this. Now then, supposing 400 dioceses to have been in a country 600 miles in length, and 300 in breadth, let us examine how much, upon an equal distribution, will fall to every diocese. And it appears, upon an exact computation, that, supposing there had been 450 dioceses, there would have been twenty miles to each diocese; and, consequently, there being not so many by fifty, every diocese must have so much the more, upon an equal distribution. But then it must be owned, that the distribution was generally unequal in this country; for the bishoprics of the Pontic provinces were, for the most part, very large, and those of the Asiatic provinces consequently the smaller upon that account, and abundantly more numerous: so that here the reader may view the largest and smallest dioceses in the world together, and yet the same species of episcopacy maintained in all, without distinction.


2. To begin with the Pontic provinces. Cappadocia was a Of Cappavery large country, and had but few bishoprics. Strabo 45 docia and reckons it 3000 stadia in length, that is, 375 miles. But then Minor. he takes it in a larger sense than we do now, as including all from the provinces of Lycaonia and Phrygia to the Euphrates, which takes in Armenia Minor as well as Cappadocia; for anciently they were all one kingdom, though afterwards divided into five provinces, three Cappadocias, and Armenia Prima and Secunda. But, now, in all these five provinces there were not thirty dioceses at first, and some of those were newly erected in the fourth century, as Sasima, where Gregory Nazianzen was made bishop, which before belonged either to Cæsarea, the metropolis of Cappadocia Prima, from which it was 100 miles distant; or to Tyana, the metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda, from which it lay thirty-two miles, as Ferrarius 46 computes. This shows that these dioceses were of great extent but we have still more certain evidence of the thing;

45 L. 12. p. 539. (t. 2. p. 813 d. 2.) Μέγεθος δὲ τῆς χώρας Καππαδοκίας κατὰ πλάτος μὲν, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πόντου πρὸς τὸν Ταῦρον, ὅσον χίλιοι καὶ ὀκ τακόσιοι στάδιοι· μῆκος δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Λυκαονίας καὶ Φρυγίας, μέχρι Εὐφράτου πρὸς τὴν ἕω καὶ τὴν ̓Αρμενίαν, περὶ τρισχιλίους.

46 Lexic. Geogr. voce Sasima. (t.

2. p. 164.) Sasima, Sasum, teste
Leunclavio, urbs Cappadociæ epi-
scopalis sub archiepiscopo Cæsari-
ensi, inter Cæsaream ad arctos, et
Tyana ad meridiem, 32. mill. pass.
ultra Ancyram in ortum supra 200.
Cujus urbis divus Gregorius Nazi-
anzenus episcopus fuit.

for Gregory Nazianzen 47 says, that St. Basil, who was bishop of Cæsarea, had fifty chorepiscopi under him; and Basil himself 4s often speaks of his chorepiscopi, and country-presbyters, and deacons under them;' which argues his diocese to be of great extent, though we cannot precisely fix the limits of it. And the paucity of dioceses in this province argues the same; for, by Carolus à Sancto Paulo's account 49, besides Caesarea, the metropolis of the first Cappadocia, there were but five bishoprics more in that province, Nyssa, where Gregory Nyssen was bishop, Thermæ Regiæ, Camuliana, or Justinianopolis Nova, Ciscissa, and Theodosiopolis, at the time of the sixth General Council; which are the same that are mentioned in the later Notitiæ, only Methodiopolis is put for Theodosiopolis Armeniæ, to which province the Council of Chalcedon ascribes it. So that there were really never above five dioceses in this province, and two of those, Camuliana and Ciscissa, erected after the Council of Chalcedon. For, in the Synodical Epistle of this province to the Emperor Leo, at the end of that Council, there are but two bishops that subscribe beside the metropolitan of Caesarea, viz. 5o the bishops of Nyssa and Thermæ. Sozomen sl speaks of one Prapidius, governor of St. Basil's Hospital, called Basilias from its founder, who was likewise a bishop that

47 Carm. de Vit. Sua. (t. 2. p. 8 a.) Αὕτη Σασίμων τῶν ἐμῶν ἐκκλησία. Τούτοις μὲ ὁ πεντήκοντα χωρεπισκόποις Στενούμενος δέδωκε, κ. τ. λ.

48 Ep. 181. [al. 54.] ad Chorepisc. (t. 3. part. I. p. 211 b.) The inscription according to Labbe (CC. t. 2. p. 1768 a.) runs thus,-Χωρεπισκόποις, ὥστε μὴ γίνεσθαι χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ὑπηρέτας παρὰ τοὺς κανόνας. Of whom he thus complains in the Epistle itself. (ibid. c.) Πρῶτον μὲν ἡμᾶς παρωσάμενοι, καὶ μηδὲ ἐπαναφέρειν ἡμῖν καταδεχόμενοι, εἰς ἑαυτοὺς τὴν ὅλην περιεστήσατε αὐθεντίαν ἔπειτα, καταρραθυμοῦντες τοῦ πράγματος, πρεσβυτέροις καὶ διακόνοις ἐπετρέψατε, οὓς ἂν ἐθέλωσιν, ἀπὸ ἀνεξετάστου βίου, κατὰ προσπάθειαν, ἢ τὴν ἀπὸ συγγενείας, ἢ τὴν ἐξ ἄλλης τινὸς φιλίας, ἐπεισάγειν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοὺς ἀναξίους. — Ep. 412. [al. 169.] ad Gregor. ibid. part. 2. p. 373 b.) Οὗτος, ὁ νῦν σοβαρὸς καὶ σεμνὸς ὑμῖν

Γλυκέριος, ἐχειροτονήθη μὲν παρ' ἡμῶν τῆς κατὰ Οὐήνεσαν ἐκκλησίας διάκονος, ὡς καὶ τῷ πρεσβυτέρω διακονήσων, καὶ τοῦ ἔργου τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐπιμελησόμενος.

49 [Ubi supra, p. 245. ED.] 50 [Ep. Episc. Cappadoc. ad Leon. Imp. according to Labbe and Cossart, (CC. t. 4. pp. 952-954.) where the subscriptions are those of Alypius of Cæsarea and Uvius of Nyssa; but the name of the bishop of Therme does not appear. ED.]

51 L. 6. c. 34. (v. 2. p. 269. 33.) Εὐδοκιμώτατοι ὧν ἐπυθόμην ἐγένοντο ἐνθάδε μοναχοὶ, Λεόντιος ὁ τὴν ἐν ̓Αγκύρᾳ ἐκκλησίαν ὕστερον ἐπιτροπεύσας, καὶ Πραπίδιος ὃς ἤδη γηραλέος ὢν πολλὰς ἐπεσκόπει κώμας προέστη δὲ καὶ Βασιλειάδος, ὃ πτωχῶν ἐστὶν ἐπισημότατον καταγώγιον, ὑπὸ Βασιλείου τοῦ Καισαρείας ἐπισκόπου κατασκευασθὲν, ἀφ ̓ οὗ τὴν προσηγορίαν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔλαβε, καὶ εἰς ἔτι νῦν ἔχει.

had several villages under his jurisdiction; but whether his diocese was in this Cappadocia, is uncertain.

The second Cappadocia, which was made by a division of the province in the time of St. Basil, had according to Carolus à Sancto Paulo's account six dioceses, Tyana, the metropolis, Sasima [or Sasimi], Justinianopolis, Asuna, Faustinopolis, and Cybistra. But, as Holstenius 51 has observed, two of these are mistaken; for there never was any such city as Asuna, which is only a corruption in the Latin editions of the Councils for Sasima, it being in the Greek, 'Елíσкопоя Zaoípov, Bishop of Sasima. And Justinianopolis was only another name for Mocissus, which Justinian having advanced to be a metropolis in the third Cappadocia, he styled it by his own name Justinianople. So that there were really no more than four dioceses in this province, and one of them, Sasima, but of late erection. This was also but an obscure village; σтévov кwμúoptor, as Nazianzen himself 52 calls it. So that the three ancient dioceses must be of very large extent, though we have no further account of them, save that Pasa, a village twelve miles distant from Tyana, is said to be in that diocese, by one Euphrantas in the fifth General Council 53; and Sasima was originally part of the same diocese, though thirty-two miles distant from the cathedral. Which sufficiently demonstrates the largeness of dioceses in this province.

The third Cappadocia had never above five bishoprics, Mocissus, Nazianzus, Colonia, Parnassus, and Doara. Of these, Mocissus was the metropolis, which owed its honour to Justinian, who dignified it with the title of a metropolis; and, as Procopius 54 informs us, gave it his own name Justinianople ;

51 Annot. Geogr. p. 157. (Oper. Car. a S. Paul. p. 246. n. 3.) Asuna. Nulla hoc nomine civitas unquam fuit. In Græco fuit 'Emiσкоños Eaσípov, inde olim Episcopus Sasima: unde rejecta prima litera Asima, et tandem confusis literarum cruribus Asuna; ita error errorem trahit.

52 Carm. de Vit. Sua. (t. 2. p. 7. v. ult.) Δεινῶς ἀπευκτὸν καὶ στενὸν κωμύδριον.

53 Collat. 5. (t. 5. p. 478 b.) Prædium autem quod dicitur Pasa... duodecim milliariis Tyanensis distat


metropoleos, et sub eadem civitate est usque hodie.

54 De Edific. Justinian. 1. 5. p. 48. [The passage, to which the Author alludes, is not to be found according to the citation as above. Grischovius supposes that the passage following, though containing nothing about the name Justinianopolis, may have been in the author's mind (ibid. p. 100.) 'Hv dÉ TI Oроúρiov ev Kаππadóκαis, Mwкnσòs ὄνομα, ἐν μὲν τῷ ὁμαλεῖ κείμενον· Σαθρὸν δὲ οὕτω γεγενημένον, ὥστε


by which title Peter, bishop of the place, subscribes himself in the Council under Mennas 55. Doara was but a village, as Holstenius 56 observes out of St. Basil, who styles it 57 kúμnν Awapa. And Nazianzus was but a small city, as Gregory Nazianzen himself 58 styles it. But they must have large dioceses, else the other three must be so much the larger for it; for geographers place them at a considerable distance from one another. Nazianzus had its chorepiscopi, sometimes mentioned in Gregory Nazianzen's Epistles 59, which is an argument that it had a large country region.

In Armenia Prima, Carolus à Sancto Paulo could find but five bishoprics; Sebasta [or Sebastia] the metropolis, Sebastopolis, Nicopolis, Satala, and Berisse. The later Notitiæ add but one more, Colonia, which is also reckoned to Cappadocia Tertia, unless there were two of the same name in those provinces.

In Armenia Secunda he augments the number to ten; Melitene, the metropolis, Arca, Comana, Arabissus, Cucusus [or Cocusum,] Ariarathia, Amasa, Zelona, Sophene, Diospontum. But Holstenius 60

δὴ αὐτοῦ τὰ μὲν καταπεπτώκει, τὰ δὲ ἔμελλεν· ὅπερ Ἰουστινιανὸς βασιλεὺς καθελὼν, τεῖχος ᾠκοδομήσατο κομιδῇ μέγα, ἐς τὰ πρὸς ἑσπέραν τοῦ πάλαι φρουρίου, ἐν χωρίῳ ἀνάντει τε καὶ λίαν ὀρθίῳ, καὶ ἀμηχάνῳ προσελθεῖν, εἴ τις προσίοι· ἔνθα δὴ καὶ ἱερὰ τεμένη πολλὰ, καὶ ξενώνας, καὶ λουτρῶνας ἐν δημοσίῳ ἐδείματο, καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἐνδείκνυται τὴν πόλιν εὐδαίμονα· ἐξ οὗ δὴ καὶ εἰς μητροπόλεως ἀξίωμα ἦλθεν. ED.]

55 Vid. Labb. (t. 5. p. 52 b.) Πετρου τῆς μητροπόλεως Ιουστινιανουπόλεως.

56 Ibid. ut supr. p. 159. (ap. Car. a S. Paul. (p. 247. n. 3. Doara. Vicum vocat Basilius Magnus, Epist. 10, ubi Georgii ejus episcopi

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τες οἱ ̓Απολλιναριανοὶ, τὰ μὲν πεποιήκασι, τὰ δὲ ἀπειλοῦσι, παρὰ τῶν κυρίων μου τῶν συμπρεσβυτέρων μας θήσῃ, Εὐλαλίου τοῦ χωρεπισκόπου, καὶ Κελευσίου, οὓς ἐξ ἔργου πρὸς τὴν σὴν εὐλάβειαν ἀπεστάλκαμεν.

60 Ibid. ut supr. p. 161. (ap. Oper. Car. a S. Paul. p. 248. n. 69.) Amasa. Hic quoque episcopatus vitio creatus ex Amasia Diosponti, sive Hellenoponti, civitate primaria. Zelona. Eadem quæ Zela: unde Heraclius ille Zelon episcopus genitivo plurali vocatur, quem MS. antiquissimus Diosponto, sive Hellenoponto, recte tribuit. Sophene. Arsaphius Sophenensis inter episcopos Armeniæ majoris. Diospontium. Episcopatus supposititius ex codicum vulgarium confusione natus. Manuscriptus antiquissimus Diosponti hic seorsim ponit, ut provinciæ nomen, cui deinde subjicitur Eutychianus Amasia episcopus. Unde certum est, Diospontum antea fuisse, qui postea Hellenopontus appellatus fuit. Ita quoque Ortelius Dispontum a veteri medico appellatum observavit.-In his Annotations on Ortelius (p. 172) he ob

in his animadversions upon the place observes, that four of these are to be struck out of the account; for Amasa, or Amasia, belonged to Hellenopontus; and Zelona was no other than Zela in the same province; Sophene belonged to Armenia Major; and Diospontum was not the name of a bishopric, but only an old name for the province of Hellenopontus. And his conjecture is confirmed by the later Notitia, which name the six first of these dioceses, but none of those four under the title of Armenia Minor.

So that in all these five provinces, upon an exact computation, there were not above twenty-four dioceses in the whole : some of them therefore must be very large in a country of three hundred miles extent.



3. The next province to these upon the Euxine sea was Of Pontus Pontus Polemoniacus, so called from Polemonium, a chief city in the province; beside which and Neocæsarea there were but three other bishoprics, Trapezus, Cerasus, and Comana: all which lay at a great distance from one another. Polemonium Cerasus and Trapezus lay in a line on the sea-coast: and, by Pliny's 61 reckoning, Polemonium and Trapezus were one hundred and fifty-five miles distant from each other, and Cerasus lay in the middle between them. Neocæsarea was one hundred miles within land, and Comana sixty from it. Justinian 62 mentions these five cities in one of his Novels, and says there were no more in the province. For Pityus and Sebastopolis were not cities, he says, but only castles; and, as Holstenius 63 observes, they were not properly of this province, but lay in solo barba

serves out of Antonine's Itinerary, that Sebasta, or Sebastia, and Sebastopolis were thirty-six miles dis

tant from each other.

61 L. 6. c. 4. (p. 83. 4.) In faucibus a Trapezunte 150. mill. pass.

62 Novel. 28. in Præfat. (t. 5. p. 221.)... Aliæ vero quinque Polemoniacum Pontum continent, Neocasarea, et Commana, Trapezus, et Cerasus, et Polemonium. Pitius [s. Pityus] enim et Sebastopolis inter castra potius, quam urbes numerandæ sunt.

63 Ibid. ut supr. p. 164. (ap. Car. a S. Paul. p. 250. n. 2.) Sed quamvis trans Pontum, in solo Barba

rico, ipsa Pityus sita esset, ut et
Sebastopolis, quam Justinianus Pi-
tyusæ conjunxit. Justinianus, No-
vell. 28, Ponto Polemoniaco, præ-
ter quinque superiores, duas alias
accenset civitates, Pityunta et Se-
bastopolin, quæ trans Pontum, in
solo Barbarico sitæ, nullam per se
constituebant provinciam. Eas ergo
ad Ponti præfecturam spectare vo-
luerunt imperatores antiqui ante
Justinianum. Hinc Stratophilus
Pityusius, sive Pityuntos episcopus
in subscriptionibus Conc. Nicæni
legitur; nam Pityusa illa Ptolemæi,
si modo vera lectio est, episcopum
nunquam habuit.

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