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gether with the Isle of Man, which then was but a part of that diocese, had the name of Episcopus Sodorensis. But when the Isle of Man fell into the hands of the English, the Western Islands withdrew their obedience from their ancient bishop, who commonly lived in this island, and set up another bishop of their own, who for a long time retained the title of Sodorensis, but at last he relinquished that title to the bishop of the Isle of Man, and took the name of Insulanus, Bishop of the Isles, which he still retains. The Provinciale Romanum makes no mention either of this diocese of these islands, or that other of the Orchades; but speaks of one called Dearegarchel, belonging to the Pope, and makes Glasgow only a suffragan to St. Andrews. By which it appears that it is not many ages since Glasgow was made an archbishopric, the bishop of St. Andrews being then the only metropolitan among them. But about ancient dioceses we must not be very solicitous; for whatever fabulous writers affirm, it is certain from Bede that no part of this nation, possessed by the Picts, was converted till the fifth century, when first, in the time of Arcadius and Honorius, the southern Picts were converted by Ninias [or Nynias], a Briton, who built a church at Candida Casa, which was the first cathedral in that part of Scotland, and which gave the denomination of Whitern to the place, as Bede 30 observes, because the church was built of stone, which was not a very usual thing among the Britons in those days.' The northern Picts were not converted till above an hundred and fifty years after this. For their apostle was Columbanus, the
30 Hist. 1. 3. c. 4. (p. 106.) Siquidem anno incarnationis Dominicæ quingentesimo sexagesimo quinto, quo tempore gubernaculum Romani Imperii, post Justinianum, Justinus Minor accepit, venit de Hibernia presbyter et abbas, habitu et vita monachi insignis, nomine Columba, Britanniam; prædicaturus verbum Dei provinciis Septemtrionalium Pictorum, hoc est, eis, quæ arduis atque horrentibus montium jugis, ab australibus eorum sunt regioni bus sequestratæ. Namque ipsi Australes Picti, qui intra eosdem montes habent sedes, multo ante tempore, ut perhibent, relicto errore idololatriæ, fidem veritatis accepe
rant, prædicante eis verbum Nynia episcopo reverentissimo et sanctissimo viro, de natione Britonum, qui erat Romæ regulariter fidem et mysteria veritatis edoctus; cujus sedem episcopalem, sancti Martini episcopi nomine et ecclesia insignem, ubi ipse etiam corpore una cum pluribus sanctis requiescit, jam nunc Anglorum gens obtinet. Qui locus ad provinciam Berniciorum pertinens, vulgo vocatur Ad Candidam Casam; eo quod ibi ecclesiam de lapide, insolito Britonibus more, fecerit. See before, b. 8. ch. 1. s. 10. v. 3. p. 17. n. 89. and ch. 2. §. I. p. 40. n. 92.
famous monk, who came out of Ireland in the time of Justin Junior, anno 565, to preach the Gospel to them, as Bede informs us in the same place. So that it would be in vain to search after episcopal dioceses, before we have any certainty that Christianity was planted among them. In the following ages we have no particular account of any other diocese, save this of Candida Casa, in Bede or any other authentic writer. For though they speak of bishops both among the southern and the northern Picts, yet they take no notice of the names of their sees. Whence some have concluded, that the Scottish bishops had no proper sees, but were ordained at large for the whole country; and others, that there was but one bishop for all the region. The first of which opinions is incredible, because it is against the known rule of the Catholic Church, which forbad any bishop to be ordained at large: and the other is expressly refuted by Bede31, who speaks of several bishops in the province of the northern Picts; and by the writer of the Life of Ninias in Bp. Usher's Antiquities 32, who says, 'that Ninias, having converted the southern Picts, ordained them presbyters, and consecrated them bishops, and divided the whole region into certain parochia or dioceses, and so returned to his own church again,' meaning Candida Casa before mentioned. Whence it is evident there were bishops both among the northern and southern Picts, though the names of their dioceses be not mentioned.
As for the diocese of Candida Casa, bishop Usher truly observes, that it was not properly in any part of the Picts' dominions, but in that part or province of the Romish Britain which was called Valentia, and afterwards Bernicia by Bede, when it was under the dominion of the Saxons. Bishop Usher 33 thinks
31 Ibid. 1. 3. c. 4. See before, b. 2. ch. 4. s. 2. v. I. p. 88. n. 50.
32 P. 350. (Works, v. 6. p. 207.) Hic vero ordinavit presbyteros, episcopos consecravit, et totam terram per certas parochias divisit, confirmatisque in fide omnibus, ad ecclesiam suam est regressus.
33 Ibid. p. 249. (p. 205.) Illud interim certum est, inter Britannos suos sedem episcopalem constituisse Ninianum, in loco olim Candida Casa, hodie, a candido quoque co
lore appellatione retenta, Whit-herne nominato. Unde ad ecclesiam Glascuensem in Glottæ sive Cluidæ fluvii, qui ditionis Romanorum et relictorum ab eis Britonum extremus erat terminus, ripa sitam, a Kentigerno translata fuisse videtur. Glascuensem enim diœcesim eo tempore eosdem cum Cambrensi illo regno limites habuisse, et ad murum illum celebratissimum protensum fuisse, et, quod hinc est consequens, Candidam Casam complexu suo conti
it was also sometimes called the kingdom of Cambria or Cumberland; and that the diocese of Casa Candida was some time of equal extent with that kingdom, reaching from Glasgow on the river Clota or Clyde, to Stanemore-Cross in the borders of Westmoreland; and that in the time of Kentigern the see was removed to Glasgow. But when the Irish-Scots had seized this country, and given it the name of Galloway, this and the neighbouring regions were all subjected to the bishop of Sodora, whose residence was in the Isle of Man; till Malcolm the Third, King of Scots, made Candida Casa a bishop's see again, and assigned it the country of Galloway for its diocese,
nuisse, in Kentigerni Vita pariter legimus. Ulterius etiam, ejus versus austrum episcopatus tunc temporis ultimum finem fuisse ad Crucem Regiam infra Stanemore, in Scoti Chronico traditum invenimus. Quod autem Hector Boëthius Candidam Casam sub Mordaci Scotorum regis ditione fuisse vult, quem anno 731, in quo Ecclesiasticam suam Historiam terminavit Beda, defunctum fuisse notat; tam verum est, quam quod de Beda statim subdit: Beda locum Pictiminiam vocat, Accamque antistitem, qui sub id tempus sacræ sedi Candida in Casa præfuit; eumque virum primum post D. Ninianum ibidem gessisse episcopatum.' Nam neque ita locum hunc uspiam vocavit Beda, neque illum loci ejus nominavit antistitem: et in Anglorum non in Scotorum potestate Candidam Casam eo tempore fuisse, clarissime confirmat. Anno enim illo, 731, præsulatum tenuisse scribit: Accam in Hagustaldensi ecclesia, Pecthelmum in ea, quæ Candida Casa vocatur; quæ nuper, inquit, multiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem pontificatus addita, ipsum primum habet antistitem. Hanc vero jam tunc Anglorum gentem obtinuisse, et ad provinciam Berniciorum pertinuisse, et ipse apertissimis verbis antea scripserat, et Joannes Major ingenuc agnoscit; pro tempore suo et non futuro Bedam scripsisse' simul admonens. Quo magis Thomæ Dempsteri confidentiam et temeritatem demirari liceat, tam audacter asseverantis, 'hoc certe liquere; Can
didæ Casa episcopatum semper fuisse ditionis Scoticæ, nec unquam Anglico juri subjectum.' Ut igitur apud Britones primus Candida Casæ episcopus erat Ninianus, ita Anglorum primus in ea sede antistes erat Pecthelmus: ad quem popularis sui Bonifacii Moguntini archiepiscopi XI. data legitur epistola. Pecthelmo, ut in Florentii Wigorniensis habetur Chronico, anno 735, defuncto successit Frithwaldus; eique, anno 763, nonis Maii ex hac vita decedenti, successor 16 Kalend. Augusti datus est Pechtwinus; eo vero, anno 777, mortuo, sequente anno Eboraci decimo septimo Calendas Julii episcopus ordinatus est Æthelbertus: cui, anno 791, substitutus est Beadvulfus: Nec præterea,' inquit Guilielmus Malmesburiensis, 'plures alicubi reperio; quod cito defecerit episcopatus, qui extrema Anglorum in ora est, et Scotorum vel Pictorum depopulationi opportuna.' In antiquissimo tamen Anglo-Saxonicorum episcoporum indiculo, huic etiam Heathoredum successisse invenio: post cujus tempora regio illa, a Scotis sive Hibernis occupata, Gallwalliæ et Gallovidiæ ab eis nomen accepit. Deinceps vero in Scotiis proditum habetur annalibus, Gallovidiam ac vicinas regiones Sodorensi episcopo, cui in Mona insula sedes erat sacra, usque ad Malcolmi tertii regis tempora in rebus paruisse divinis: a quo Gallovidiæ Candida Casa, ut hodie manet, episcopalis sedes est constituta.
which continues to be so to this day. I cannot give any such particular account of any other diocese in the kingdom of Scotland for want of certain records; but this is certain, that from the first conversion of it, first by Ninias and then by Columbanus, they had several bishops among the Picts; part of whose country being made tributary, as well as Valentia, to the Saxon kings of Northumberland, their bishops consequently became subject to the metropolitan of York, from whose hands they sometimes had their ordination.
20. There remains only one country more to be examined, Of the Briwhich is our own part of the British nation;—a country that tish Church in England embraced the Christian faith as early as any of the western and Wales. parts of the world, and therefore may be presumed to have received the same form of government that we have found in all other Churches. It has been noted before, [at the sixth section of the first chapter of this Book, p. 227,] that the Britannic diocese was divided by the Romans at first into three provinces, and then into five: but by the injury of time we have no complete account of what bishoprics were erected in every province. They who speak of a precise number of flamens and archflamens, turned into so many archbishops and bishops, seem rather to deliver their own fancies, than relate true history. That which is certain in the case, is this:there were here in the beginning of the fourth century such episcopal Churches as were in all other nations; for the bishops. of these Churches were summoned to Councils as others were. There were British bishops in the Council of Arles 34, Eborius de Civitate Eboracensi, Restitutus de Civitate Londinensi, Adelphus de Civitate Colonia Londinensium. The last of which Holstenius 35, following Camden and Selden in his Notes upon Eutychius, thinks ought rather to be read Colonia Camalodunensium, which some take to be Colchester, others Maldon,
34 C. Arelat. I. an. 314. (t. I. p. 1430 b.) Eborius episcopus, de civitate Eboracensi, provincia Britannia. Restitutus episcopus, de civitate Londinensi, provincia supra scripta. Adelphius episcopus, de civitate Colonia Londinensium; exinde sacerdos presbyter, Arminius diaconus.
35 Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. 108. (ap. C. a S. P. p. 163. n. 1.)
Colonia Camalodunum vocabatur,
others Walden in Essex. But a late learned antiquary 36, in his Posthumous Observations upon Antonine's Itinerary of Britain, has happily discovered that the true reading should in all probability be Colonia Lindi, which is the old Roman name for Lincoln, as he shows not only out of Antonine and Ptolemy who call it Lindum, but out of the anonymous geographer of Ravenna, who more expressly styles it Lindum Colonia; which with a little variation is the name that is given it also by Bede 37, who calls it Lindocolina, and the region thereabout Provincia Lindissi, whence I presume comes the name of Lindsey Coast, which is the name of one part of that province to this day.
But to return to the ancient bishops of this nation. authors say, there were British bishops in the Council of Nice; but that does not so evidently appear from ancient history. It is more certain there were three bishops from Britain in the Council of Ariminum, as Sulpicius Severus 38 informs us. And Athanasius 39 also takes notice of British bishops in the Council of Sardica, anno 347. And Hilary inscribes his book, De Synodis 40, to the bishops of the British provinces among many others. Yet none of these authors tell us precisely the number
36 Gale, Not. in Antonin. Itiner. Brit. ad voce Lindo, Lincolne, (p. 96.) Anonymus Ravennas habet expresse Lindum Colonia. Hoc uno vocabulo adjecto, quantum lucis affudit historiæ antiquæ! Magnas profecto gratias ei debemus, quod tandem subscriptionem Concilii Arelatensis intelligamus. Adelphius episcopus, de civitate Colonia Londi, haud dubie pro Colonia Lindi: hoc ipsum Beda pene vidit, cum hanc urbem Lindi-colina nominaret. Ptolemæus quoque Lindum dixit. Romana numismata in campis ad boream hujus civitatis inveniri notat Lelandus. [Ravennas, an assumed name. The work, entitled Geographic Libri V. cum Notis Placidi Porcheron, was published at Paris, 1688. 8vo. and by J. Gronovius at Leyden, 1696. 8vo. as well as afterward by Abraham Gronovius again at Leyden, 1722. 8vo. ED.]
37 Hist. 1. 2. c. 16. (p. 97. 4.) Prædicabat autem Paulinus verbum etiam provinciæ Lindissi, quæ est
prima ad meridianam Humbræ fluminis ripam, pertingens usque ad mare; præfectumque Lindocolinæ civitatis, cui nomen erat Blaecca, primum cum domo sua convertit ad Dominum.
38 Hist. Sacr. 1.2. p. 109. (p.419.) Ita Missis per Illyricum, Italiam, Africam, Hispanias, Galliasque magistris officialibus, acciti numerative quadringenti et aliquanto amplius occidentales episcopi, Ariminum [anno 359] convenere... Tres tantum ex Britannia.
39 Apol. 2. p. 720. (t. I. part. 1. p. 97 b.)... 'Ev Tŷ μeyáλn σvvódw Th ἐν Σαρδικῇ συναχθείσῃ κατὰ πρόστα ξιν τῶν θεοφιλεστάτων βασιλέων Κωνσταντίου καὶ Κώνσταντος· ἐν ᾗ καὶ οἱ καθ' ἡμῶν γενόμενοι καθηρέθησαν ὡς συκοφάνται τοῖς τε κριθεῖσιν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν συνεψηφίσαντο μὲν ἐπίσκοποι πλείους τριακοσίων, ἐξ ἐπαρχιῶν Αἰγύπτου, Λιβύης . . . Βρεττανίων.
40 Ap. Oper. t. 2. (p. 458.) the title, Synodis Provinciarum Britanniarum Episcopis.