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Matth. 18, 17. And so Isidore of Pelusium uses it likewise, distinguishing thus between εκκλησιαστήριον and εκκλησία: «The εκκλησιαστήριον is the temple or building made of wood and stone, but the ékkinola is the congregation of souls or people that meet therein. And in this sense, as St. Cyril a observes, there is a sort of pheronymy in the name ékkinola which is so called åtò TOÛ ékkaleiv, because it is a convocation of men solemnly called together. But though this be a very ancient and common signification, yet it not less usually occurs in the other sense, denoting the place or building itself where the congregation met together; and in this acceptation it is commonly opposed both to the synagogues of the Jews and the temples of the Gentiles : as appears from that noted passage in the Epistle of Aurelian, the heathen Emperor 4, where he chides the senate for demurring about the opening of the Sibylline Books, “as if they had been upon a debate in a Christian church, and not in the temple of all the Gods.' And from another passage in St. Ambrose", where, pleading with Theodo

" sius in behalf of a Christian bishop, who had caused a Jewish synagogue to be set on fire, he asks him, whether it was fitting that Christians should be so severely animadverted on for burning a synagogue, when Jews and Heathens had been

spared, who had made havoc of the churches ?' Of the 2. Another common name among the Latins is dominicum, names, do

or domus Dei, God's house, which answers to the Greek kuplaand Kupia- kòv, whence with a little variation we have the Saxon name κον (whence

kyrik or kyrch, and the Scotch and English kirk and church, kyrk and

which are all words of the same import, denoting a place set church) and domus apart for the use and service of God. The name dominicum

is at least as old as Cyprian, but he applies it not only to the


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I L. 2. ep. 246. (p. 236 c.)"Allo 4 Ap. Vopisc. Vit. Aurelian. c. 20. cotiy ékeingia kai ando érkanoia- (int. August. Hist. Scriptor. p.852.) στήριον: η μεν γάρ εξ αμώμων ψυχών Miror vos, Patres Sancti, tamdiu de συνέστηκε το δε από λίθων και ξύλων aperiendis Sibyllinis dubitasse Liοικοδομείται.

bris; perinde quasi in Christiano2 Catech. 18. n. 11. [al. 24.) p. rum ecclesia, non in templo Deorum 270. (p. 296 c.) 'Ekkinoia kalcitai omnium, tractaretis. φερωνύμως, διά τό πάντας εκκαλεί- 5 Ep. 29. [al. 40.) ad Theodos. (t. σθαι και ομου συνάγειν.

2. p.950 c. et p. 951 a.) Synagoga 3 Vid. Suicer. voce, 'Ekki noia. (t. incensa est, perfidiæ locus, impie1. p. 1049.) ’Exklnoia dicitur årò tatis domus .... ecclesia non vindiτου εκκαλείν.

cata est, vindicabitur synagoga ?


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church, but to the Lord's-suppers, and perhaps the Lord's-day. For, as the learned editor7 and others have observed, the word dominicum signifies three things in ancient writers: 1. the Lord's-day ; 2. the Lord's-supper; 3. the Lord's-house. And Cyprian's words may be construed to either sense; for he thus addresses himself to a rich matron : ‘Do you


you rightly celebrate the dominicum, (the Lord's-day, or the Lord'ssupper,) who have no regard to the corban? who come into the Lord's house without any sacrifice, and eat part of the sacrifice which the poor have offered ?' The same name occurs frequently in other Latin writers, as in Ruffin', who brings in the bishop who converted the philosopher in the Council of Nice, thus addressing himself to his new convert: 'Arise and follow me to the dominicum, and there receive the seal of your faith;' viz. baptism in the church. And St. Jerom 10 tells us that the famous church of Antioch, which was begun by Constantine, and finished and dedicated by Constantius, had the name of Dominicum Aureum, the Golden Dome, for its richness and beauty.

The Greek name kuplakòv is frequently to be met with in the Councils of Ancyra 11 and Neocæsarea 12 and Laodicea 13, and Eusebius 14, who says the persecuting Emperor Maximinus

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6 De Oper. et Eleemos. p. 203. Dominicum celebrare te credis ? (p. 141.) Locuples et dives es, et do- 8 Bona, Rer. Liturg. l. 1. c. 3. n. minicum celebrare te credis, quæ 11. (p. 179.) where the words of Cycorbonam omnino non respicis? quæ prian are cited. See the preceding in dominicum sine sacrificio venis ; quæ partem de sacrificio, quod pau- 9 Hist. 1. 1. [al. 10.) c. 3. (p. 219 b. per obtulit, sumis?

5.) Si bæc ita esse credis, surge et 7 Fell, in loc. (p. 141. n. 1.) Ob- sequere me ad dominicum, et hujus servandum venit, dominici voce tria fidei signaculum suscipe. significari apud veteres: 1. Diem 10 Chron. Olymp. 276. an. 3. [Ed. ipsam; ita habetur Apoc. I, 9, et Vallars. Olymp. 277.] (t. 8. p. 785.) Ignat. Ep. ad Trallian. 2. Eccle- In Antiochia Dominicum, quod apsiam; ita Concil. Neocæs. can. 5. ju- pellatur Aureum, ædificari cæptum. bet catechumenum ingredientem és 11 C. 15. (t. 1. p. 1461 b.) llepi το κυριακών, in loco catechume- των διαφερόντων το κυριακό, όσα έnorum subsistere. Et Hieron. in TLO KOTOU MY Övtos Tpeoßútepou étráChronico sic voce dominici uti- λησαν, άναβαλείσθαι το κυριακόν. tur. Et in vernaculis nostris lin- 12 C. 5. (ibid. p. 1481 c.) Karnguis, nostratium church, et Ger- xoúuevos càv cioepxóuevos eis kuplamanorum dohm, ex hoc fonte liquido kòv, k. T... deducuntur. 3. Ponitur pro myste- 13 C. 28. (ibid. p. 1501 c.) 'Oti oủ riis loco et tempore predictis cele- δεί εν τοις κυριακοίς, ή εν ταις εκκληbrari solitis; ita κυριακόν τελεϊν, est σίαις, τας λεγομένας αγάπας ποιείν, sacris Christianis operari. Et fortasse huc facit, quod hic dicitur, 14 L. 9. C. 10. (v. I. p. 457. 36.)

κ. τ. λ.


restored the Christians their churches under that appellation in his edicts. And Constantine having built several churches, gave them all the name of Kuplakà, as being dedicated 15 not to the honour of any man, but Him who is Lord of the universe. This is a plain account of the name; but whether we may hence conclude, with a learned man 16, that the Greeks and not the Latins were the first planters of Christianity in Britain, because of the near affinity between the names, kuplakòv and kyrk, (or kirk,] is what I think not so plain ; but I leave it to every reader's judgment to determine.

Tertullian once uses the name of domus columbæ, the house of a dove, for a church. For, writing against the Valentinian heretics, who affected secresy in their doctrines, he compares them to the Eleusinian mysteries, whose temple was so guarded with doors and curtains, that a man must be five years a candidate before he could be admitted to the adytum of the deity, or secrets of the sanctuary: Whereas,' says he 17, the house of our dove is plain and simple, delights in high and open places, affects the light, loves the figure of the Holy Ghost, (that is, fire and light, as I think Junius rightly interprets it,) and the orient, or morning sun, which is the figure of Christ.' The house of the dove seems here to be the same as the house of Christ, who is pointed out by the dove, as Tertullian words it in the same place, Christum columba demonstrare solita est ;

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... Και τα κυριακά δε τα οικεία όπως Anglie partibus kyrk nobis vulgo, κατασκευάζοιεν, συγχωρείται. sed magis corrupto nomine church,

15 De Laud. Constant. c. 17. (ibid. duplici aspiratione nuncupatur. Cum p. 770. 33.) Karà módels te kai kó- autem hæc communis fuerit majoriμας, χώρας τε πάσας και τας των βαρ- bus nostris ecclesiae cujuslibet temβάρων ερήμους, ιερά και τεμένη ενί τα plive denominatio, veri nobis similπάντων βασιλεί θεώ, τω δή και των limum videtur, prima Christianae όλων δεσπότη, καθιερώσθαι ένθεν religionis semina a Grecis hic disκαι της του Δεσπότου προσηγορίας persa fuisse. Neque enim existintiwrai kaðlepwuéva' oùk éĘ åv- mandum est, quod Latini Græcum OpbTWV Tuxóvra tñs érik Þoews, é nomen ecclesiis imponerent. αυτού δε του των όλων Κυρίου παρό

17 Cont. Valentin. c. 3. (p. 251 a.) kai kupiakov ntiwrtal TV étrwrvuôv. Nostræ columbæ etiam domus sim

16 Bevereg. in c. 15 C. Ancyr. (t. plex, [al. domus simplex, etiam] in 2. append. p.178.) Hanc saltem vo- editis et apertis et ad lucem. Amat cem (Kuplakòv] ut ecclesiam in ge- figuram Spiritus Sancti, Orientem, nere significantem alii Germani a Christi figuram, &c. [Others read Græcis mutuati sunt, ut docet Wa- Amat figura Spiritus Sancti Orienlafridus Strabo de Rebus Eccles. c. tem, &c. Semler also (v. 2. p. III. 7. Sic etiam antiqui Saxones ec- Hal. Magdeburg. 1827.) has followclesiam quamlibet kyrik vocarunt. ed the reading of Rigaltius. Vid. JuUnde in Scotia et septemtrionalibus nium in loc. Franequer. 1597. Ed.]

tinction be tween do

domus di


or else, as Mr. Medel8 explains it, we may take it for the house of the dove-like religion, or the dove-like disciples of Christ. For every way it will be the name of a church, as Tertullian plainly intended it.

3. There are two other names of near affinity with the for- Of the dismer, which some readers may be apt to mistake for names of churches, when they are not always so; and therefore I cannot mus Dei, let them pass in this place without taking notice of them. The

vina, and one is domus divina, and the other domus ecclesiæ. The domus ecfirst of which is of frequent use in the Civil Law, where it signifies not a church, but the Emperor's palace, or his house and family, according to the style of those times, when every thing belonging to them had the name of divine. As constitutiones divino, divale præceptum, lex divalis, literæ sacræ, oraculum cæleste, and such other terms, do not signify, as one would hastily imagine, the sacred inspired writings, or the laws and oracles of God, but the edicts and constitutions of the Emperors, who themselves were called divi, and thence all things relating to them styled divine. Agreeably to this style, when the Emperor, Theodosius Junior, decrees 19 that no one, no not of his own divine house, should receive corn in specie out of the public storehouses, before it was made into bread by the public bakers;' it is plain, by his own divine house he does not mean the house of God, the church, but his own family of Palatins, as Gothofred rightly explains it. The other name, domus ecclesiæ, oikos ékkinolas, the house of the church, is used by Eusebius in relating the history of the heretic Paulus Samosatensis, who, notwithstanding that he was deposed by the Council of Antioch, would not remove out of the house of the church 20, and therefore the fathers appealed to the Emperor Aurelian against him, who determined that that party to whom

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18 Discourse of Churches. (p. Mndapôs ékotņval roll Ilaúlov roll

της εκκλησίας οίκου θέλοντος, βασι19 Cod. Theodos. 1. 14. tit. 16. De λεύς εντευχθείς Αυρηλιανός, αισιώFrumento Urbis Constantinop. leg. τατα περί του πρακτέου διείληφε: 2.(t.5; p.235.) Nulli, ne divinæ qui- Toúrous veîual spooTáTTWV Tòv oikov, dem domui nostrae, frumentum de oίς αν οι κατά την Ιταλίας και την horreis publicis pro annona penitus Ρωμαίων πόλιν επίσκοποι δόγμαpræbeatur, sed, integer canon man- τος επιστέλλοιεν. Ούτω δήτα ο προδηcipibus consignetur, annonam in λωθείς ανήρ, μετά της εσχάτης αισχύpane cocto domibus exhibendo. νης, υπό της κοσμικής αρχής εξελαύνε

329. n. b.)

20 L. 7. c. 30. (v. 1. p. 364.4.) ται της εκκλησίας.

the bishops of Italy and Rome should write, should have the house delivered up to them;' and so Paul was turned out of the church with great disgrace by the secular power. The question here is, What Eusebius means by the house of the church? Mr. Mede 21 takes it for the church itself, and gives a very probable reason for it, because Eusebius expounds himself, when he says, Paul was turned out of the church : and he uses the same expression in another place, where it can signify nothing but the church, or house of sacred assembly. For, speaking of the persecutor Maximinus, he says 22, 'He neither allowed the Christians to hold assemblies, nor build houses of assembly;' which evidently refers to the building of churches. But yet in other places domus ecclesiæ seems to signify no more than the bishop's house, as in the second Council of Toledo 23, where it is decreed, “that such children, as were dedicated by their parents in their infancy to a clerical or monastic life, should be educated and instructed in the house of the church, under the bishop's eye, by the provost or governor that was set over them. This in other canons is called domus sacerdotalis, the bishop's house, to distinguish it from the church.

4. But to proceed. As the temple of God at Jerusalem is frequently in Scripture styled “the house of prayer;" so Christian churches, in regard that prayer was one of the principal offices performed in them, were usually termed pooEUKTÚpia, and oikol cúktúpioi, oratories, or houses of prayer ; of which there are innumerable instances in Eusebius 24, Socra

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Churches called oratories, or houses of prayer.

21 Discourse of Churches. (p. rit], [pariter) statuimus observan333.). For that by Tíls ekkinoias dum, ut...... in domo ecclesiæ sub oixos is here meant the Christians' episcopali præsentia a præposito sibi oratory or house of sacred assem- debeant erudiri. bly, &c.

24 L. 10. c. 3. (v. 1. p. 463. 36.) 22 L. 9. c. 9. (v. 1. p. 455. 8.)..... 'Έπί δε τούτοις, το πασιν ευκταίον ήΑυτό μόνον το ανεπηρέαστον ημίν επι- μίν και ποθούμενον συνεκροτείτο θέτρέπον φυλάττεσθαι, ου μην συνόδους αμα, εγκαινίων εορται κατά πόλεις, επικελεύον ποιείσθαι, ουδ' οίκους εκ- και των άρτι νεοπαγών προσευκτηρίων κλησιών οικοδομείν, ουδ' άλλο τι των αφιερώσεις.-De Laud. Constant. c. συνήθων ημίν διαπράττεσθαι.-Vid. 17. (ibid. p. 77ο. ΙΙ.) θεομάχοι τινες 1. 8. c. 13. (ibid. p. 396. 22.) Μήτε πρώην, των αυτού προσευκτηρίων τάς των εκκλησιών τους οίκους καθελών, οικοδομές.....εκ βάθρων ανορύττονκ. τ. λ.

TES, kanpouv.-De Vit. Constant. 1. 23 C. 1. (t. 4. p. 1733. [corrige 3. C. 48. (ibid. p. 604.37.) Tņv dè v

. 1735] a.) De his, quos voluntas pa- éTávopov avtoũ Tólev etóxo riun rentum a primis infantie annis in γεραίρων, ευκτηρίοις πλείοσιν έφαίclericatus officio vel monachali po- Spuve, K.7.d. "See s. 8. n. 63, folsuit [al. clericatus officio mancipa- lowing.

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