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this. Now then, supposing 400 dioceses to have been in a country 600 miles in length, and 300 in breadth, let us examine how much, upon an equal distribution, will fall to every diocese. And it appears, upon an exact computation, that, supposing there had been 450 dioceses, there would have been twenty miles to each diocese; and, consequently, there being not so many by fifty, every diocese must have so much the more, upon an equal distribution. But then it must be owned, that the distribution was generally unequal in this country; for the bishoprics of the Pontic provinces were, for the most part, very large, and those of the Asiatic provinces consequently the smaller

upon

that account, and abundantly more numerous : so that here the reader may view the largest and smallest dioceses in the world together, and yet the same species of episcopacy maintained in all, without distinction.

2. To begin with the Pontic provinces. Cappadocia was a of Cappavery large country, and had but few bishoprics. Strabo 4: docia and reckons it 3000 stadia in length, that is, 375 miles. But then Minor. he takes it in a larger sense than we do now, as including all from the provinces of Lycaonia and Phrygia to the Euphrates, which takes in Armenia Minor as well as Cappadocia ; for anciently they were all one kingdom, though afterwards divided into five provinces, three Cappadocias, and Armenia Prima and Secunda. But, now, in all these five provinces there were not thirty dioceses at first, and some of those were newly erected in the fourth century, as Sasima, where Gregory Nazianzen was made bishop, which before belonged either to Cæsarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia Prima, from which it was 100 miles distant; or to Tyana, the metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda, from which it lay thirty-two miles, as Ferrarius 16 computes. This shows that these dioceses were of great extent: but we have still more certain evidence of the thing;

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45 L. 12. p. 539. (t. 2. p. 813 d. 2.) 2. p. 164.) Sasima, Sasum, teste Μέγεθος δε της χώρας Καππαδοκίας Leunclavio, urbs Cappadocie epiκατά πλάτος μεν, το από του Πόντου scopalis sub archiepiscopo Cesariπρος τον Ταύρον, όσον χίλιοι και οκ- ensi, inter Cesarearm ad arctos, et τακόσιοι στάδιοι μήκος δε από της Tyana ad meridiem, 32. mill. pass. Λυκαονίας και Φρυγίας, μέχρι Ευφρά- ultra Ancyram in ortum supra 200. του προς την έω και την Αρμενίαν, Cujus urbis diνus Gregorius Naziπερί τρισχιλίους.

anzenus episcopus fuit. 46 Lexic. Geogr. voce Sasima. (t.

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for Gregory Nazianzen 47 says, that St. Basil, who was bishop of Cæsarea, had fifty chorepiscopi under him ; and Basil himself 48 often speaks of ‘his chorepiscopi, and country-presbyters, and deacons under them ;' which argues his diocese to be of great extent, though we cannot precisely fix the limits of it. And the paucity of dioceses in this province argues the same; for, by Carolus à Sancto Paulo's account 49, besides Cæsarea, the metropolis of the first Cappadocia, there were but five bishoprics more in that province, Nyssa, where Gregory Nyssen was bishop, Thermæ Regiæ, Camuliana, or Justinianopolis Nova, Ciscissa, and Theodosiopolis, at the time of the sixth General Council; which are the same that are mentioned in the later Notitiæ, only Methodiopolis is put for Theodosiopolis Armeniæ, to which province the Council of Chalcedon ascribes it. So that there were really never above five dioceses in this province, and two of those, Camuliana and Ciscissa, erected after the Council of Chalcedon. For, in the Synodical Epistle of this province to the Emperor Leo, at the end of that Council, there are but two bishops that subscribe beside the metropolitan of Cæsarea, viz. 50 the bishops of Nyssa and Thermæ. Sozomen 51 speaks of one Prapidius, governor of St. Basil's Hospital, called Basilias from its founder, who was likewise a bishop that

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47 Carm. de Vit. Sua. (t. 2. p. 8 a.) Γλυκέριος, έχειροτονήθη μεν παρ' ημών Αύτη Σασίμων των εμών εκκλησία. της κατά Ουήνεσαν εκκλησίας διάκονος, Τούτοις μ' ο πεντήκοντα χωρεπισκόποις ως και το πρεσβυτέρω διακονήσων, Στενούμενος δέδωκε, κ. τ.λ.

και του έργου της εκκλησίας επιμεληEp. 181. [al. 54.] ad Chorepisc. σόμενος. (t. 3. part. Ι. p. 211 b.) The inscrip- 49 [Ubi supra, p. 245. ED.] tion according to Labbe (CC. t. 2. 50 [Ep. Episc. Cappadoc. ad Leon. p. 1768 a.) runs thus,-Χωρεπισκό- Imp. according to Labbe and Cosποις, ώστε μη γίνεσθαι χωρίς αυτού Sart, (CC. t. 4. pp. 952-954.) where υπηρέτας παρά τους κανόνας. Of the subscriptions are those of Alywhom he thus complains in the pius of Cæsarea and Uvius of Nyssa; Epistle itself. (ibid. c.) Πρώτον μεν but the name of the bishop of Therme ημάς παρωσάμενοι, και μηδε επανα- does not appear. ED.] φέρειν ημίν καταδεχόμενοι, εις εαυτούς 51 L. 6. c. 34. (ν. 2. p. 269. 33.) την όλην περιεστήσατε αυθεντίαν Ευδοκιμώτατοι ων επυθόμην εγένοντο έπειτα, καταρραθυμούντες του πράγμα- ενθάδε μοναχοί, Λεόντιος και την εν τος, πρεσβυτέροις και διακόνους επε- 'Αγκύρα εκκλησίαν ύστερον επιτροπεύτρέψατε, ούς αν έθέλωσιν, από ανεξε- σας, και Πραπίδιος δς ήδη γηραλέος τάστου βίου, κατά προσπάθειαν, ή την ών πολλάς έπεσκόπει κώμας προέστη από συγγενείας, ή την έξ άλλης τινός δε και Βασιλειάδος, ο πτωχών εστιν φιλίας, επεισάγειν τη εκκλησία τους επισημότατον καταγώγιον, υπό Βασιαναξίους. - Ep. 412. [al. 169.] ad λείου του Καισαρείας επισκόπου καταGregor. (ibid. part. 2. p. 373 b.) σκευασθέν, αφ' ου την προσηγορίαν Ούτος, ο νυν σοβαρός και σεμνός υμίν την αρχήν έλαβε, και εις έτι νύν έχει.

had several villages under his jurisdiction; but whether his diocese was in this Cappadocia, is uncertain.

The second Cappadocia, which was made by a division of the province in the time of St. Basil, had according to Carolus à Sancto Paulo's account six dioceses, Tyana, the metropolis, Sasima (or Sasimi), Justinianopolis, Asuna, Faustinopolis, and Cybistra. But, as Holstenius 51 has observed, two of these are mistaken ; for there never was any such city as Asuna, which is only a corruption in the Latin editions of the Councils for Sasima, it being in the Greek, 'Emlokomos Eaciuwv, Bishop of Sasima. And Justinianopolis was only another name for Mocissus, which Justinian having advanced to be a metropolis in the third Cappadocia, he styled it by his own name Justinianople. So that there were really no more than four dioceses in this province, and one of them, Sasima, but of late erection. This was also but an obscure village; oTévov kwÚÒplov, as Nazianzen himself 52 calls it. So that the three ancient dioceses must be of very large extent, though we have no further account of them, save that Pasa, a village twelve miles distant from Tyana, is said to be in that diocese, by one Euphrantas in the fifth General Council 53 ; and Sasima was originally part of the same diocese, though thirty-two miles distant from the cathedral. Which sufficiently demonstrates the largeness of dioceses in this province.

The third Cappadocia had never above five bishoprics, Mocissus, Nazianzus, Colonia, Parnassus, and Doara. Of these, Mocissus was the metropolis, which owed its honour to Justinian, who dignified it with the title of a metropolis; and, as Procopius 54 informs us, gave it his own name Justinianople;

51 Annot. Geogr. p. 157. (Oper. metropoleos, et sub eadem civitate Car. a S. Paul. p. 246. n. 3.) Asuna. est usque hodie. Nulla hoc nomine civitas unquam

54 De Ædific. Justinian. l. 5. p. 48. fuit. In Græco fuit 'Enio kotros Ea- [The passage, to which the Author oluwv, inde olim Episcopus Sasimæ: alludes, is not to be found accordunde rejecta prima litera Asima, et ing to the citation as above. Gritandem confusis literarum cruribus schovius supposes that the passage Asuna ; ita error errorem trahit. following, though containing no

52 Carm. de Vit. Sua. (t. 2. p. 7.v. thing about the name Justinianopoult.) Aelv@S ÅT EUKTÒV KAì OTEVÒV KW- lis, may have been in the author's μύδριον.

mind : (ibid. p. 100.) 'Hy tl 63 Collat. 5. (t. 5. p. 478 b.) Pre- φρούριον εν Καππαδόκαις, Μωκησός dium autem quod dicitur Pasα ... όνομα, εν μέν τω ομαλεί κείμενον duodecim milliariis Tyanensis distat Σαθρον δε ούτω γεγενημένον, ώστε BINGHAM, VOL. III.

X

by which title Peter, bishop of the place, subscribes himself in the Council under Mennas 55. Doara was but a village, as Holstenius 56 observes out of St. Basil, who styles it 57 kúunu Acapa. And Nazianzus was but a small city, as Gregory Nazianzen himself 58 styles it. But they must have large dioceses, else the other three must be so much the larger for it; for geographers place them at a considerable distance from one another. Nazianzus had its chorepiscopi, sometimes mentioned in Gregory Nazianzen’s Epistles 59, which is an argument that it had a large country region.

In Armenia Prima, Carolus à Sancto Paulo could find but five bishoprics ; Sebasta [or Sebastia] the metropolis, Sebastopolis, Nicopolis, Satala, and Berisse. The later Notitiæ add but one more, Colonia, which is also reckoned to Cappadocia Tertia, unless there were two of the same name in those provinces.

In Armenia Secunda he augments the number to ten; Melitene, the metropolis, Arca, Comana, Arabissus, Cucusus(or Cocusum,]Ariarathia, Amasa, Zelona, Sophene, Diospontum. But Holstenius 60

δη αυτού τα μεν καταπεπτώκει, τα δε τες οι 'Απολλιναριανοί, τα μεν πεποιέμελλεν όπερ Ιουστινιανός βασιλεύς ήκασι, τα δε απειλούσι, παρά των κυκαθελών, τείχος ώκοδομήσατο κομιδή ρίων μου των συμπρεσβυτέρων μαμέγα, ές τα προς εσπέραν του πάλαι θήση, Ευλαλίου του χωρεπισκόπου, φρουρίου, έν χωρίω ανάντει τε και και Κελευσίου, ους εξ έργου προς την λίαν ορθίω, και αμηχάνω προσελθείν, σην ευλάβειαν απεστάλκαμεν. εί τις προσίοι· ένθα δή και ιερά τε- 60 Ibid. ut supr. p. 161. (ap. Oper. μένη πολλά, και ξενώνας, και λου- Car. a S. Paul. p. 248. n. 6-9.) τρώνας εν δημοσίω εδείματο, και όσα Amasa. Ηic quoque episcopatus viάλλα ενδείκνυται την πόλιν ευδαί- tio creatus ex Amasia Diosponti, μονα εξ ου δή και εις μητροπόλεως sive Hellenoponti, civitate priinaria. αξίωμα ήλθεν. ED.]

Zelona. Eadem quæ Zela : unde 55 Vid. Labb. (t. 5. p. 52 b.) Heraclius ille Zelon episcopus geniTIetpou tñs untpotrólews lovotivla- tivo plurali vocatur, quem MS. anνουπόλεως.

tiquissimus Diosponto, sive Helle56 Ibid. ut supr. p. 159. (ap. Car. noponto, recte tribuit.

cte tribuit. Sophene. a S. Paul. (p. 247. n. 3. Doara. Arsaphius Sophenensis inter epiVicum vocat Basilius Magnus, scopos Armeniæ majoris. DiosponEpist. 10, ubi Georgii ejus episcopi tium. Episcopatus supposititius ex meminit.

codicum vulgarium confusione na67 Ep. 10. [al. 239:] ad Euseb. tus. Manuscriptus antiquissimus (t. 3. part. 2. p. 532 a. n. 1.) Aoápous Diosponti hic seorsim ponit, ut prorộ kóun Doópov avópwov..... vinciæ nomen, cui deinde subjicitur έπεμψαν.

Eutychianus Amasia episcopus. 58 Orat. 19. de Laud. Patr. (t. 1. Unde certum est, Diospontum anP. 310 b.) ToûTO Toù pikpotohitov tò tea fuisse, qui postea Hellenopontus έργον, και της καθέδρας τα δεύτερα appellatus fuit. Ita quoque Ortelius έχοντος.

Dispontum a veteri medico appella59 Ep. 88. (ibid. p. 843 d.) "Iva tum observavit.-In his Annotaγάρ τα άλλα εάσω, οία νύν επιστάν- tions on Ortelius (p. 172) he obin his animadversions upon the place observes, that four of these are to be struck out of the account; for Amasa, or Amasia, belonged to Hellenopontus; and Zelona was no other than Zela in the same province; Sophene belonged to Armenia Major; and Diospontum was not the name of a bishopric, but only an old name for the province of Hellenopontus. And his conjecture is confirmed by the later Notitiæ, which name the six first of these dioceses, but none of those four under the title of Armenia Minor.

So that in all these five provinces, upon an exact computation, there were not above twenty-four dioceses in the whole : some of them therefore must be very large in a country of three hundred miles extent. 8. The next province to these upon the Euxine sea was Of Pontus

PolemoniaPontus Polemoniacus, so called from Polemonium, a chief city in the province; beside which and Neocæsarea there were but three other bishoprics, Trapezus, Cerasus, and Comana: all which lay at a great distance from one another. Polemonium Cerasus and Trapezus lay in a line on the sea-coast: and, by Pliny's 61 reckoning, Polemonium and Trapezus were one hundred and fifty-five miles distant from each other, and Cerasus lay in the middle between them. Neocæsarea was one hundred miles within land, and Comana sixty from it. Justinian 62 mentions these five cities in one of his Novels, and says

there were no more in the province. For Pityus and Sebastopolis were not cities, he says, but only castles; and, as Holstenius 63 observes, they were not properly of this province, but lay in solo barba

cus.

serves out of Antonine's Itinerary, rico, ipsa Pityus sita esset, ut et that Sebasta, or Sebastia, and Se- Sebastopolis, quam Justinianus Pibastopolis were thirty-six miles dis- tyusæ conjunxit. Justinianus, Notant from each other.

vell. 28, Ponto Polemoniaco, præ61 L. 6. c. 4. (p. 83. 4.) In fauci- ter quinque superiores, duas alias bus a Trapezunte 150. mill. pass. accenset civitates, Pityunta et Se

62 Novel. 28. in Præfat. (t. 5. p. bastopolin, quæ trans Pontum, in 221.)... Aliæ vero quinque Polemo- solo Barbarico sitæ, nullam per se niacum Pontum continent, Neocæ- constituebant provinciam. Eas ergo sarea, et Commana, Trapezus, et ad Ponti præfecturam spectare voCerasus, et Polemonium. Pitius luerunt imperatores antiqui ante [s. Pityus] enim et Sebastopolis in- Justinianum. Hinc Stratophilus ter castra potius, quam urbes nu- Pityusius, sive Pityuntos episcopus merandæ sunt.

in subscriptionibus Conc. Nicæni 63 Ibid. ut supr. p. 164. (ap. Car. legitur; nam Pityusa illa Ptolemæi, a S. Paul. p. 250. n. 2.) Sed quam- si modo vera lectio est, episcopum vis trans Pontum, in solo Barba

nunquam habuit.

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