowed in The first is that the Ancients never allowed any pictures churches till after of God the Father or of the Trinity to be set up in their

churches. For this he produces the testimonies of Origen 16, Nicene Council. St. Ambrose 17, and St. Austin 18, who particularly pronounces

it to be an impious thing for any Christian to set up any such image in the church, and much more to do it in his heart. Nay, Pope Gregory II. who was otherwise a great stickler for images, in that very Epistle 19 which he wrote to the Emperor Leo, to defend the worship of them, denies it to be lawful to make any image of the divine nature. And the second Council of Nice itself was against it, as is evident from the Epistles of Germanus, bishop of Constantinople 20, and John, bishop of

12 De Imagin. (Lugd. Bat. 1642. θειότητος φανταζόμενοι είναι, απαί8vo.)

δευτοί είσι, και ανδράποδα. 13 Defence of the Discourse of 17 In Ps. 118. Octon. 12. (corrige, Idolatry, &c. (vol. 5. pp. 263, seqq. Octon. 10.] (t. 1. p. 1095 e. n. 25.) [See Answer to a Book intituled, Gentiles lignum adorant, quia Dei Catholicks no Idolaters.]

imaginem putant; sed invisibilis 14 Hist. Imagin.(Lugd. Bat. 1686. Dei imago non in eo est quod vide8vo.)

tur, sed in eo utique quod non vi15' De Incarnat. I. 15. C. 14. n. I.

detur. (t. 5. p. 238.) In imaginum usu non 18 De Fid. et Symbol. c. 7. (t. 6. nihil variare Catholicorum senten- p. 157 d.) Tale enim simulachrum tias animadvertimus : ac bifariam nefas est Christiano in templo colpotissimum. Primum, quod pleri- locare, multo magis in corde nefaque veterum corporis expertium re- rium est, &c. rum imagines damnandas judica- 19 Ep. i. ad Leont. in C. Nicæn. runt: solas vero Incarnati Verbi, II. (CC. t. 7. p. 13 b.) Alà tòy ac Sanctorum licitas esse, et omnino Πατέρα του Κυρίου Ιησού Χριστού corpore preditorum ; atque haec ουκ ιστορούμεν, και ζωγραφούμεν; opinio, etiam post ortum Iconocla- 'Επειδή ουκ οίδαμεν τις έστιν και starum hæresis, apud acerrimos de- coû búou áðuvatov iotopnoai, kai fensores religionis illius percrebuit. ζωγραφήσαι και εί εθεασάμεθα, και

16 Cont. Cels. 1. 6. (t. Ι. p. 64ο b.) έγνωρίσαμεν, καθώς τον Υιόν αυτού, Kάν τινες δε μή ταυτά φασιν είναι κακείνον αν είχομεν ίστορήσαι και ζωτους θεούς, αλλά μιμημάτων αληθινών γραφήσαι. [lege μιμήματα των αληθινών] κακεί- Ep. 1. in Act. 4. C. Nicæn. II. νων σύμβολα' ουδεν ήττον και ούτοι, (CC. ibid. p. 292 b.) Ουδε γάρ της εν βαναυσων χερσί τα μιμήματα της αοράτου θειότητος εικόνα, ή ομοίωμα,

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Thessalonica, which are recited with approbation in the Acts of that Council. And Damascen, following the doctrine of the same Council, says 21, · It is as great impiety, as it is folly, to make any image of the Divine Nature, which is invisible, inorporeal, incircumscriptible, and not to be figured by the art of man.' And therefore in all ancient history we never meet with any one instance of picturing God the Father, because it was supposed he never appeared in any visible shape, but only by a voice from heaven. Upon this account Paulinus, where he describes a symbolical representation of the three Divine Persons, made in the painting of a church, makes a lamb to be the symbol of Christ, and a dove the symbol of the Holy Ghost, but for God the Father 22 nothing but a voice from heaven. And this they did in compliance with that text in Deut. 4, 12,

“ The Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice." By which we see how much the present Church of Rome has outgone the first patrons even of image-worship itself, by allowing pictures of the Deity commonly in their temples, which the Ancients reckoned to be impious and absurd, and is acknowledged to be an abuse fit to be corrected by Cassander 23, though Petavius after all his concessions and acknowledgments of the novelty of the thing, and its contrariety to ancient custom, endeavours to find out some colour for the present practice.

11. His other acknowledgment of a difference between the Nor usually

statues or

ή σχήμα, ή μορφήν τινα αποτυπούμεν" (ibid. p. 333. b.) θεού μεν γάρ του ήν ουδε αυτών των αγίων αγγέλων αι ασωμάτου, και αοράτου, και αύλου, υπερέχουσαι τάξεις ούτε κατανοείν, και μήτε σχήμα, μήτε περιγραφήν, ούτε εξιχνιάσαι, όλως ισχύουσιν. μήτε κατάληψιν έχοντος, αδύνατον

21 De Fid. Orthodox. 1. 4. c. 17. Toleiv cikova. [al. 16.] (t. 1. p. 280 c.) Ipòs 22 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 150.) τούτοις, του αοράτου, και ασωμάτου, Pleno coruscat Trinitas mysterio; και απεριγράπτου, και άσχηματίστου Stat Christus agno; vox Patris colo θεού, τίς δύναται ποιήσασθαι μίμημα; tonat : παραφροσύνης τοίνυν άκρας και ασε- Et per columbarm Spiritus Sanctus βείας το σχηματίζειν το θείον.-Οrat. fluit. i. (s. 8.) p. 703. (ibid. p. 310 d.) 23 Consultat. sect. de Imagin. p. Πώς εικονισθήσεται το αόρατον και πώς 179. (p. 98ο. lin. 12.) Illud quoque εικασθήσεται το ανείκαστον και πώς γρα- inter abusus ponendum est, quod φήσεται το άπoσον και αμέγεθες και etiam Divinitati in Trinitatis deforαόριστον; πως ποιωσθήσεται το ανεί- matione simulachrum effingitur, δεον και πως χρωματουργηθήσεται το quod veteres absurdum et nefarium kosmatov ;-Orat. 2. [8.7.] p. 732. judicassent.

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