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* Have ye not houses to eat and drink in? or despise ye the church of God?” took the word church there not for the assembly, but for the place set apart for sacred duties; and that the Apostles always met together in a certain place for prayer and supplication upon Mount Sion, which was the hyperoon or conaculum, the upper room, so often mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles; where the Apostles were assembled when the Holy Ghost came upon them. Acts 2. Where our Saviour celebrated his last supper. Where he appeared to his disciples two Sundays, one after another, after his resurrection. John 20. The place where the seven deacons were elected and ordained. Acts 6. And where the first Council of Jerusalem was held. Acts 15. Which place was afterward enclosed with a goodly church, called the Church of Mount Sion, and the upper Church of the Apostles, in the time of Cyril 30, bishop of Jerusalem, and St. Jerom 31. That this was the oikos, or house of assembly mentioned, Acts 2, 46, where the Apostles continued breaking of bread; that is, celebrating the eucharist after the return from the temple. For he thinks, with many other critics, that the word év oik@32 is not to be translated from house to house, but in the house, or place where the assembly was used to meet together. His next argument is drawn from

30 Catech. 16. n. 2. [al.4.] (p. 245 portas, quibus non prævalet Infera.) οίδαμεν το Πνεύμα το άγιον το nus, et per quas credentium ad λαλήσαν εν προφήταις, και εν τη Πεν- Christum ingreditur multitudo. Osév ,

. τηκοστή κατελθόν επί τους Αποστό- tendebatur illi columna ecclesiae pornous év eidel trupivwy ywooôv, év- ticum sustinens, infecta cruore Doταύθα εν τη Ιερουσαλήμ, εν τη ανω- mini, ad quam vinctus dicitur Hagelτέρα των Αποστόλων εκκλησία πάν- latus. Monstrabatur locus, ubi suτων γαρ ημίν εστι τα αξιώματα εν- per centum viginti credentium aniταύθα Χριστός εξ ουρανών κατήλθεν' mas Spiritus Sanctus descendisset, ενταύθα το Πνεύμα το άγιον εξ ουρα- ut Joëlis vaticinium compleretur. νων κατήλθεν.

32 [The expression (Acts 2, 46.) 31 Ep.27. [al. 108.] Epitaph. Paulæ. is not ev ožko, but kar' olkov. The (t. 1. p.691c.) Unde egrediens ascen- Codex Cantabrigiensis reads kat' oidit Sion, quæ in arcem vel speculam KOUS. The Vulgate reads circa dovertitur. Hanc urbem quondam ex- mos; Erasmus, per singulas domos. pugnavit et reædificavit David. De Beza has domi, and thus defends expugnata scribitur, tibi civitas his rendering (t. 3. p. 139. Not. in Ariel, id est, leo Dei et quondam loc.)..... Accipi katà non tanquam fortissima, quam expugnavit David. distributivum, sed pro ev præposiDe ea, quæ ædificata est, dictum est, tione, ita ut kat' olkov nihil aliud Fundamenta ejus in montibus sanctis, declaret quàm év oiką, cui opponadiligit Dominus portas Sion, super tur év to lepo, liquido constat ex aomnia tabernacula Jacob : non eas liis plurimis exemplis, ut Rom. 16, portas, quas hodie cernimus in fa- 25 ; 1 Cor. 16, 19; Col. 4, 15, et villam et cinerem dissolutas, sed Philem. 2, &c. q. v. Ed.]

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what Eusebius 32 observes of the Therapeuta in Egypt, whether Essenes or Christians, that they had their peuveia, or places appropriated for divine worship, from the days of St. Mark. And that such places are to be understood in all those passages of St. Paul which salute 33 the churches in such or such a house,—that is, the congregations that met in the houses of such pious Christians as had bestowed some part of their dwellings to be an oratory for the church to assemble in. Such a conaculum is described by Lucian, or whoever was the author of the Dialogue called Philopatris, about the time of Trajan, where he brings in one Critias telling how the Christians carried him into an hyperoon, the place of their assembly, with a design to make him a proselyte to their religion. He argues further from the tradition of the Church, derived from the ancient author of the Recognitions under the name of Clemens Romanus 34, which says that Theophilus, to whom St. Luke is supposed to inscribe his Gospel, at Antioch, did convert his house into a church. And the like is reported of the house of Pudens, a Roman senator and martyr, in the Acta Pudentis, that it was turned into a church after his martyrdom. He concludes this first century with the testimony of Clemens Romanus, in his genuine Epistle to the Corinthians 35, which says, * that God had ordained as well appropriate places where, as appropriate times and persons when and whereby, he would be solemnly served, that all things might be done religiously and in order.'

14. In the next age he shews that Ignatius, in his Epistle to the Magnesians 36, exhorts them to meet together in one place,

6 which he calls tòv vaòv © coû, the temple of God; and, in bis

32 L. 2. c. 17. See before, 8. 11. τε προσφοράς και λειτουργίας επιτεp. 21. n. 5.

λεισθαι, και ουκ εική ή ατάκτως έκέ33 See Rom. 16, 3.5; Coloss. 4,15; devoev yiveo dai, all' ployévous kal1 Cor. 16, 19; Philem. I, 2.

ρούς και ώραις που τε και διά τινων 34 L. 1ο. η. 71. (Cotel. v. Ι. p.596.) επιτελείσθαι θέλει, αυτός ώρισεν τη Intra septem dies, plus quam decem υπερτάτη αυτού βουλήσει ίν', οσίως millia hominum, credentes Deo, πάντα γινόμενα εν ευδοκήσει, ευπροσbaptizati sunt, et sanctificatione con- δεκτα είη τω θελήματι αυτού. secrati; ita ut omni aviditatis desi- 36 N. 7. (Cotel. v. 2. p. 19.) Mndè derio Theophilus, qui erat cunctis πειράσητε ευλογόν τι φαίνεσθαι ιδία potentibus in civitate sublimior, do- υμίν αλλ' επί το αυτό μία προσευχή, mus suæ ingentem basilicam eccle- uia dénous, eis voûs, .... Ilávtes oùv, siæ nomine consecraret.

ώς είς, εις ένα ναόν συντρέχετε θεού, 35 Ep. 1. ad Cor. n. 40. (ibid. p. κ. τ.λ. [al. ώς ένα ναόν, κ. τ.

7...] 168.) Κατά καιρούς τεταγμένους τάς

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Proofs in the second century.

Epistle to the Philadelphians 37, he says there was one altar

' to every church, and one bishop, with his presbytery and deacons. The present Greek copies, indeed, read it a little different from Mr. Mede, leaving out the word church, but the mentioning one altar is sufficient to intimate they had then a stated place for their ecclesiastical assembly. In the same age, Pius, bishop of Rome, wrote two short Epistles to Justus, bishop of Vienna, in France, in the first of which 38 one Euprepia, a pious matron, is said to have consigned the title of her house over to the church to celebrate divine offices in;' and in the other39, one Pastor, a presbyter, is commended for erecting a titulus, that is, a church, before his death.' Clemens Alexandrinus, toward the end of this century, uses the name ecclesia, for the place of the assembly as well as the congregation. For, speaking of the church, he says 40, 'I call not now the place, but the congregation of the elect, the church.' And so in his famous homily, Quis dives salvetur? he brings in the Asian bishop, to whom St. John committed the young man to be trained up in the Christian discipline, complaining 41, " that the youth was become a villain and a robber, and now instead of the church had betaken himself to the mountains, with a company like himself.' By this it is plain, that in his time the word ecclesia was taken for a place of sacred assembly, as well as for the assembly itself.

15. In the third century the testimonies are both more numer- Proofs in ous and plain. Tertullian clearly intimates they had churches,

century. when complaining against Christians, who followed the trade of idol-making for the Gentiles, only excusing themselves that they did not worship them, he says 42, · The zeal of faith cannot but

the third

37

κ. τ. λ.

Ep. ad Philadelph. n. 4. (Cotel. 40 Stromat. 7. (p. 846. 9.) Oủ yàp ibid. p. 79. “Εν θυσιαστήριον [πάση νυν τον τόπον, αλλά το άθροισμα των τη εκκλησία] και είς επίσκοπος άμα εκλεκτών, εκκλησίαν καλώ. το πρεσβυτερία και τους διακόνους, 41 Ap. Euseb. 1. 3. c. 17. (v. 1. p.

114. 26.) et in Corbefis. Auctar. 38 Ep. 1. [al. 3.] ad Just. (CC. t. I. Noviss. (p. 108 a. 5.) Nûv avri ons p. 576 a.) Soror nostra Euprepia ti- εκκλησίας όρος κατείληφε, κ.τ.λ. tulum domus suæ pauperibus as- 42 De Idolol. c.7.(p.88 c.) Tota die signavit; ubi nunc, cum pauperi- ad hanc partem zelus fidei perorabus nostris commorantes, missas a- bit, ingemens Christianum ab idolis gimus.

in ecclesiam venire, de adversaria 39 Ep. 2. [al. 4.] (ibid. p. 577 b.) officina in domum Dei (venire,) atPresbyter Pastor titulum condidit, tollere ad Deum Patrem manus, et digne in doinino obiit.

matres idolorum, &c.

declaim all the day long upon this point, bewailing that any Christian should come from among his idols into the church ; that he should come into the house of God from the shop of his enemy, and lift up those hands to God the Father which were the mothers or makers of idols. In another place 13, he calls the church domus columbæ, the house of the dove, meaning either Christ or his dove-like religion, as I have explained it before 44. And again he expressly distinguishes between the baptistery and the church, which in those days were places separate one from another, saying 45. When we are come to the water to be baptized, we not only there, but also somewhat before in the church, under the hand of the minister, make a public declaration that we renounce the Devil, and his pomp, and his angels.' Tertullian is followed by Hippolytus 46, who, describing the signs of the coming of Antichrist, says, * the temples of God shall be as common houses, the churches shall everywhere be destroyed. But I lay no stress upon this passage, because the work is spurious, and of later date than it pretends to be, as Bishop Usher has proved, and Combefis confesses as much, who published the genuine piece of Hippolytus De Christo et Antichristo 47, where no such passage is to be found. But we have an authentic testimony in the same age from an heathen author. For Lampridius, in the Life of Alexander Severus 48, reports of him, that there happening a dispute between the Christians and the victuallers about a certain public place, each party challenging it as their own, the Emperor's rescript determined it thus in favour of the Christ

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43 Adv. Valentin. c. 3. See before, oneraverat, sequioris Græciæ monu8. 2. p. 4. n. 17.

mentum est, ac plane stramineum, 44 See before, t. 2. pp. 4, 5.

nihil ævi illius sinceritatem redolens, 45 De Cor. Mil. c. 3. (p. 102 a.) aut venam magni cum simplicitate

Aquam adituri, ibidem, sed et theologi satisque in Scripturis veraliquanto prius in ecclesia, sub an- sati : cujus parens ea ipsa persuasio tistitis manu, contestamur nos re- fuerit, quod scripsisse Hippolytum nunciare diabolo, et pompæ, et an

de Antichristo apud antiquos pergelis ejus, &c.

vulgatum sit. 46 De Consummat. Mund. (Bibl. 48 C. 49. (int. August. Hist. Patr. Gr. Lat. t. 2. p. 346. 3.) oi Scriptor. p. 575.) Cum Christiani ναοί του θεού ως οίκοι έσονται, και quendam locum, qui publicus fuKataOtpopai tôÉKK noc@v mavrayoù erat, occupassent, contra popinarii γενήσονται.

dicerent, sibi eum deberi; rescripsit 41 Vid. Combefis. Auctar. Noviss. [Imperator,] Melius esse ut quomo(p. 57.) Quod Hippolyti nomine o- docunque illic Deus colatur, quam pus de Antichristo hactenus pluteos popinariis dedatur.

ians, that it was better that God should be worshipped there after any manner, than that it should be given up to the victuallers. About the middle of this age lived the famous Gregory of Neocæsarea, surnamed Thaumaturgus, who himself built several churches in Neocæsarea and the adjacent parts of Pontus, as Gregory Nyssen 49 reports in his Life; and also wrote a Canonical Epistle, wherein are described the several classes or stations 50 of penitents in the respective parts of the church. But because some learned men question, whether that part of his Epistle be not rather a comment and addition by some other hand, I lay no greater weight upon it than it will bear, but only observe, that the same classes of penitents may be collected from other canons in that Epistle, which are allowed to be genuine. About the same time, St. Cyprian 51 speaks of the place of their assembly under the name of Dominicum, the Lord's-house, as has been noted before; and in another place opposes the Church and the Capitol, the altar of the Lord, and the altars of images and idol-gods, to one another. For speaking against some that had lapsed, and without due penance were for intruding themselves into the Church again,

If this were once permitted,' says he 52, ' what then remains but that the Church should give way to the Capitol, and the priests withdraw, and take away the altar of the Lord with them, and let the images and idol-gods with their altars suc

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49 Vit. Greg. Thaumaturg. (t. 3. p. κότα, έως των κατηχουμένων, και εν567 c.) Πάντων δε κατά τόπον πάντα τεύθεν εξέρχεσθαι ακούων γάρ, φησί, ευκτηρίους επί τω ονόματι του Χριστού των γραφών, και της διδασκαλίας, κατά σπουδήν ναούς ανεγειρόντων, θυ- εκβαλλέσθω και μη αξιούσθω προσευμός και φθόνος εισέρχεται το τηνι- χής η δε υπόπτωσις, ένα έσωθεν της καύτα της αρχής των Ρωμαίων επι- πύλης του ναού ιστάμενος, μετά των στατούντι.... και νομίσας δυνατόν εί- κατηχουμένων εξέρχεται η σύστασης, ναι τη θεία δυνάμει την ιδίαν αντιστή- ένα συνίσταται τους πιστούς και μη σαι πικρίαν, και επισχείν μεν του εξέρχεται μετά των κατηχουμένων μυστηρίου το κήρυγμα, καταλύσαι δε τελευταίον, η μέθεξις των αγιασμάτων εκκλησιών τα συστήματα, μεταστήσαι δε πάλιν επί τα είδωλα τους 51 De Oper. et Eleemos. See προκεχωρηκότας το λόγο, κ. τ.λ. before, 8. 2. p. 3. n. 6.

50 Greg. Thaumaturg. Ep. Canon. 52 Ep. 55. [al. 59.] ad Cornel. (p. C. ΙΙ. p. 41. (CC. t. . p. 842 c.) H 268.) Quid superest, quam ut Ecπρόσκλαυσις έξω της πύλης του ευ- clesia Capitolio cedat, et recedentiκτηρίου εστίν, ένθα εστώτα τον αμαρ- bus sacerdotibus, ac Domini altare τάνοντα χρή των εισιόντων δείσθαι removentibus, in cleri nostri sacrum πιστών, υπέρ αυτού εύχεσθαι" ή ά- venerandumque consessum simulaκρόασις ένδοθι της πύλης εν τω νάρ- cra atque idola cum aris suis transθηκι' ένθα εστάναι χρή τον ημαρτη- eant ?

των.

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