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kingdom of the Homerites, whom he barbarously destroyed, with all his people. But this cloud quickly blowing over by the assistance of Justin, the Roman emperor, and Elesban, king of Ethiopia, who conquered Dunaan !4, the government fell again into the hands of a Christian king; in whose time Gregentius, 'archbishop of Tephra,' the royal city, is said to have had that famous disputation with Herbanus, the Jew, the result of which was the conversion of an incredible number of Jews in that region. Here I chiefly observe that Gregentius is styled “archbishop of Tephra,' which implies, that he had suffragan bishops under him; and in the relation of his death, at the end 15 of the dispute, it is added, that both bishops, priests, and deacons were gathered together to attend his funeral:' by which it appears, that the state of that Church, so far as we have any account of it, was conformable to other Churches.

19. We have some few intimations also given us of churches Of bishops planted anciently among the Saracens in Arabia, which were Saracens in never under the Roman empire. Hilarion is said by some

16 Arabia. to have begun the conversion of this nation, but it was not completed till Mauvia, queen of the Saracens, made it a condition of her making peace with the Romans in the time of Valentinian, that they should send her one Moses, a famous monk, to be the bishop of her nation, which was accordingly done, and so he became the first bishop of that region of the Saracens, as Ruffin 17 and Socrates 18 and the other historians

14 Act. Mart. Homerit. ap. Baron. fidem : qui quidem nec ipsum Hiann. 522, 523. (t. 7. pp. 80 c, seqq.) larionem abire passi sunt ante, quam Qui sequitur, &c.

futuræ ecclesiæ lineam mitteret. Qui 15 Disput. cum Herb. (ap. Bibl. ergo adeo magna ab Hilarione sunt Patr. Gr.-Lat. t. 1. p. 272 d. 7.) ’E- consequuti; eo defuncto, illi parem τάφη δε εν τω κοιμητηρία της μεγά- quesierunt dari sibi hominem epiλης εκκλησίας, άθροισθέντων εκείσε scopuum orthodoxum. At, quomodo επισκόπων, ιερέων, διακόνων, μοναζόν- res se habuerit, Ruffinum audiamus Twv uvplonina@véti Kndeia aŭtoù, auctorem : Dum, inquit, Lucius, &c. πολλά θρηνούντων και αποδυρομένων See n. 17, following. την στέρησιν αυτού.

17 L. 2. [al. 11.] c.6. (p. 246 a. 7.) 16 Baron. an. 372. n. 103. P. 344.

.. Quæ dum Lucius omni arro(t. 4. p. 348 d.) Jecerat jam ante gantia et sævitia ageret, Mauvia, fundamenta fidei apud Saracenos S. Saracenorum gentis regina, veheHilarion abbas, qui (ut testatur S. menti bello Palæstini et Arabici liHieronymus) multos Saracenorum mitis oppida atque urbes quatere, arreptos a dæmone frequenter libe- vicinasque simul vastare provincias ravit, cultuique Veneris addictæ cæpit. Cumque frequentibus bellis gentis illius sacerdotem convertit ad Romanum attrivisset exercitum, et,

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inform us.

Sozomen also adds, that one Zocomos, another regulus, or petty prince, of another region of the Saracens, being converted by a monk, brought over all his subjects to the Christian faith.' Theodorus Lector 19 likewise mentions another of these Saracen princes, named Alamundarus, who embraced the Faith in the reign of the Emperor Anastasius, anno 513. And Cyril of Scythopolis 20, who wrote the Lives of Euthymius and Sabas, takes notice also of a plantation of Saracens under the Roman government in Palestine, over whom one Peter, a converted Saracen, who had before been their captain, was made the first bishop by Juvenal, bishop of Jerusalem, about the middle of the fifth century. Now we are to observe, that as these Saracens were thus divided into little

plurimis peremptis, reliquos vertisset exilium trusi presbyteri, diaconi exin fugam, orata pace, non aliter se tra Christiani nominis habitacula reamplexuram promittit, nisi Moyses legati, bestiis alii, alii etiam ignibus quidam nomine, monachus, gentis traditi. Numquid potest verior esse suæ ordinaretur episcopus : qui in fides, quæ auribus capitur, quam quæ eremo, partibus suis propinqua, vi- oculis pervidetur ? Apud me certum tam solitariam ducens, merito et est, quod, qui Christo recte credunt, virtutibus ac signis, quæ faciebat ista non faciunt. Et ita Lucius maDeus per illum, magnifice innotu- jore dedecore deformatus (quoniain erat. Petitio ejus principi indicata perurgebat necessitas reipublicæ conRomano, sine ulla dilatione jubetur sulendi) compulsus est acquiescere, impleri a ducibus nostris, qui ibi in- ut ab episcopis, quos in exilium trufeliciter pugnaverant. Captus Moy- serat, sacerdotium sumeret. Quo ses, ad sacerdotium suscipiendum, suscepto, et gentis ferocissimæ paAlexandriam ex more deducitur. cem tenuit, et fidei Catholicæ cusAdest Lucius, cui ordinandi fereba- todivit intemerata consortia. tur officium. Quo viso, Moyses 18 L. 4. c. 36. tot. (v. 2. p. 257 præsentibus ducibus, qui perurge- 25.)—Conf. Sozom. 1. 6. c. 38. ab bant, et populis, ait : Ego quidem init. ad med. (ibid. p. 275. 1.)me non esse dignum tanto sacerdotio Theodoret. l. 4. c. 23. tot. (v. 3. p. judico : verum tamen si aliqua in me, 182. 1.) licet indigno, divina dispensatio pu- 19 L. 2. p. 564. (v. 3. p. 579. 32.) tatur explenda, Deum nostrum, cæli 'Alajovvôápov Toù puhápxov Sapaac terræ Dominum testor, quod Lu- Knvĝv xplotiavicoutos, K.T.N. cius sanctorum sanguine pollutas et 20 Vit. Euthym. ap. Baron. an. cruentas super me non injiciet ma- 420. p. 481. (t. 5. p. 487 b.) Cum nus. Cumque Lucius tam gravi usque adeo multiplicarentur filii Anota inustum se videret in oculis gar et ad veram traducerentur nobiplurimorum, Quare, inquit, o Moy- litatem, et in diversas excrescerent ses, tam facile condemnas eum, cujus copias; mittit divinus Euthymius fidem ignoras ? Aut si tibi aliquis ad Juvenalem patriarcham Hierosode me aliter indicarit, audi fidem lymitanum, postulans, ut eis ordimeam et tibi ipse magis quam aliis naretur episcopus. Ille vero mittit crede. Tunc ille : Desine, inquit, ad eum Petrum, patrem Terebonis o Luci, dolosis tuis me quoque ima- ut qui esset idoneus præesse animaginibus aggredi. Bene mihi nota est bus et deducere ad salutem. ... Pefides tua, quam protestantur servi trus ergo sic primus ordinatur epiDei per metalla damnati episcopi, in scopus, qui erat in Palæstina.

nations, after the manner of the Arabians, and had each their regulus, or petty prince : so they seem each to have had their proper bishop, one to a nation, and no more. And therefore in Councils we find them usually subscribing themselves rather by the title of their nation, Episcopus Gentis Saracenorum, than any other way; which I take to be an indication, not that all the Saracens in the world had but one bishop, but that every petty nation had a bishop of its own, though it is hard to distinguish sometimes which family or tribe of them is meant by that general title. In the second Council of Ephesus 21 one Auxilaus is styled Episcopus Saracenorum Foederatorum, among the bishops of Palestine, whence it is easy to conclude, that there the same Saracens are meant as Cyril speaks of, who were confederate with the Romans, or under the Roman government. But in other places we are left to guess what Saracens may be meant, since they were divided into several petty nations, and more than one nation of them, as we have seen, were converted to the Christian faith.

20. There is one Eastern country more, famous for its con- Bishops of version by Edesius and Frumentius, in the time of Athanasius; ;

mites, or but yet learned men are not agreed where to place it. The Indians be. ancient historians, Ruffin 22, Socrates 23, and the rest that relate

yond Egypt. the story, commonly call it India Ulterior, the Inner India : whence Carolus à Sancto Paulo 24, and Baronius 25, and many

the Axu

21 Αp. Act. I. C. Chalced. (t. 4. νισμός έπλατύνετο τηνικαύτα γάρ Ινp. 117 e.).... Και Αυξιλάου Σαρακη- δών τε των ενδoτέρω και 'Ιβήρων τα νων των υποσπόνδων. ' [The citation έθνη, προς το Χριστιανίζειν ελάμβανε in the text is according to the ver- την αρχήν τίνος δε ένεκεν τη προσsion of Dionysius Exiguus.-Vid. θήκη των ενδoτέρω εχρησάμην, διά Ed. Crabb. t. 1. p. 830. Ed.] βραχέων έρώ. Ηνίκα οι Απόστολοι

22 L. Ι. [al. 1ο.] C. 9. (p. 224 b. κλήρο την εις τα έθνη πορείαν εποι18.) Metrodorus quidam philoso- oύντο, θωμας μεν την Πάρθων αποphus, inspiciendorum locorum et στολήν υπεδέχετο' Ματθαίος δε την orbis perscrutandi gratia, ulteriorem Αιθιοπίαν Βαρθολομαίος δε εκληρουdicitur Indiam penetrasse. Cujus το την συνημμένην ταύτη Ινδίαν την exemplo etiam invitatus Meropius, μέντοι ενδoτέρω Ινδίαν, ή προσοικεί quidam Tyrius philosophus, simili βαρβάρων έθνη πολλά, διαφόρους χρώex causa adire Indiam voluit, ha- μενα γλώσσαις, ουδέπω προ των Κωνbens secum duos puerulos, quos σταντίνου χρόνων και του Χριστιανισliberalibus literis utpote propinquoς μου λόγος έφώτιζε, κ. τ.λ. instituebat. Quorum unus, qui erat 24 Geogr. Sacr. [1.8. n. 8.] p. 268. junior, Edesius, alter Frumentiu (p. 258.) Quod autem ad Indiam, vocabatur, &c.

scilicet interiorem, pertinet, nam ex23 L. 1. c. 19. (v. 2. p. 49. 31.) teriorem Antiocheno paruisse cerAŭdis oủv uynuovevtéov kai TWS éni tum est, &c. των καιρών του βασιλέως ο Χριστια- 25 Not. ad Martyrol. Rom. die 27.

n.

others, take it for granted that they mean India within the Ganges, the other part, without the Ganges, having been converted before, as they think, by the Apostle St. Bartholomew. But Holstenius 26 and Valesius 27 correct this mistake, and Bp. Pearson 28 has more fully proved, that the India they speak of was no part of the East Indies, but India beyond Egypt, which was part of Ethiopia, whereof Axumis was the metropolis. This lay not far from the mouth of the Red Sea, over against the country of the Homerites, in Arabia ; whence Constantius, in one of his laws 2), joins these two nations together : from

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Octobr., Ad verba, Apud Indos Indiam eam fuisse Ægypto proxi-
sancti Frumentii episcopi. (p. 418.) miorem et Æthiopiæ partem. Indi
Vixit iisdem temporibus alius Fru- enim Æthiopes anti quitus appella-
mentius, episcopus Auxumeos in bantur, ut apud Virgilium de Nilo:
Ægypto, ordinatus a S. Athanasio, Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab
confessione clarus : multa enim pas. Indis.
sus est ab Arianis ob tuendam Ca. Ad hanc autem Indiam Frumen-
tholicam fidem.

tium primo pervenisse constat: ex 26 Not. in Car. a S. Paul. Geogr. illa Alexandriam rediit, in eamdem Sacr. p. 171. (ap. Oper. Car. a S. P. rursus etiam missus est, et ab Athap. 258. n. 2.) Fallitur, fallitque in nasio ordinatus episcopus Axumeos. hujus Indiæ nomine et situ expli- Erat autem Axumis Æthiopum mecando, sicuti etiam Baronius ad tropolis. Stephanus de Urbibus : Martyrologium Romanum, die 27. 'Αξουμίτης, αρσενικώς, μητρόπολις Octobris. Nam India illa, in quam Aidiónov. Apud Arrianum in PeFrumentius missus fuit a S. Atha- riplo Maris Erythræi, quod Proconasio, est Æthiopia sub Ægypto, pio Gazensi Bahagoa 'Ivdukỳ vocacujus metropolis celeberrima fuit tur : Από δε ταύτης εις αυτήν την Axurmis, et sic Indiarm illam Ethio- μητρόπολιν, τον Aξωμίτην λεγόμενον, piæ finitimam vocat Socrates, quæ allo ñuepôv TÉVTE. Nonnosus atoto cælo ab Asiatica, sive Gange- pud Photium: ‘H dè "Açovua Trólis tica distat.

εστί μεγίστη, και οίον μητρόπολις της 27 Not. in Socrat. 1. 1. c. 19. (v. 2. @lns Aiduotias. Et clarius adhuc Prop.51. n. 2.)... Baronius, in annota- copius, Persicorum 1. 1. C. 19. (t. I. tionibus ad Martyrologium Roma- p. 58 b.5.): 'Ounpırøv de karavtipů num, Frumentium hunc Auxumis μάλιστα εν τη αντιπέρας ηπείρω Αίepiscopum distinguendum esse du- θίοπες οικουσιν, οι Αύξωμείται επικαcit al altero Frumentio Indorum λούνται, ότι δε αυτοίς τα βασίλειά episcopo; de quo Ruffinus et So- éotiv ev Auáuide Tródet. Erat igitur crates loquuntur. Ego vero unum Axumis metropolis Æthiopiæ, et in eumdemque Frumentium esse con- ea Æthiopum regia posita fuit. Ad tendo, eum, qui Auxumis, et eum hanc igitur Axumim, et hanc Inqui Indorum episcopus dicitur. Au- diam, quæ pars est Æthiopiæ Æxumis enim metropolis est Æthio- gypto proxima; non ad Indiam inpiæ. Æthiopes autem ab antiquis tra Gangem, aut ad Axumim illam, confundi solent cum Indis, &c. quam ad latus orientale Indi fluvii 28 Vindic. Ignat. part. 1. C. !1.

constituit Ptolemæus, Frumentium (Cotel. v. 2. p. 332.) Etsi enim missum fuisse a S. Athanasio creRuffinus (See n. 22, preceding.] dendum est, &c. ita historiam pertexat, quasi in In- 29 Cod. Theod. 1. 12. tit. 12. leg. diam ulteriorem et Orientalem Fru- 2. (t. 4. p. 582.) Nullus ad gentem mentius perrexisset; constat tamen Auxumitarum et Homeritas ire præ

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which, and many other authorities, Bp. Pearson unanswerably proves, that this India can be understood of no other but the Ethiopic India, whereof Axumis was the metropolis. This the Ancients called India as well as the other : for Virgil says the Nile 30 flowed from the Blackamoor Indians,' and Procopius Gazensis styles the Red Sea the Indian Sea 31, because it bordered upon this India beyond Egypt. Now, in this country, Frumentius was the first bishop that we read of, being ordained bishop of Axumis by Athanasius and a synod of Egyptian bishops, and sent thither to convert the country, and settle churches among them; which, therefore, we need not doubt were of the same species with those in Egypt and the rest of the world. For Axumis was not the only place that had a bishop; for Palladius 32 mentions one Moses, bishop of Adulis, which was another city of Ethiopia : and, in his Life of St. Chrysostom 33, he also speaks of one of his own name, Palladius, bishop of the Blemyes, which were a people of Ethiopia, adjoining to Egypt, as Strabo 34, and Pliny 35, and other geographers inform us. Bp. Pearson gives some other proofs, out of Cedrenus and the Arabic canons of the Nicene Council, and their ancient Liturgies, that they had bishops in that country ever since this their first conversion. But nothing more particular occurring concerning their dioceses, for want of better light, we can give no further account of them.

For the same reason, I must omit several other Eastern nations, as the Parthians, and Indians about Ganges, which were con

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ceptus, ultra annui temporis spatia σα της Ινδικής προς ετών ολίγων debet Alexandriæ de cætero com- μετά του μακαρίου Μωϋσέως του επιmorari.

σκόπου των 'Aδουληνών. 30 As cited in n. 28, preceding. 33 C. 20. p. 194. (Oper. Chrysost.

31 See n. 28, preceding, and Pro- t. 13. p. 77 b.) Παλλάδιον δε Βλεμcopius, de Bell. Persic. 1. 1. c. 19. μύων, ή Αιθιόπων, εκ γειτόνων φρου(t. Ι. p. 57 a. 7.) Αύτη δε η θάλασσα ρείσθαι Συήνη καλούμενος το χωρίον. έξ "Ινδων αρχομένη, κ. τ.λ.- Conf. 34 [L. 17. p.786. (t. 2. p. 1134 c. 1.) ibid. (p. 58 c. 12.) Πλοία μέντοι όσα Τα δε κατωτέρω εκατέρωθεν Μερόης, έν τε Ινδούς και εν ταύτη τη θαλάσση παρά μεν τον Νείλον προς την Ερυέστιν, κ. τ.λ. [The version in this θράν, Μαγάβαροι, και Βλέμμυες, Αιplace has, In hoc autem atque In- θιόπων υπακούοντες, Αίγυπτίοις δ' οdico mari, &c., but I do not find the popol. express term Ινδική θάλασσα ap- 35 L. 5. c. 8. (p. 69. 11.) Horum plied to the Red Sea. Ed.]

oppidum Mavin quidam solitudini32 De Gent. Ind. [Lond. 1665. bus imposuerunt. Atlantas juxta fol. p. 2.] (as cited by Pearson, Vind. eos, Ægipanas semiferos, et BlemIgnat. p. 332 ; see n. 28, preceding,) myas, &c. Grischov.] 'Εγώ δε εις τα ακρωτήρια μόνον έφθα

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