to God and his service,) but because it was a memorial of his martyrdom, being built in the place where Cyprian himself was offered a sacrifice to God.

9. And from hence it is very plain that the naming a church Churches by the name of a saint or martyr was far from dedicating it to

named from that saint or martyr, though it served for a memorial of him their found

ers or other among the living, and so far was an honour to his memory, circumthough dedicated only to God and his service. And this is fur- stances in

their buildther evident from this consideration, that churches were some- ing. times named from their founders, who certainly did not intend to dedicate churches to themselves. Thus Sirmond 67 has observed three churches in Carthage to be so denominated from their founders, Basilica Fausti, Florentii, and Leontic. And Sozomen 68 tells us, that the temple of Serapis, when it was turned into a church, was called by the name of Arcadius : as some in Rome and Antioch bare the name of Constantine and Justinian. Sometimes they had their name from a particular circumstance of time or place, or other accident in the building of them. The church of Jerusalem was called Anastasis and Crux, not because it was dedicated to any St. Anastasis or St. Cross, but because it was by Constantine built in the place of our Saviour's crucifixion and resurrection, as Valesius 69 and others have rightly observed. So the church of Anastasia at Constantinople was so termed, not from any saint of the same name, but because it was the church where Gregory Nazianzen, by his preaching, gave a sort of new life or resurrection to the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, after it had been long oppressed by the Arian faction, as he himself 70

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Sed ut mensa illa, que Dei est, Το μεν δη Σεράπιον ώδε ήλω, και μετ' etiam Cypriani vocetur, haec caussa oύ πολύ εις εκκλησίαν μετεσκευάσθη,

els , est : quia ut illa modo cingatur ab 'Apxadiov toù Baoiléws étrorupov. obsequentibus, ibi Cyprianus cinge- 69 Ep. de Anastas. ad calc. Euseb. batur a persequentibus, &c.-Ibid. (v. 1. p. 786. 4.) Unam duntaxat antea. (p. ead. a.)...In eodem loco, basilicam in urbe Hierosolymitana &c. See before, ch. 1. 8. 9. p. 15. ab illo conditam fuisse prodit Eusen. 78.

bius. ... sed illam alii in loco resur67 In August. Serm. 37. ex 40. a se rectionis, alii in passionis loco conedit. t. 10. p. 753. (Oper. Sirmond. structam esse dixere. t. 1. p.343 c. 4.) Quemadmodum ba- 70 Orat. 32. ad Episcopos 150. silica Fausti, et basilica Leontiana (t. 1. p. 527 b.) Xaipois, 'Avaotaola, dictæ sunt a Fausto et Leontio con- μοι της ευσεβείας επώνυμες συ γαρ ditoribus, sic Florentia hoc loco ba- τον λόγον ημίν εξανέστησας, έτι καsilica de nomine Florentii episcopi. ταφρονούμενον, τό της κοινής νίκης

68 L. 7. c. 15. (v. 2. p. 298. 19.) χωρίον, ή Σηλώμ, εν ή πρώτον την

accounts for the reason of the name in several places of his writings. And upon the like ground one of the churches of Carthage was called Basilica Restituta, from its being rescued out of the hands of the Arians. One of the churches of Alexandria was commonly called Cæsareum 71, which Valesius 72 thinks was for no other reason but because the place before had been called Cæsareum, or the Temple of the Cæsars. As a church of Antioch was called Palæa, because built in that part of the city which they termed talaiàv, or the old city. So St. Peter's at Rome was anciently called Triumphalis, because it stood in Via Triumphali, in the Triumphal Way, leading to the Capitol. And we are assured from St. Jerom 73 that the Lateran Church had its name from Lateranus, the heathen, who was slain by Nero, because it had formerly been that nobleman's palace in Rome.

A thousand observations of the like nature might be made; but these few are sufficient to shew that there were different reasons for giving names to churches; and that it was no argument of churches being dedicated to saints, because they bare the names of saints; it being otherwise apparent that they were consecrated only to God, and not to any creature.

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σκηνήν επήξαμεν, τεσσαράκοντα έτη t. 5. p. 76, b.) Igitur Petrus Mogπεριφερομένην εν τη ερήμω και πλα- gus ab abbate Amone et Joanne νωμένην. Συ τε ο μέγας ναός ούτος και episcopo Magileos, et ab abbatibus περιβόητος, η νέα κληρονομία, το νύν monachorum inferioris Egypti belμέγας είναι παρά του λόγου λαβών, ον, la passus et seditione ei in Cesarea Ießoüs 7pótepov övta, 'lepovoahna basilica, ut dicitur, facta, anathemaTTETTOLÝKayev. — Conf. Carm. 9. In tizavit Synodum Chalcedonensem Somn. Anastas. (t. 2. p.78 b.) et tomum Papæ Leonis. Εύδον δή γλυκύν ύπνον, Αναστασίαν 72 Not. in Evagr. I. 2. c. 8. (v. 3. δε τ' όνειρος

p. 298. n. 1.) Magna ecclesia urbis Στησεν εμοίσι φέρων ηματίοισι Alexandrine Cesarea dicebatur, ut πόθοις.

docet Epiphanius in Hæresi Ariano‘H apárn Nóyov ainùv évì apottó- rum ... Causam autem hujus appelδεσσι μένοντα

lationis docet Athanasius in Epist. "Hyayev és kopvony oőpeos åkpo- ad Solitarios, eo quod scilicet eccleτάτην.

sia illa constructa fuisset in loco, Τούνεκ'' 'Αναστασίαν μιν επίκλησιν qui Cesarium antea dicebatur, id καλέoυσι

est, Cæsarum templum. Νηον, εμης παλάμης έργον αρισ- 78 Ep. 30. [al. 77.] Epitaph. Faτοπόνου.

biolæ. (t. 1. p. 455 e.) Ut ante diem 71 Vid. Socrat. 1. 7. C. 15. (v. 2. Paschæ in basilica quondam Latep. 361. 17.) ..... Kai ék toù si povrani, qui Cæsariano truncatus est έκβαλόντες, επί την εκκλησίαν ή επώ- gladio, staret in ordine penitentium. νυμον Καισάριον συνέλκουσιν αποδύ- --Speaking of Fabiola doing penσαντές τε την εσθήτα, οστράκοις ανεί

ance there. Nov.-Liberat. Breviar. c. 18. (CC.

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10. What has been observed of churches is equally true of When al. altars, that they were always dedicated to God alone, and not

tars first be

gan to have to any other being whatever, even after they began to have a a particular particular consecration with some new ceremonies distinct from tion with churches; which seems to have begun first of all in the sixth new cere

monies discentury. For the Council of Agde, anno 506, is the first pub-tinct from lic record that we meet with giving any account of a distinct churches. consecration of altars; and there we find the new ceremony of chrism 74 added to the sacerdotal benediction. And not long after we find a like decree in the Council of Epone 75, anno 519, 'that no altars, but such as were made of stone, should be consecrated with the infusion of chrism upon them;' which implies, that at least some altars, if not all, had then the ceremony of chrism in their consecration. But as this ceremony was new, so was the consecration of altars, as distinct from churches, a new thing also; and much more the consecration of communion-cloths, and cups, and images, and crosses, and paschal tapers, and holy water, and beads, and bells, of which the reader may find a particular account in Hospinian 76, with all the new rites of consecrating churches in the Romish Rituals, which it is none of my business here further to pursue.

11. Concerning the ancient consecrations we have further to No church observe, that by the laws of Justinian 77 no man was to begin to build a church, before he had given security to the bishop crated beof a maintenance for the ministry, and the repairs of the endowed. church, and whatever was otherwise necessary to uphold divine service in it. And by a rule of one of the Spanish Councils 78,

to be built or conse


fore it was

74 C. 14. (t. 4. p. 1385 e.) Altaria crum ministerium, et ad incorrumplacuit non solum unctione christ. pendæ domus custodiam, et obsermatis, sed etiam sacerdotali bene- vantium alimenta ; et, si sufficienter dictione sacrari.

habere videtur, faciat prius donatio75 C. 26. (ibid. p. 1579 c.) Altaria nem eorum, quæ futura sunt depunisi lapidea infusione (al. unctione] tari; et ita domus ædificetur. chrismatis non sacrentur.

78 C. Bracar. 2. [al. 3.) c. 5. 76 De Templis, 1. 2. c. 2. (p. 373.) (t. 5. p. 897 d.) .... Unusquisque De Origine Dedicationum et Con- episcoporum meminerit, ut non secrationum, &c. - Conf. ibid. cc. prius dedicet ecclesiam aut basili

cam nisi antea dotem basilicæ et Novel. 67. c. 2. (t. 5. p. 318.) obsequium ipsius per donationem Deinde non aliter quempiam eccle- chartulæ confirmatum accipiat.siam ex novo ædificare, priusquam Vid. C. Tolet. 3. c. 15. (ibid. p. loquatur ad Deo amabilem episco- 1012 d.) Si qui ex servis fiscalibus pum, et definiat mensuram, quam ecclesias fortasse construxerint, easdeputat, et ad luminaria, et ad sa- que de sua paupertate ditaverint,

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mand any


a bishop was not to consecrate a church before the donation of its maintenance was delivered to him in writing confirmed by law. Which were necessary rules to preserve churches

' from falling to ruin, and their ministry and service from con

tempt and disgrace. Yet bishops 12. But beyond this suitable provision and settlement for not to de- the service of the church, the bishop was not to exact or dething for

mand any thing further of the founder; but it being part of his ordinary office to consecrate churches, he was obliged to do it without requiring any reward for his service; unless the founder thought fit to make him any voluntary oblation, in which case he was at liberty to receive it. So it is determined in the foresaid Spanish Council of Bracara 79, and for the French churches in the second Council of Chalons so, and others in the time of Charles the Great.

13. As to the time of consecration, they did not anciently

confine themselves to perform it only upon Sundays, but all differently days were at first indifferent both for this and the ordinations upon any day.

of the clergy likewise. Which is an observation frequently made by the learned Pagi si in his critical remarks upon the chronology of the ancient Church. Particularly he observes, that Constantine's famous dedication of the church of Jerusalem in a full synod of bishops, anno 335, must needs have been upon a Saturday; for all writers agree that it was upon the Ides of September, that is, upon the 13th day of September, which according to the exact rules and method of the cycle must fall upon a Saturday that year. Whence Pagi rightly concludes, that the custom had not yet prevailed which confined consecration of churches to the Lord's-day.

Consecra. tions performed in

hoc procuret episcopus prece sua chrisma accepturi dent. auctoritate regia confirmari.

81 Crit, in Baron, an. 335. n. 479 Ibid. (p. 897 d.) Placuit ut quo- (t. 1. p. 431.) Initio Septembris, ut ties ab aliquo fidelium ad conse- minimum, Eusebius et reliqui epicrandas ecclesias episcopi invitan- scopi, Tyro relicta, Hierosolymam tur, non quasi ex debito munus ali- petierunt, quem die decima tertia quod a fundatore requirant; sed si Septembris basilicæ Hierosolymiipse quidem aliquid ex suo voto ob- tanæ encænia celebrarint.-Ibid. n. tulerit, non respuatur.

6. (p. 431.) Idus Septembris, seu 80 Č. 16. (t. 7. p. 1275 e.) .... dies 13. illius mensis, concurrit hoc Omnes uno consensu statuimus, ut anno cum sabbato, ut methodus cysicut, pro dedicandis basilicis et clica docet. Quare nondum mos dandis ordinibus, nihil accipiendum invaluerat, ut ecclesiæ die dominica est; ita etiam pro balsamo, sive lu- dedicarentur. minaribus emendis, nihil presbyteri


14. I have nothing further to remark upon this head, save the day of only that the day of consecration was in many churches consecera

tion usually solemnly kept and observed among their anniversary festivals : celebrated

among their for Sozomen 82 gives us this account of the dedication of the

anniversary church of Jerusalem,' that in memory of it they held a yearly festivals.

. festival, which lasted for eight days together, during which time both they of the church, and all strangers, which flocked thither in abundance, held ecclesiastical assemblies, and met together for divine service.' To this Gregory the Great seems to have added a new custom here in England, which was, that on the annual feast of the dedication the people might build themselves booths round about the church, and there feast and entertain themselves with eating and drinking, in lieu of their ancient sacrifices while they were Heathens. Which is related by Bede 83, out of Gregory's Letters to Austin, and to Mellitus, the first bishop of the Saxons. And from this custom it is more than probable came our wakes, which are still observed in some places, as the remains of those feasts of dedication of particular churches.

Of the respect and reverence which the primitive Christians

paid to their churches. 1. Next to their adorning and consecration of churches, it Churches will be proper to examine what respect and reverence they paid to consecrated places, after they were once set apart for fane use,

but only divine service. They then used them only as the houses of sacred and God, for acts of devotion and religion, and did not allow of religious any thing to be done there that had not some tendency towards piety, or immediate relation to it. They might be used

never put to any pro


82. L. 2. c. 26. (v. 2. p. 81. 30.) Ut die dedicationis vel natalitiis 'Εξ εκείνου δε ετήσιον ταύτην εορτήν sanctorum martyrum, quorum illic λαμπρώς μάλα άγει ή των Ιεροσολύ- reliquia ponuntur, tabernacula sibi μων εκκλησία ως και μυήσεις εν αυτη circa easdem ecclesias, que ex fanis τελείσθαι, και οκτώ ημέρας εφεξής commutate sunt, de ramis arborum εκκλησιάζειν" συνιέναι τε πολλούς faciant, et religiosis conviviis 80σχεδόν εκ πάσης της υφ' ήλιον, οι lemnitatem celebrent, nec Diabolo Kad' iotopíay twv iepôv TÓTWV tráv- jam animalia immolent, et [al. sed] τοθεν συντρέχουσι κατά τον καιρόν ad laudem Dei in esu suo animalia ταύτης της πανηγύρεως.

occidant, et Donatori omnium de 83 'Hist. 1. 1. c. 30. (p. 71. 18.).. satietate sua gratias referant.

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