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400, which directs the presbyters of every church throughout each diocese to send to the bishop before Easter for chrism, 'to be used in baptism at Easter, and other solemn times, when baptism was to be administered.' This supposes the Spanish dioceses to have country-parishes, where presbyters and deacons resided without the bishop; and it serves to confirm the account that has been given of the original state and division of those Churches.

Yet in our

and Scot

19. Out of Spain, we come at last to the British Isles, part Of Ireland of which only was under the Roman government, and called land. the Britannic diocese; for Ireland and the greatest part of Scotland never eame under that denomination. passage it will not be amiss to say something of them, as well as England, if it were for no other reason but to set aside and censure some fabulous reports that are made of them.

When Ireland was first converted, or by whom, is not very material here to be inquired, since before the time of St. Patrick, anno 433, there is little mention of bishops or dioceses in this kingdom; and after him the accounts of them are so uncertain and dark, that Carolus à Sancto Paulo does not pretend to give any other catalogue of them but what he has from Camden and the Provinciale Romanum, both of which are modern accounts; for they make mention of the diocese of Waterford, which, as Dr. Cave 25 and other learned men have observed out of Eadmerus 26, was not erected till the year 1097, when

cuit, ex hac die nullum alium nisi episcopum chrisma conficere, et per diœcesim destinare; ita ut de singulis ecclesiis ad episcopum ante diem Paschæ diaconi destinentur, qui confectum chrisma, ab episcopo destinatum, ad diem Paschæ possint ad tempus deferre.

25 Hist. Liter. (v. 2. p. 372.) Hibernicum (Concilium) anno 1097, loco incerto habitum: In quo Murchertacus rex, ejusque clerus et populus, ab Anselmo Cantuariensi, tanquam primate suo, petunt, ut oppidum Waterfordiense in episcopalem sedem erigatur, &c. See the

next note.

26 Hist. 1. 2. p. 36. (ad calc. t. 2. Oper. Anselm. p. 62. summ.) Rex Hiberniæ Murchertachus no

mine, et Dofnaldus episcopus cum
cæteris episcopis, et quique nobiles
cum clero et populo ipsius insulæ,
miserunt nuntios ac literas ad An-
selmum, innotescentes ei, civitatem
quandam, Wataferdiam [al. Water-
fordiam] nomine, in una suarum
provinciarum esse, cui ob numero-
sam civium multitudinem expediret
episcopum institui; simulque peten-
tes, ipse quatenus primatus, quem
super eos gerebat, potestate, et qua
fungebatur vicis apostolicæ auctori-
tate, sanctæ Christianitati ac neces-
sariæ plebium utilitati instituendo
eis pontificem subveniret. Jam enim
sæcula multa transierant, in quibus
eadem civitas, absque providentia et
cura pontificali consistens, per di-
versa tentationum pericula jactaba-

King Murchertachus and the clergy of his kingdom petitioned Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, who was then primate of that part of Ireland, to let Waterford be made a bishop's see; to which petition he consented, and ordained one Malchus, whom they had elected, first bishop of the place. Nay, both these catalogues also take notice of four archbishoprics in Ireland, which number of metropolitans was first introduced by Pope Eugenius, anno 1151, as Baronius 27 has observed out of

tur. Elegerant autem iidem ipsi in hoc officium quendam gentis suæ virum vocabulo Malchum, eumque sacrandum cum communi decreto ad Anselmum transmiserunt. Decretum autem hoc est. Anselmo, Dei gratia, Anglorum archiepiscopo, clerus et populus oppidi Wataferdie cum rege Murchertacho et episcopo Dofnaldo, salutem in Domino. Pater sancte, cæcitas ignorantiæ nos diu detrimenta salutis nostræ sustinere coëgit, quod magis eligimus serviliter dominico jugo colla subtrahere, quam liberaliter pastorali obedientiæ subesse. Nunc autem quantum proficiat pastorum causa agnovimus, cum aliarum rerum similitudines ad mentem revocamus; quia sine regimine, nec exercitus bellum, nec navis marinum audet attemptare periculum. Navicula ergo nostra, mundanis dedita fluctibus, sine pastore contra callidum hostem qua ratione pugnabit? Propterea nos et rex noster Murchertachus, et episcopus Dofnaldus, et Dermeth dux noster, frater regis, eligimus hunc presbyterum Malchum, Walkelini Wintonensis episcopi monachum, nobis sufficientissime cognitum, natalibus et moribus nobilem, apostolica et ecclesiæ disciplina inbutum, fide Catholica prudentem, moribus temperatum, vita castum, sobrium, humilem, affabilem, misericordem, liberalem, hospitalem, suæ domui bene præpositum, non neophytum, habentem testimonium bonum in gradibus singulis. Hunc nobis petimus a vestra paternitate ordinari pontificem, quatenus regulariter nobis præesse valeat et prodesse, et nos sub ejus regimine salubriter Do

mino militare possimus. Ut autem omnium nostrorum vota in hanc electionem convenire noscatis, huic decreto canonico promptissima voluntate singuli manibus propriis roborantes subscripsimus. Ego Murchertachus rex Hiberniæ subscripsi. Ego Dermeth dux frater regis subscripsi. Ego Dofnaldus episcopus S.S. Ego Idunan episcopus Midiæ S.S. Ego Samuel Dunnelmensis episcopus S.S. Ego Ferdumnachus Laginiensium episcopus S.S. Subscripserunt his multo plures, quos nos brevitati studentes notare non necessarium duximus. Igitur Anselmus, considerans et intelligens eos justa et utilia petere, petitioni eorum libens annuit. Electum ergo pontificem diligenter in his quæ sacra jubet auctoritas, examinatum, ac multorum cum vitæ suæ testimonio dignum episcopatu comprobatum, sumpta ab eo ex more de subjectionis suæ obedientia professione, sacravit eum Cantuariæ quinto Kal. Januarii, assistentibus et cooperantibus sibi in hoc ministerio suo, duobus episcopis suis, Radulfo scilicet Cicestrensi, et Gundulfo Roffensi.

27 [Ad an. 1151. n. 4. (Lucæ, 1746. t. 19. p. 55.) Hoc eodem anno idem Eugenius Papa Joannem Papironem Cardinalem legatum a latere in Hiberniam misit, ut in eam insulam quatuor deferret pallia, quæ nunquam illuc delata fuerant ; constituitque quatuor archiepiscopatus, primum apud Armarc, secundum apud Cassel, tertium apud Diveline, quartum apud Connath. Hæc Rogerius in Annalibus, sui temporis res gestas prosecutus. ED.]

Roger Hoveden 28; and the same thing is noted by Matthew Paris 29, Simeon Dunelmensis 30, Gervasii Chronicon 31, and others of our English writers. Yet because we have no catalogues of Irish dioceses older or more authentic than these, it will not be amiss to insert them in this place. That in Camden 32 has the four archbishoprics and their suffragans in this order.

Sub Archiepiscopo Armachano.

1. Midensis, or Elnamirand. 2. Dunensis, or Dundalethglas. 3. Clochorensis, or Lugundunensis. 4. Connerensis. 5. Ardachadensis. 6. Rathbotensis. 7. Rathlucensis. 8. Daln-liguirensis. 9. Dearrihensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Dublinensi.

1. Glendelacensis. 2. Fernensis. 3. Osseriensis, or De Canic. 4. Lechlinensis. 5. Kildarensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Cassiliensi.

1. Laoniensis de Kendalnan. 2. Limricensis. 3. De Insula Gathay. 4. De Cellumabrath. 5. Melicensis, or De Emileth. 6. Rossiensis, or Roscreensis. 7. Waterfordiensis, or De Batilfordian. 8. Lismorensis. 9. Clonensis, or De Cluanania. 10. Corcagiensis. 11. De Rosalither. 12. Ardefertensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Tuamensi.

1. Duacensis, or Killmacduoc. nensis. 4. De Cellaiaro. 5. De Roscomon.

28 [A native of Yorkshire, an old English historian, at the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. His Annales, commencing at the year 731, the period where Bede left off, and continuing to the year 1202, were edited by Savile, Lond. 1596. fol., and were reprinted at Francfort in 1601.

29 His Historia Major Angliæ extends from William the Conqueror to the last year of Henry the Third. See Oper. Paris. 1644. (p. 60 g.) Johannes Papiro Cardinalis, legatione fungens in Hibernia, quatuor ibi constituit archiepiscopos, &c.

2. De Mageo. 3. Enachdu6. Clonfertensis.

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7. Achadensis. 8. Ladensis, or Killaleth. 9. De Conany. 10. De Killmunduach. 11. Elphinensis.

The other catalogue in the Provinciale Romanum, published by Carolus à Sancto Paulo in the Appendix to his Geography, advances the number of suffragans to fifty-three, in the following order.

Sub Archiepiscopo Armachano.

1. Connerinensis. 2. Deconnannas. 3. Dedamlialiagg. 4. Dedundaleglas. 5. Deardarchad. 6. Dedarrich. 7. Ingundunum. 8. Deralhboth. 9. Dunensis, or Drumorensis. 10. Elualnirand, or Midensis. 11. Derathlurig. 12. Renensis, or Reuelensis, or Crocorensis. 13. Cluanensis, or Cluanerdensis. 14. Rochinosensis, or Rathbotensis. 15. Artagadonensis, or Ardocadensis. 16. Conerensis. 17. Heugamensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Dublinensi.

1. Glendelacensis. 2. Caldetensis, or Kiscarensis. 3. Glensis, or Gluisonensis. 4. Ossinensis. 5. Darensis. 6. Gaininch. 7. Licelinensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Cassellensi, [or Cassiliensi.]

1. Decendaluensis, or Laonensis. 2. Derostreensis, or Wldifordianus. 3. Deartefertensis. 4. Lunech. 5. Lismorensis. 6. Firmaberensis, or Fymbarrensis. 7. De Insula. 8. Deduanamensis, or Cluanensis. 9. Laudensis. 10. Carthax. 11. Tubricensis. 12. Decellininabrach. 13. Deconeagia, vel Corcagensis. 14. Artfertelensis. 15. Denulech, or Umblicensis. 16. Derosailitchir. 17. Waterfordensis.

Sub Archiepiscopo Tuamensi.

1. Demageonensis. 2. Achadensis. 3. Nelfinensis. 4. Decellaid. 5. Deconairi. 6. Eacdunensis. 7. Roscomon. 8. Decelmundaiach. 9. Cluartifertensis. 10. Deculuanferd. 11. Duacensis, 12. Bladensis.

This seems to have been the greatest number of bishops that ever Ireland had since it was a Christian nation. For as to the

pretence of some modern writers, that there were at one time no less than three hundred and sixty-five bishops ordained by St. Patrick, it is solidly refuted by Dr. Maurice 27, who shows plainly that the story is not to be understood of so many bishops at once, but of that number in the reign of four kings successively, and in the compass of one hundred years; which any one that carefully reads Bp. Usher's Antiquities 28, whence the ground of the story is fetched, will easily discern and it is no hard matter to conceive then how there might be three hundred and fifty, or, as Nennius tells the story, three hundred and sixty-five bishops in the compass of a whole century, though there were not above fifty or threescore at any one time living together. Another error committed by Carolus à Sancto Paulo in reference to the bishops of this nation, which makes the whole number of them subject to a single abbot, has been already rectified in speaking of the ascetics 29, where I have shown he mistakes Hibernia for the little Isle of Huy in the north of Scotland; where a monastery was founded by Columbanus, the abbots of which, by an unusual custom,' as Bede calls it, had some sort of superiority over the province of the northern Picts, and the provincial bishops too; but this has no relation to Ireland, nor any other part of Scotland than what has been now mentioned.

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As to the original state of dioceses in Scotland, Carolus à Scotland. Sancto Paulo, for want of light from ancient history, could give no account of them, and therefore he only sets down the modern names. Under the archbishop of St. Andrews eight dioceses. 1. Dunkeld. 2. Brechin. 3. Aberdeen. 4. Rosse. 5. Moravia, or Muray, [or Moray.] 6. Caithness. 7. Dumblain, [or Dunblane.] 8. The islands called Orchades, [or Orcades.] Under the archbishop of Glasgow three. 1. Candida Casa, or Whitern. 2. Lismore. 3. The Islands, that is, the Hebrides, [or Hebudes,] or Western Islands, whereof Iona was one of the chief. The principal town of this island, called Sodora, was made a bishop's see by Gregory IV, anno 840, whence the bishop of all those forty-four islands, to

27 Defence of Diocesan Episcopacy. (pp. 153-155.) This order of saints lasted for four reigns, &c.

28 Ch. 17. pp. 491, seq. (Works,

v. 6. p. 517.) Sub B. Patricio epi-
scopi clari, &c.

29 See b. 7. ch. 3. s. 14. v. 2.
p. 374.

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