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ward Rome, there was Ocriculum, which the Jerusalem Itinerary
3. Out of Umbria our next step toward the east is into the province of Valeria, so called, Holstenius thinks, from the Via Valeria, which ran directly through it. It was bounded on the north with the Appennine; on the west with the river Nar, which divided it from Umbria; on the south with the Tiber and the Anio, which divided it from Latium, or that which is now called Campagna di Roma; on the east it bordered upon Samnium, from which it was divided by a line drawn from the river Aternus to the head of the Anio. It was anciently the country of the Sabines and Marsi, and part of old Latium, and is now called Sabina in that part which runs toward Rome, the rest being now part of the dukedom of Spoleto and Abrusso. In this province Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons eleven dio
1. Fidenæ, now called Castel Jubileo. 2. Nomentum, Lamentana. 3. Tibur, Tivoli. 4. Nursia, Norza. 5. Marsi, or Marruvium, and Valeria. 6. Præneste, Palestrina. 7. Fur
51 Ital. p. 526. See n. 48, pre- inter Mevaniam 6. et Perusiam 8. ceding.
mill. pass., olim urbs episcopalis. 52 Voce, Vettonium. (t. 2. p. 320.) 53 In Cluver. (p. 86.) (Corrige, Vettionenses, et Vettonenses, Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. (ap. Oper. populi Umbriæ, quorum oppidum C. a S. P. p.51. in text.). . Hoc temBittona, quasi Vettonium, apud Ti- pore Nucerinæ conjuncta est. Ed.] niæ et Asii fluviorum confluentiam,
conium, Forconio. 8. Amiternum, St. Vittorino. 9. Reate, Rieti. 10. Cures, Curese. 11. Lista. But Holstenius 54 observes, that the last of these is mistaken for Lissum, or Alessio as it is now called, in Prævalitana, on the other side of the Adriatic Sea, and Præneste belongs to Latium ; instead of which he substitutes two others, Pitinum and Forum Novum, or Sabinum, now Vescovio, once a chief city among the Sabines.
Now of these Fidene was but five miles from the gates of Rome, as has been noted before. Nomentum was about eight from Fidenæ, and twelve from Rome, as Baudrand 55 shows out of Sanson and Brietius; though others 56 place it beyond Tibur ten miles, and twenty-six from Rome. Tibur itself was but sixteen miles from Rome 57, and twelve from Præneste. But it was a pretty large diocese for all that ; for Holstenius 58 observes that Sublaqueum was a dependant on it, till it became a monastery exempt from all episcopal jurisdiction; and Ferrarius 59 says that abbey had fourteen villages belonging to it. Præneste was thirteen miles from Gabii, and fourteen from Anagnia, and not so much from Nomentum. Cures, now called St. Anthimo, was only ten miles from Reate, according to Ferrarius 60, and probably something nearer to
54 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 16. 10 mill. pass. ab urbe Roma 26, (ubi supr. p. 56. n. 2.) Lista etiam &c. Ep.] nunc nomen retinet Monte di Lista, 57 Ibid. voce Tibur. (t. 2. p. 267.) 3 mill. pass. Reate distans. Certis- Tibur, Tybur Ovidio et aliis,...urbs simum vero est, eum locum nun- Latii episcopalis, ad Anienem fluquam habuisse episcopum, cujus vium, in Sabinorum confinio, a Canulla, nisi apud unum Dionysium tillo Arcade classis Evandri præmentio exstat, qui inter vetustissima fecto ante Romam condita, a qua 16 Aboriginum oppida commemorat. mill. pass. in boream versus Marsos Ea autem Dionysii tempore fere distat. [Conf. Æn. 7, 670-2. Ep.] omnia interierant. Lissitana autem 58 In Cluver. (p. 147.) Sublaecclesia, cui Joannes præfuerat, in queum Tiburtino episcopo parebat, Lisso, in ora maris Adriatici oppido antequam vicinum monasterium ita fuit.
excrevisset, ut episcopi jurisdictioni Ap. Ferrar. ut supr. voce No- eximeretur. mentum. (t. i. p. 524.) Nomentum [Corrige, Baudrand. ap. Feraliis est Lamentana, castrum Sabinæ, rar.) voce, Sublaqueum. (t. 2. p. 220.) .... ad Alliam amnem et longe a Sublaqueum, seu melius Sublacum, vicu Varronis in occasum, Sansone oppidum Æquorum in Latio. Hoet Brietio testibus.
die dicitur vulgo Subiaco, cujus ab56 (Ferrar. ead. voce. (ibid. supr.) batia, quæ nullius est diæcesis, quaNomentum, urbs olim episcopalis, tuordecim vicos sub se habet, in excisa nunc, et in pagum redacta, confinio regni Neapolitani. in Sabinis, ad Anienem fluvium, 10 Voce, Cures. (t. 1. p. 231.) Cuapud Vicum Varronis, supra Tibur res, urbs Sabinorum, Numæ Pom
Nomentum, because Carolus à Sancto Paulo 61 observes, out of an Epistle of Gregory the Great 62, that it was united in his time to Nomentum. Some confound Cures with Sabinum, or Forum Novum; but Holstenius 63 shows that Sabinum was a distinct city, and stood in the place which is now called Vescovio, where the ruins of the cathedral church are still remaining; which Baudrand 64 says was but three miles from Reate, and eleven from Interamnia : but the site of this place may be passed over as a little uncertain. The ruins of Amiternum are still to be seen, Cluver 65 says, near where Aquila now stands. Ferrarius 66 thinks it was only five miles from it. Pitinum was but two miles from Aquila, and consequently, as Holstenius 67 observes, must be near Amiternum. Furconium was another
. see in that neighbourhood, but eight miles from Aquila, as Ferrarius 68 acquaints us. So that these three dioceses lay in a small compass, and are now swallowed up in the new diocese of Aquila, which arose out of the ruins of them all united together. The largest of these dioceses in this tract were Reate, Nursia, and Marruvium, or Marsi. For from Reate to Nursia, Baudrand 69 calls it thirteen miles, Ferrarius 70 twenty; to
pilii patria, a Medio Fidio Sabino- nunc oppido deleto ecclesia episcorum Deo condita, nunc pagus Torre palis superest, vulgo Vescovio dicta. vel Turre, teste Leandro, dictus, ad 64 Ap. Ferrar. voce, Cures. (t. 1. Himellam Auv. a Reate 10 mill. p. 231.) Cures aliis est Vescovio, pass. in occasum, a Tybure supra urbs primaria Sabinæ antea, nunc 20 in arctos, Interamnam versus su- oppidum, ubi etiam fuit episcopatus
Sabinensis Manleanum translatus. 61 Geogr. Sacr. (p. 56.) Cures... Sita est prope Himellam amnem, 3 hancque sedem probabile est ean- milliaribus a Reate in occasum, et dem fuisse cum ea, quæ dicitur
II ab Interamnia in austrum, in Sancti Anthimii, cujus meminit di- ditione pontificia. vus Gregorius, Ep. 2. 1. 2. Indict. 11. 65 Ital. l. 2. c. 8. (t. 1. p. 686.) et quam uniit Nomentanæ.
Fuit autem Amiternum haud procul Ep. 2. (CC. t. 5. p. 1109 Fonte Aterni. ... Visuntur hodieque c.) Ideoque fraternitati tuæ curam ruinæ ejus haud procul sinistra amgubernationemque sancti Anthemiinis ripa, inter fontes ejus et Aquiecclesiæ, in Curium Sabinorum ter- lam urbem, &c. ritorio constitutæ, præcepimus [al.
66 Voce, Amiternum. (t. 1. p. 35.) prævidemus] committendam, quam ... Urbs olim episcopalis... ad Atertuæ ecclesiæ aggregari unirique ne- num fluvium ab Aquila .... 5 mill. cesse est : quatenus utrarumque ecclesiarum sacerdos recte Christo ad- 67 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul.
16. juvante possis exsistere.
(ap. Oper. C. a S. P. p. 56. in text.) 63 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 9. Pitinum ... non longe fuit ab Ami(ubi supr. p. 50. n.
t.) Forum Nó- terno, duobus mill. pass. ab Aquila. vum... inter Forum Flaminii et Spo- 68 Voce, Furconium. (t. 1. p. 304.) letum. Hoc falsissimum est : nam Inde 8 mill. pass. distans. sita est in Sabinis eodem loco, ubi 69 Ap. Ferrar. voce, Nursia. (t. s.
Aquila twenty-five miles, and as much to Narnia. But Interamnia and Furconium were something nearer to Reate. Marruvium, or Marsi, on Lake Fucinus, was at a considerable distance from Furconium and Sulmo, which cities lay the nearest to it; but the exact distance is not so certain, because it is not agreed on which side Lake Fucinus Marruvium was. 4. Out of Valeria and Umbria, across the Appennine, we come Of Picenum
Suburbicainto the province of Picenum Suburbicarium, so called to distinguish it from Picenum Annonarium, which belonged to the Italic diocese. This lay betwixt the Appennine on the south, and the Adriatic Sea on the north, and was divided from Picenum Annonarium by the river Æsis on the west, and from Samnium by the river Aternus, now called Pescara, on the east; and it is now the provinces of Marca di Ancona and Abruzzo Ultra. In this province Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons fourteen dioceses. 1. Pinna, now Penna. 2. Interamnia, Teramo. 3. Asculum, Ascoli. 4. Firmum, Fermo. 5. Tolentinum, Tolentino. 6. Septempeda, St. Severino. 7. Matelica. 8. Cingulum, Cingulo. 9. Auximum, Osmo. 10. Potentia. 11. Numana, Humana. 12. Ancona. 13. Hadria, Adri. 14. Aternum, Pescara. To which Holstenius 71 adds five more, Truentum, Aufinia, Faleronia, Urbs Salvia, now called Urbisaglia, and Pausola, or Pausulæ as Ferrarius calls it, which now goes by the name of Monte del Olmo.
The most eastern city of this province was Aternum, on the mouth of the river Aternus, which, as Ferrarius 72 and Baudrand compute, was but eight miles from Teate, and eleven from Ortona, two cities in the province of Samnium, and not above eleven from Hadria, and twelve from Pinna. Pinna was the same distance from Teate and Hadria. Interamnia is reckoned by Ferrarius twenty miles from Asculum ; but Baudrand says only thirteen. In the western parts of the pro
p. 533.) Urbs parva Italiæ .... intra (ubi supr. p. 54. in text.)
. pass. quot ab Anconitanæ distat, 13 a Reate. Angulo, inter Hadriam, cui cessit
70 In ead. voce. Nursia, Norcia, episcopatus Aternensis, et Ortonem urbs olim episcopalis Umbriæ ...: ad ortum ad ii mill. pass., &c. Reate 20 mill. pass. in boream, ab [Baudr. (ibid.) Aternum.;. 16. milAquila 30 in occasum.
liaribus distat ab Anxano, et 12. a 31 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 14. Pinna in ortum. Grischov.]
vince, Matelica is computed but nine miles from Septempeda, and Septempeda six from Tolentinum, and ten from Camerinum, and twelve from Cingulum. Cingulum is reckoned but eight from Æsium, in Picenum Annonarium, and twelve from Auximum; Auximum twelve from Æsium, and the same from Ancona ; Ancona twelve from Numana ; Numana twelve from Potentia ; the remains of which last, Holstenius 73 says, are still to be seen, not far from Portus Ricanaticus and Laureto. Urbs Salvia, according to Ferrarius's account, was but ten miles from Tolentinum, and by Baudrand's but six. Firmum, Truentum, and Asculum lay at a greater distance, for Ferrarius reckons them near twenty miles from each other; but then he says that Pausulæ was in comitatu Firmano, and therefore not far from Firmum; and if Faleronia and Aufinia, whose situation is uncertain, lay in those parts also, they might bring the dioceses of Asculum and Truentum to the same pitch with the rest of the province. So that few dioceses in this province could be much above ten miles in extent, and the largest not above twenty, as appears from Ferrarius and other
geographers' computation. Of Latium 5. From the Adriatic Sea we must again cross the Appennine, and Campania.
to take a view of Latium and Campania, the ancient glory of Italy, along the Tuscan Sca eastward, to the river Silarus from the Tiber and the gates of Rome. This, in the civil and ecclesiastical account, is reckoned but one province; but since Latium is commonly distinguished from Campania, I will speak first of the dioceses which were in that, as being the nearest neighbours to Rome.
This country was anciently bounded with the rivers Tiber, Anio, and Liris, which last divided it from Campania, properly so called. It now contains Campagna di Roma, and part of Lavoro, in the realm of Naples. It had anciently twentythree dioceses, as Carolus à Sancto Paulo and Holstenius have computed. 1. Subaugusta. 2. Ostia. 3. Gabii. 4. Albanum. 5. Alba. 6. Antium. 7. Tres Tabernæ. 8. Velitræ. 9. Tusculum. 10. Lavici. 11. Præneste. 12. Signia. 13. Anagnia. 14. Ferentinum. 15. Aletrium. 16. Verulæ. 17. Tarracina, [the classical name, or Terracina, according to Baudrand.)
73 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 15. ejus vidi haud procul a Portu Rica(ubi supr. p. 55. n.
**.) Vestigia natico.