rium. 19. Thermæ Regiæ. But the last of them Holstenius thinks is mistaken for Germa, by a corrupt reading of the ancient Subscriptions. The Notitia of Leo Sapiens has but thirteen of these, so that five of them were sunk and united to others in the eighth century. The greatest distance, that I can find, of any of these cities, was not above twenty miles from one another. Which was the distance between Cyzicus and Parium, and Lampsacus and Abydus. But then, Dardanum was but seventy furlongs, or eight miles, from Abydus; Ilium, but thirteen miles from Dardanum; Troas, but twentyseven miles from Abydus, though Pionia, Ilium, Bares, and Dardanum, lay between them. So Præconesus was but a very small island, and Pœmanium, a castle once belonging to the territory of Cyzicus, as Ferrarius has noted out of Strabo, Stephanus, and other ancient writers.

diana, or

9. The two next provinces I join together, because we some- Asia Lytimes find them under the common name of Asia Lydiana or ProconProconsularis, under which title Bp. Usher has a most accurate sularis. dissertation 82 upon them, where he distinguishes the several acceptations of the name Asia, either for the Greater Asia, or Asia Minor, or Asia properly so called, which was the Romans' first conquests in Asia, containing the provinces of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia; or lastly, for Asia Lydiana or Proconsularis, which was those two provinces, which in Constantine's division are called distinctly Asia and Lydia, as we here now take them. In this sense we may call the former Asia most properly so called, which is bounded on the north by the province of Hellespontus, on the east by Phrygia and Lydia, on the south by the river Mæander, which separates it from Caria, and on the west by the Egean Sea. In it

82 Disquisit. Geograph. de Asia Lydiana, s. Proconsulari. (juxt. Ed. Lat. Lond. 1687. 8vo.) Ut Asia Minor (nunc Natolia, seu Anatolia dicta) pars majoris erat, et Asia proprie sic dicta pars illius minoris; sic Lydiana, sive Proconsularis Asia, pars erat Asiæ proprie sic dictæ. Ut autem res plenius intelligatur, in memoriam revocandum est, quod Romani, quum possessionem caperent earum regionum, quæ prius ad Pergamenos reges

pertinebant, eas in provinciæ for-
mam redegerint; quam magnæ Con-
tinentis nomine vocabant Asiam.
Hæc distinguitur a Cicerone in re-
giones quatuor: Phrygiam, My-
siam, Cariam, Lydiam, &c. [An-
glice, Works, v. 7. p. 3. Dubl. 1847.
8vo. The Treatise, as as well as the
Original of Bishops and Metropoli-
tans, was first published in English,
Oxf. 1641. See Watt's Bibliotheca
Britannica. ED.]


Carolus à Sancto Paulo has found forty-two ancient dioceses. 1. Ephesus, the metropolis. 2. Нурӕра. 3. Trallis. Magnesia ad Mæandrum. 5. Elæa. 6. Adramyttium. 7. Assus. 8. Gargara. 9. Mastaura. 10. Brullena, or Priulla. 11. Pitane. 12. Myrrhina, [or Myrina.] 13. Aureliopolis. 14. Nyssa. 15. Metropolis. 16. Valentinianopolis. 17. Aninetum. 18. Pergamus. 19. Anæa. 20. Priene. 21. Arcadiopolis. 22. Nova Aula. 23. Egea. 24. Andera. 25. Sion. 26. Fanum Jovis. 27. Colophon. 28. Lebedus. 29. Teos. 30. Erythræ. 31. Antandrus. 32. Pepere, or Perpere. 33 Cuma, or Cyme. 34. Aulium, or Aulii Come vel Vicus. 35. Naulochus. 36. Palæopolis. 37. Phocæa. 38. Bargaza, or Ba39. Thymbria. 40. Clazomenæ. 41. Magnesia. 42. Smyrna. To these Holstenius adds four more, viz. Evaza, Areopolis, Temnus, and Argiza: and thirty-eight of these are the same that are mentioned in the Notitia of Leo Sapiens in the seventh chapter of this Book. Now this was but a very small province for so many dioceses, if we examine either the whole extent of it, or some particular dioceses therein. The extent of it in length was from Assus, near Troas, to the river Mæander, or the cities Bargaza and Sion; which was anciently the country of Ionia, Æolis, and part of Mysia, about two hundred miles in length upon the Egean Sea: but the breadth was nothing answerable to its length, being not above fifty miles, taking one part with another.


As to particular distances of places, I find some of them thus noted by Ferrarius and Baudrand. Assus, in the most northern border, was fifteen miles from Gargara, and thirty from Antandrus; but Anæa and Andera lay between or near unto them. From Antandrus to Adramyttium is also reckoned thirty miles, but then Tremenothyra in Phrygia, and Nova Aula in this province, come between them. On the same shore we find Naulochus and Pitane, and then Elea, Myrina, and Cyme, whereof Myrina was but seven or eight miles from Elea, and Cyme the same distance, sixty furlongs, from Myrina. Between Pergamus and Cyme is reckoned twenty-six miles, but the fore-mentioned cities Myrina and Elea, with Aminetum and Hierocæsarea, lay between them. On the south of Cyme lay Phocæa, ten miles from the mouth of the river Hermus, and about the same distance from Cyme. From Phocæa to Smyrna is computed twenty-five

miles, and from Smyrna to Colophon twenty miles, but Lebedus lay in the middle way between them. Colophon and Metropolis upon the Caystrus were each of them twenty miles from Ephesus, and Ephesus seems not to have had any nearer neighbour, unless it was Priene towards the river Mæander; from whence we may conclude, that Ephesus was the largest diocese in all this province: and by these few hints we may judge of the general extent of them.

In the other province of Lydia, Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons twenty-six dioceses. 1. Sardis, the metropolis. 2. Philadelphia. 3. Tripolis. 4. Thyatira. 5. Septe. 6. Gordus. 7. Trallis. 8. Silandus. 9. Mæonia. 10. Fanum Apollinis. 11. Mostena. 12. Apollonia. 13. Attalia. 14. Bana. 15. Balandus. 16. Hierocæsarea. 17. Acrassus. 18. Daldus." 19. Stratonicia. 20. Satala. 21. Gabala. 22. Heraclea. 23. Areopolis. 24. Hellene. 25. Sena, or Setta. 26. Civitas Standitana. To which Holstenius adds three more; Mastaura, Cerasa, and Orcanis or Hircani, which Tristan and Carolus à Sancto Paulo both mistake for a city somewhere among the Hyrcanians; but Holstenius shews it belonged to Asia Minor and this province of Lydia. I will not stand to examine the particular bounds and extent of dioceses throughout this province; it being sufficient to observe in general, that both it and Asia put together were not larger than the provinces of Pontus Polemoniacus and Hellenopontus; and yet there were not above ten or eleven dioceses in those two provinces ; whereas we have discovered in these above seventy-five, which is almost the disproportion of eight to one, and fully makes out the observation I at first made of Asia Minor, that it had some of the greatest and some of the smallest dioceses, quietly enjoying the same form of government together.

10. The next province on the south of Asia and Lydia is Of Caria. Caria, bounded on the east with Lycia, and on the south and west with the Egean Sea, having the rivers Mæander and Calbis for its inland bounds. Here Carolus à Sancto Paulo has found twenty-five dioceses. 1. Aphrodisias, the metropolis. 2. Stauropolis. 3. Cybira. 4. Heraclea Salbaci. 5. Apollonias. 6. Heraclea Latmi. 7. Tabæ. 8. Antiochia ad Mæandrum. 9. Neapolis. 10. Orthosias. 11. Harpasa. 12. Alabanda. 13. Stratonice. 14. Alinda. 15. Amyzon.

Of Lycia.

16. Lassus. 17. Bargyla. 18. Halicarnassus. 19. Larima, or Halarima. 20. Cnidus. 21. Myndus. 22. Ceramus. 23. Anastasiopolis. 24. Erisa, [or Erisi.] 25. Miletus. The Notitia of Leo Sapiens increases the number to thirty-one. Miletus was the place whither St. Paul called the elders of Ephesus, which was about forty miles distant from it. But several dioceses lay between them, as Heraclea near Mount Latmus, which Ferrarius computes but twelve miles from Miletus; so also Briullium Sion and Arpasa in the same coast, toward Ephesus. On the south of Miletus the other way, we have Iassus fifteen miles from it, and Tabæ placed between them. From Iassus to Halicarnassus is computed fifty-five miles, but Bargyla and Myndus stand between them. From Halicarnassus to Cnidus is thirty miles, but Ceramus is an intervening diocese.

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And so the reader may find all the dioceses of this province scarce exceeding the compass of ten or fifteen miles throughout : but this was territory sufficient to make them exceed single congregations, and we need not question but it was true of them all, what Sozomen 83 particularly observes of Miletus, that in the time of Julian it had several Christian oratories in its neighbourhood.' For he says, 'Julian sent orders to the governor of Caria, that whereas there were several oratories or churches built in honour of the martyrs near the temple of Didymæum ; (so the temple of Apollo was called, that stood before Miletus ;) he should, if they were covered and had communion-tables in them, burn them with fire; or, if they were half decayed of themselves, he should take care utterly to demolish and destroy them.' There were, it seems, churches then in the suburbs or country-region of Miletus, which Julian, remembering what had lately happened to the temple of Apollo at Daphne, in the suburbs of Antioch, was so careful to have destroyed, because they were an annoyance to his god.

11. The next province to Caria on the sea-coast is Lycia, where Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons twenty-eight dioceses. 1. Myra, the metropolis. 2. Mastaura. 3. Telmessus. 4. Li

83 L. 5. c. 20. (v. 2. p. 211. 48.).. Πυθόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς, ἐπὶ τῇ τιμῇ μαρτύρων εὐκτηρίους οἴκους εἶναι πλησίον τοῦ ναοῦ Διδυμαίου Απόλλωνος, ὃς πρὸ τῆς Μιλήτου ἐστὶν, ἔγραψε τῷ

ἡγεμόνι Καρίας, εἰ μὲν ὀροφόν τε καὶ τράπεζαν ἱερὰν ἔχουσι, πυρὶ καταφλέξαι· εἰ δὲ ἡμίεργά ἐστι τὰ οἰκοδομήματα, ἐκ βάθρων ανασκάψαι.

myra. 5. Araxa. 6. Podalæa. 7. Sidyma, or Diduma. 8. 0lympus. 9. Zenopolis. 10. Tlos. 11. Corydalla. 12. Caunus, or Acaleia. 13. Acarassus. 14. Xanthus. 15. Marciana. 16. Choma. 17. Phellus. 18. Antiphellus. 19. Phaselis. 20. Aucanda. 21. Eudoxias. 22. Patara. 23. Nysa, or Nesus. 24. Balbura. 25. Eneanda. 26. Bubon, or Bunum. 27. Calinda. 28. Rhodia. The Notitia of Leo Sapiens has most of the same names and eight more; for it makes the whole number of dioceses thirty-six. But the lesser number in so small a province is sufficient to shew the narrow extent of its dioceses in comparison of those of the Pontic provinces. For this province was not above eighty or a hundred miles square, and the cities therefore, one may easily conclude, lay pretty close together. Phellus is reckoned but six miles from Antiphellus one way, and ten from Myra, the metropolis, another way. Antiphellus was nine from Patara, and Telmessus and Patara scarce so much from Xanthus; for Baudrand reckons but seventy furlongs: by which it is easy to make an estimate of the remaining cities of this province, which lay about equal distances from one another.

12. The next province on the same shore is Pamphylia, di- Of Pamvided by the Romans into two, called Pamphylia Prima and ma and Sephylia PriSecunda. In the Second of them, which bordered upon Lycia, cunda. Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons twenty-six dioceses. 1. Perga, the metropolis. 2. Termessus. 3. Eudoxias. 4. Maximianopolis. 5. Palæopolis. 6. Pentenesus. 7. Diciozanabrus, or Zenopolis. 8. Ariassus. 9. Pugla. 10. Adriana. 11. Attalia. 12. Magidis. 13. Olbia. 14. Corbasa. 15. Lysinia. 16. Cordylus. 17. Lagania. 18. Panemoticus. 19. Geone. 20. Commachum. 21. Silvium. 22. Pisinda, or Sinda vel Isinda. 23. Talbonda. 24. Unzela. 25. Gilsata. 26. Pella. To which Holstenius adds five more; Colobrassus, Coracesium, Senna, Primopolis, and Seleucia. But three of these are by Carolus à Sancto Paulo set in the other Pamphylia with nine more in this order. 1. Sida, the metropolis. 2. Aspendus. 3. Etene. 4. Erymne. 5. Cassus. 6. Semneum, which is the same with Senna before mentioned. 7. Carallus. 8. Coraeesium, mentioned before. 9. Sysdra, [or Syedra.] 10. Lyrbæ. 11. Colibrassus. 12. Selga. To which Holstenius adds Cotana, which makes the whole number in these two provinces forty-one. And the number is some evi

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