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ceed and take possession of the sanctuary, where the venerable bench of our clergy sit ?” About this time also Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, speaks of churches as appropriate to the service of God, resolving this question 53, Whether a woman in the time of her separation might enter into the house of God? It appears further from the Rescript of Gallienus, the emperor, recorded by Eusebius 54, where he restores the Christians their churches, under the name of τόποι θρησκεύσιμοι, worshipping places : and from what has been noted before out of the Letter of Aurelian 55, which chides the senate for demurring about opening the Sibylline Books, as if they had been consulting, not in the Capitol, but in a Christian church; as also that other Rescript of his in Eusebius 56, which, at the request of the Council of Antioch, ordered Paulus Samosatensis to be turned out of the house of the church. But the testimony of Eusebius goes far beyond all others; for speaking of the peaceable times, which the Christians enjoyed from the persecution of Valerian to that of Diocletian, he observes 57, “ that the number of Christians so grew and multiplied, in that fifty years, that their ancient churches were not large enough to receive them, and therefore they erected from the foundations more ample and spacious ones in every city.'

16. The only objection against all this, made with any colour, is drawn from some of the ancient apologists, Origen 58, Minucius Felix 59, Arnobius 60, and Lactantius 61, who seem to

The Ob. jection from Lactantius

54 L."

53 Ep. Canon. c. 2. (ap. Bevereg. t. νεκα μηδαμώς έτι τους παλαιούς οικοδο2. part. Ι. p. 4 e.) Περί των εν αφέ- μήμασιν αρκούμενοι, ευρείας εις πλάδρω γυναικών, εί προσηκεν αυτάς ού- τος ανά πάσας τας πόλεις εκ θεμελίων τω διακειμένας εις τον οίκον εισιέναι ανίστων εκκλησίας. του θεού, περιττόν και το πυνθάνε- 58 Cont. Cels. 1. 8. p. 389. (t. Ι. σθαι νομίζω.

p. 756 e.) Ει δε και ναούς ναοις δει . 7. C. 13. (v. Ι. p. 340. 7.) Την παραβαλείν, ίνα παραστήσωμεν τοις ευεργεσίαν της έμης δωρεάς διά παν- αποδεχομένοις τα Κέλσου, ότι νεώς τος του κόσμου εκβιβασθήναι προσ- μεν ιδρύεσθαι τους πρέποντας τους έταξα όπως από τόπων θρησκευσίμων ειρημένους αγάλμασι και βωμοίς ου αποχωρήσωσι.

φεύγομεν εκτρεπόμεθα δε τω πάσης 55 See S. Ι. p. 2. n. 4.

ζωης χορηγώ αψύχους και νεκρούς 56 L. 7. c. 30. See before, 8. 3. p. οικοδομείν νεώς: ακουέτω ο βουλόμε5. n. 20.

νος, τίνα τρόπον διδασκόμεθα, "Οτι τα 57 L. 8. c. Ι. (v. Ι. p. 376. 14.) σώματα ημων ναός του θεού εστί και Πώς δ' άν τις διαγράψεις τας μυριάν- εί τις διά της ακολασίας ή της αμαρδρους εκείνας επισυναγωγάς και τα τίας φθείρει τον ναόν του θεού, ούτος πλήθη των κατά πάσαν πόλιν α- ως αληθώς ασεβής εις τον αληθή ναόν θροισμάτων τάς τε επισήμους εν τοις φθαρήσεται. προσευκτηρίοις συνδρομάς ; ων δή έ- 50 Octav. [c. 1ο.] p. 29. (p. 61.)

bius answered.

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say that the Christians in their time had no temples, nor altars, and Arnonor ought to have any. But as Mr. Mede shews at large, this is only spoken against such temples as the heathens pleaded for, in the notion of encloistering the Deity by an idol. For otherwise the very authors from whom the objection is drawn must strangely contradict themselves. For Arnobius 62 owns they had their conventicula, houses of assembly, which he complains were barbarously destroyed in the last persecution. And Lactantius 63 says the same, giving them also the name of the temples of God, which Diocletian ordered to be demolished, when he taught oratory in Bithynia. And Origen himself 64 speaks of adorning the Christian churches, and altars, in one of his Homilies upon Joshua, translated literally by Ruffin.

17. Thus far Mr. Mede goes in his collections and answer to Some adthis objection; to which I shall add a few things which he has

collections not observed. Lactantius in another place of his Institutions 65 upon this

head. speaks of one of the Christian conventicula in a town in Phrygia, which the Heathen burnt, with the whole assembly

ditional

Cur nullas aras habent, templa

64 Hom. 10. in Josh. (t. 2. p. 423 nulla, nulla nota simulacra?

b.) Sunt quidam in ecclesia cre60 Cont. Gent. 1.6. (p. 190.) Quod dentes quidem et habentes fidem in cum ita se habeat, qui possumus ju- Deum, et acquiescentes in omnibus dicari deos habere contemptui? quos divinis præceptis; quique etiam erga nisi sunt recti et magnarum men- servos Dei religiosi sunt, et servire tium admiratione laudabiles, deos eis cupiunt, sed et ad ornatum ecnegamus existere, nec potestatibus clesiæ vel ministerium satis prompti posse cælitibus applicari? Sed tem- paratique sunt; in actibus vero suis. pla illis exstruimus nulla, nec eorum et conversatione propria obscenitaeffigies adoramus, non mactamus tibus et vitiis involuti, nec omnino hostias, non tura ac vina libamus. deponentes veterem hominem cum Et quid amplius possumus vel ho- actibus suis, sed involuti vetustis noris eis tribuere vel dignitatis, quam vitiis et obscænitatibus suis, sicut quod eos in ea ponamus parte, qua et isti pannis et calceamentis vetererum caput, ac Dominum, sum- ribus obtecti, præter hoc, quod in mumque ipsum regem, cui debent Deum credunt, et erga servos Dei divina [al. dii una] nobiscum, quod vel ecclesiæ cultum videntur esse esse se sentiunt, et vitali in sub- devoti, nihil adhibent emendationis stantia contineri? Numquid enim vel innovationis in moribus. [al. delubris aut temploruin eum con- mores.]—Ibid. (d.) Sciendum est... structionibus honoramus ?

quod si qui tales sunt in nobis, quo61 Instit. 1. 2. c. 2. (t. i. p. 116.) rum fides hoc tantummodo habet, Cur ad parietes, et ligna, et lapides ut ad ecclesiam veniant, et inclinent potissimum, quam illo spectatis, ubi caput suum sacerdotibus, officia exeos esse creditis ? Quid sibi templa? hibeant, servos Dei honorent, ad Quid aræ volunt?

ornatum quoque altaris vel ecclesiæ 62 Cont. Gent. 1. 4. p. 152. See aliquid.conferant, &c. before, s.7. p. 12, n. 61.

65 Instit. 1. 5. c. 11. See before, 63 Instit. 1. 5. C. 2. See before, 6.7. p. 12. n. 60. 6.6.

p.9. n. 42. BINGHAM, VOL. III.

D

in it. And in his book, De Mortibus Persecutorum, published since Mr. Mede's death, he gives a more particular account of the destruction of churches throughout the world. For he not only mentions the demolishing the stately church of Nicomedia 66, but intimates that the same fate attended the churches over all the world. For even in France, where the mild Constantius ruled, the persecution went so far as to pull down the churches 67, though the men, the true temples of God, were spared, and sheltered under his gentle government. Lactantius lived in France at this time, being tutor to Crispus, the son of Constantine, and grandson of Constantius, and therefore he could not be mistaken in his relation. So that we must interpret Euscbius 68 by him, when he says Constantius destroyed no churches; that is, he gave no positive orders, as the other emperors did, to destroy them, but he connived at such as pulled them down, in policy to satisfy the other emperors, and make the walls compound for the life and safety of the persons. However it was, both Eusebius and Lactantius agree in this, that there were churches in France before the last persecution. We have the like account of the churches of Britain given by Gildas 69, who says in general of the last persecution, that it occasioned churches all over the world to be destroyed, and particularly in Britain ; for 70

66 De Mort. Persecut. c. 12. (t. 2. fanum illud editissimum paucis hop. 199.) Ille dies primus leti primusque ris solo adæquarunt. malorum causa fuit, quæ et ipsis et 67 Ibid. c. 15. (p. 202.) Constanorbi terrarum acciderunt. Qui dies tius, ne dissentire videretur a macum illuxisset, agentibus consula- joribus præceptis, conventicula, id tum senibus ambobus octavum et est, parietes, qui restitui poterant, septimum, repente adhuc dubia luce dirui passus est, verum autem Dei ad ecclesiam præfectus cum ducibus templum, quod est in hominibus, et tribunis et rationalibus venit; et incolume servavit. revulsis foribus simulacrum Dei 63 L. 8. c. 13. (v. I. p. 396. 22.)... queritur. Scripturae reperte incen- Και μήτε των εκκλησιών τους οίκους duntur, datur omnibus prada. Ra- καθελών, μήθ' έτερόν τι καθ' ημών pitur, trepidatur, discurritur. Ipsi kalvoupyńcas, rédos eúdókiyov każ vero in speculis (in alto enim con- Tplouakápov átreiande toù Biov. stituta ecclesia ex palatio videbatur) 69 De Excid. Britann.(Bibl. Magn. diu inter se concertabant, utrum t. 5. p. 393. d. 13.) Ad persecutionem ignem potius supponi oporteret. Diocletiani tyranni novennem, in Vicit sententia Diocletianus, cavens qua subversæ per totum mundum ne, magno incendio facto, pars ali- sunt ecclesiæ, &c. qua civitatis arderet. Nam multæ 70 Ibid. (p. 394 C. 11.) Renovant ac magnæ domus ab omni parte ecclesias ad solum usque destructas, cingebant. Veniebant igitur præto- basilicas sanctorum martyrum funriani, acie structa, cum securibus et dant, construunt, perficiunt, ac velaliis ferramentis ; et immissi undique uti victricia signa passim propalant.

the Christians' built them anew again from the ground when the persecution was over, and founded others beside them, to be as so many public monuments and trophies of their martyrs.' Optatus 71 takes notice of forty churches in Rome, before the last persecution, which being taken from the Christians, were afterward restored to them by the order of Maxentius, as St. Austin 72 more than once informs us. In Afric we read of some churches that were demolished in this persecution, as at Zama and Furni, mentioned in the Acts of Purgation of Cæcilian and Felix 73. Others were taken away, and in the mean time, till they were restored again, both councils and church-assemblies were held in private houses, as Optatus 74 observes of the Council of Cirta ; and St. Austin after him, who says 75, . It was not to be wondered at, that a few bishops should hold a council in a private house in the heat of persecution, when the martyrs made no scruple, in the like case, to be baptized in prison, and Christians met in prison, to celebrate the sacrament with the martyrs.'

But not to multiply instances of this nature, the very tenour of the imperial edicts, which raised the last persecution, is undeniable evidence, that the Christians in all parts of the world had then their public churches, to which they resorted so long as they had opportunity to frequent them. For Eusebius 76 says, 'the

-Vid. Bedæ Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. cc.6. bus Gestis recitatum esse traditorem; et 8., who speaks almost in the words &c.—Ad Donatist. post Collat. c. 13. of Gildas.

(t. 9. p.590 g.) where the same words 71 L. 2. p.49. (p. 39.) Non enim grex aut populus appellandi fuerant 73 Gesta Purgat. ad calc. Optat. pauci, qui inter quadraginta, et quod p.276. (p.96 b.)... Et Zamæ et Furexcurrit, basilicas, locum ubi colli- nis dirui basilicas et uri scripturas gerent, non habebant.

are read.

vidi. 72 Brevic. Collat. die 3. c. 18. (t.9. 74 L. 1. P. 39. (p. 16.) Apud Cir. p.574 f.).... Gesta alia recitarunt, tam Civitatem, quia basilicæ necdum in quibus legebatur Melchiades mi- fuerunt restitutæ, in domum Ursisse diaconos cum literis Maxentii bani Carisi consederunt, &c. imperatoris et literis præfecti-præ- 75 Brevic. Collat. die 3. c. 17. (t. 9. torio ad præfectum urbis, ut ea p. 574 b, c.) Non esse incredibile, reciperent, quæ tempore persecu- quod in privatam domum pauci illi tionis ablata memoratus imperator episcopi persecutionis tempore conChristianis jusserat reddi. Et cum venerunt, ut, fervente persecutione, his quoque gestis nullum Melchiadis etiam in carcere doceantur baptizati crimen et cognitori et Catholicis de- martyres, et illic a Christianis cefensoribus appareret, dixerunt Do- lebrata sacramenta, ubi Christiani natistæ, Stratonem diaconum, quem propter eadem sacramenta tenebancum aliis Melchiades ad recipienda tur inclusi. loca ecclesiastica miserat, superiori- 76 L. 8. c. 2. (v. 1. p. 377. 36.) Tôv

edicts were sent over all the world, commanding the churches to be levelled with the ground, and the bibles to be burnt.' Which is also noted by Theodoret 77, St. Jerome 78, and the Acts of Purgation of Cæcilian and Felix 79, at the end of Optatus. So that a man might as well question whether the Christians had bibles, as whether they had churches before the last persecution. The defenders of the contrary opinion here always give up the cause, and contradict themselves; for when they have urged the authority of Arnobius and Lactantius, against Christians having any temples, they are forced to confess from the foresaid evidences, that they had churches whilst Arnobius and Lactantius lived, that is, within the third century: which is to grant and deny the same thing, and load both themselves and those ancient authors with a manifest contradiction. To the testimonies cited by Mr. Mede in the middle of the third century, the reader may add that remarkable story told by Eusebius 80, concerning the martyr Marinus, μεν προσευκτηρίων τους οίκους εξ Χριστιανώ γε όντι και τους βασιλεύσι ύψους εις έδαφος αυτοίς θεμελίοις μη θύoντι, κατηγόρει' αυτό δε επικαταρριπτουμένους, τας δε ενθέους και βάλλειν τον κλήρον εφ' ώ κινηθέντα ιεράς γραφάς κατά μέσας αγοράς πυρί τον δικαστών, Αχαιός ούτος ήν, πρώπαραδιδομένας αυτοίς επείδομεν οφ- τον μεν έρέσθαι, ποίας ο Μαρίνος θαλμοίς.

γνώμης είη; Ως δ' ομολογούντα Χρισ77 L. 5. c. 39. (ν. 3. p. 239. 15.) τιανόν επιμόνως εώρα, τριών ωρών Πάσας καταλύσειν τας εκκλησίας επιδούναι αυτό είς επίσκεψιν διάηπείλησε, και μέν τοι και τέλος επ- στημα εκτός δητα γενόμενον αυτόν έθηκεν οις ηπείλησε.

του δικαστηρίου, θεότεκνος και τηδε 78 In Zachar. c. 8. (t. 6. p. 841 d.) επίσκοπος αφέλκει προσελθών δι' όμιIn tantam rabiem persecutorum feri- λίας και της χειρός λαβών επί την tas excitata est, ut etiam conciliabula εκκλησίαν προσάγει είσω τε πρός nostra destruerent.

αυτό στήσας το αγιάσματι, μικρών 79 Gesta Purgat. p. 277. (p. 96 d.) τε παραναστείλας αυτού της χλανίUbi scripture inveniuntur, ipsa do- δος * και το προσηρτημένον αυτώ ξίmus diruitur.

φος επιδείξας, άμα τε αντιπαρατίθησι 80 L. 7. c. 15. (v. Ι. p. 341. 9.) προσαγαγών αυτή την των θείων ευΤιμή τίς έστι παρά Ρωμαίοις το αγγελίων γραφήν κελεύσας των δυειν κλήμα, ού τους τυχόντας φασίν έκα- ελέσθαι το κατά γνώμην. Ως δ' αμελ. τοντάρχους γίνεσθαι. Τόπου σχο- λητί την δεξιάν προτείνας εδέξατο λάζοντος, επί τούτο προκοπής τον την θείαν γραφήν "Έχου τοίνυν, έχου, Μαρίνον ή του βαθμού τάξις εκάλει φησί, προς αυτόν ο θεότεκνος, του ήδη τε μέλλοντα της τιμής έχεσθαι, θεού, και τύχοις ών είλου, προς αυτού παρελθών άλλος πρό του βήματος, μη δυναμούμενος, και βάδιζε μετ' ειρήνης. εξείναι μεν εκείνη της Ρωμαίων μετέ- Ευθύς εκείθεν επανελθόντα αυτόν κήρυξ χειν αξίας κατά τους παλαιούς νόμους, εβόα καλών προ του δικαστηρίου και

* [Της χλανίδος. Lego, της χλαμύδος. Chlamys enim et balteus erant insignia militantium .... Plerumque tamen pro chlamyde xhavis passivo errore scribitur. Vales. in loc.-Χλανίς was an upper garment of wool, of finer texture than the xhaiva. It was worn by women as well as by men, and was more for ornament than for use. ED.]

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