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about four or six leagues from it, and now united to it. 12. Ausona, or Ausa, Vich de Ausona. 13. Gerunda, Gironne. 14. Emporia, Empurias, [or Ampurias.] 15. Orgellum, Urgel.
16. Velia, now Veleia.
13. Next to this, on the coast of the Mediterranean, lay the province called Carthaginensis, from the chief city Carthago, Carthagena, which was the ancient metropolis of the province, though Toledo afterward gained the privilege of being a new metropolis, and at last succeeded to the dignity of the whole province. Beside these two Carolus à Sancto Paulo reckons twenty-two more dioceses in this province. 1. Complutum, now Alcala de Henares. 2. Oxoma, Osma. 3. Pallentia, [Palencia.] 4. Voleria, Valera la Vieja. 5. Saguntum, or Segontia, Siguenza. 6. Secobia, Segovia. 7. Arcabrica, Arcas. 8. Oretum, Oreto. 9. Valentia, Valencia. 10. Dianium, Denia. 11. Setabis, Xativa. 12. Basti, Baza. 13. Mentesa, Mentexa. 14. Salaria. 15. Acci, Guadix. 16. Segobriga, Segorbe. 17. Castulo, Gazlona. 18. Bigastrum. 19. Illicias, [or Illici,] which some make the same as Alicante, others Origuela, or Elche. 20. Ergavica, a place of more doubtful situation, some taking it for Alcaniz, near Toledo, others for Penna Escritta, or Santaver. 21. Eliocrota, Lorca. 22. Urci, or Virgi, now Orce.
14. The next province of Botica had but eleven dioceses. 1. Hispalis, Seville. 2. Italica, Sevilla la Vieja. 3. Ilipa, [or Elipla,] Niebla. 4. Astygis, Ecija. 5. Corduba, Cordova. 6. Egabrum, Cabra. 7. Eliberis, [or Illiberis,] Elvira. 8. Malaca, Malaga. 9. Asinda, or Assidonia, Medina Sidonia. 10. Tucci, Martos. 11. Abdara, Adra.
15. In the province of Lusitania there were but nine dioceses. 1. Emerita, Merida, the metropolis. 2. Abula, Avila. 3. Salmantica, Salamanca. 4. Ebora, [or Elbora,] Evora. 5. Cauria, Coria. 6. Pax Julia, Beja, which some by mistake confound with Pax Augusta, now called Badajos, which is but a modern bishopric. 7. Ossonaba, Estoy. 8. Olysippo, [or Olisippo,] Lisbon. 9. Egita, Eidania.
16. Gallæcia, [which is frequently termed Callæcia,] was a large province, and yet never had above thirteen or fourteen dioceses. In the Council of Lucus Augusti, or Lugo, under King Theodimir, anno 569, a complaint was made that the dioceses here were so large, that the bishops could scarce visit
them in a year: upon which an order was made, that several new bishoprics and one new metropolis should be erected; which was accordingly done by the bishops then in council, who made Lugo to be the new metropolis, and raised several other episcopal sees out of the old ones, as is declared in the Acts 19 of that Council. Bracara, now called Braga, was the old metropolis, which after the division had no more than seven dioceses subject to it. 1. Dumium. 2. Portus Calensis, now El Puerto. 3. Conimbrica, Coimbra. 4. Viseum, Viseo, [or Viseu.] 5. Lamecum, Lamego. 6. Valentia ad Minium, Valenza al Minho. 7. Legio, Leon. The other metropolis, Lucus Augusti, had but five suffragans. 1. Iria Flavia, El Padron. 2. Auria, Orense. 3. Tude, Tuy. 4. Asturica, Astorga. 5. Britonia, [or Britonium,] Bretagna. Of these, Legio and Asturica are thought by many learned men to have been but one diocese in the time of Cyprian, because he joins them together in the same Epistle 20, writing to the Church in both places; but I think the argument is hardly cogent, because he joins Emerita with them in the same inscription.
There is another place, which some say had no diocese but a monastery, that is Dumium, near Braga. But this is a great mistake; for though there be an instance or two in ancient history21 of bishops being ordained in monasteries without any diocese at all, yet we no where read that their monastery was their diocese: and in the present case it was far otherwise; for, as a learned man 22 has shown, Dumium had another diocese beside the monastery. In the Acts of the Council of Lugo 23 it is said to have familia regia, the king's court, belonging to it; for Martin Bracarensis, commonly called the Apostle of Gallæcia, having converted Theodimir, king of the Suevi, from the Arian heresy, was created bishop in the monastery of Dumium, which he had built, not for the service of the monastery, but the king's court, till he was translated to Bracara or Braga, the
21 See b. 4. ch. 6. s. 3. v. 2. p. 77. 22 Maurice, Defence of Dioces. Episc. (p. 149.) But that he had no other, &c.
23 [Ubi supr. (t. 5. p. 875 a.) Ad Dumio familia servorum.-In marg. (ibid.) Ad sedem Dumiensem familia regia. Grischov.]
Of the islands
metropolis of the province. And further, in the distribution of dioceses made by King Wamba, the bounds of this diocese are marked, from Duma to Albia, and from Rianteca to Adasa; which though they be such obscure places, as geographers take no notice of, yet they argue the diocese to be larger than the monastery or at least this monastery, like that of Sublaqueum in the diocese of Tibur in Italy, had several villages under its jurisdiction; and so it might have a sufficient diocese, though not so large as the rest of the province of Gallæcia, which was so vastly great as to need the wisdom and consideration of a Council to contract it.
17. To these Spanish provinces we must join the Spanish Majorica, islands, Majorica, Minorica, and Ebusus, which Carolus à Sancto Minorica, Paulo, by mistake, places with Sardinia as appendants of the Roman diocese. Majorica, the largest of the Baleares, was one hundred and ten miles in circuit, yet it never had above one episcopal diocese, whose chief seat was Palma, now called Mallorca, which is the name that the inhabitants at present give to the whole island, by others called Majorca. Minorica, Minorca, is sixty miles in compass, and anciently enjoyed a bishop of its own, whose see was Jamna, now called Citadella, the capital city of the island. Ebusus, now called Yvica, was less than these, yet large enough to make a distinct diocese, being fortytwo miles in compass, having a city of the same name with several villages under its jurisdiction. So that in all the Spanish provinces the dioceses were generally very large, and not one among them whose bounds did not far exceed the limits of a single congregation.
Spanish Church evidenced
18. And that this was the true state of the Spanish Church in ancient times, appears from some of her most early Councils. The Council of Eliberis, which was held anno 305, in the beginning of the Diocletian persecution, has a canon which plainly of her most supposes the dioceses to have country-parishes, when it says 23, If any deacon, who has the care of a people, shall baptize any one without a bishop or presbyter, the bishop shall consummate him by his benediction.' The same is more plainly intimated by a canon of the first Council of Toledo 24, anno
23 C. 77. (t. 1. p. 978 e.) Si quis diaconus, regens plebem, sine episcopo vel presbytero aliquos bapti
zaverit, episcopus eos per benedictionem perficere debebit.
24 C. 20. (t. 2. p. 1226 d.)... Pla