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gether with the Isle of Man, which then was but a part of that diocese, had the name of Episcopus Sodorensis. But when the Isle of Man fell into the hands of the English, the Western Islands withdrew their obedience from their ancient bishop, who commonly lived in this island, and set up another bishop of their own, who for a long time retained the title of Sodorensis, but at last he relinquished that title to the bishop of the Isle of Man, and took the name of Insulanus, Bishop of the Isles, which he still retains. The Provinciale Romanum makes no mention either of this diocese of these islands, or that other of the Orchades; but speaks of one called Dearegarchel, belonging to the Pope, and makes Glasgow only a suffragan to St. Andrews. By which it appears that it is not many ages

. since Glasgow was made an archbishopric, the bishop of St. Andrews being then the only metropolitan among them. But about ancient dioceses we must not be very solicitous; for whatever fabulous writers affirm, it is certain from Bede that no part of this nation, possessed by the Picts, was converted till the fifth century, when first, in the time of Arcadius and Honorius, the southern Picts were converted by Ninias [or Nynias), a Briton, who built a church at Candida Casa, which was the first cathedral in that part of Scotland, and which gave the denomination of Whitern to the place, as Bede 30 observes, 'because the church was built of stone, which was not a very usual thing among the Britons in those days.' The northern Picts were not converted till above an hundred and fifty years after this. For their apostle was Columbanus, the

30 Hist. 1. 3. C. 4. (p. 106.) Siqui- rant, prædicante eis verbum Nynia dem anno incarnationis Dominicæ episcopo reverentissimo et sanctisquingentesimo sexagesimo quinto, simo viro, de natione Britonum, qui quo tempore gubernaculum Romani erat Romæ regulariter fidem et myImperii, post Justinianum, Justinus steria veritatis edoctus; cujus sedem Minor accepit, venit de Hibernia episcopalem, sancti Martini episcopi presbyter et abbas, habitu et vita nomine et ecclesia insignem, ubi monachi insignis, nomine Columba, ipse etiam corpore una cum pluriBritanniam ; prædicaturus verbum bus sanctis requiescit

, jam nunc Dei provinciis Septemtrionalium Anglorum gens obtinet. Qui locus Pictorum, hoc est, eis, quæ arduis ad provinciam Berniciorum pertiatque horrentibus montium jugis, nens, vulgo vocatur Ad Candidam ab australibus eorum sunt regioni. Casam; eo quod ibi ecclesiam de bus sequestratæ. Namque ipsi Au- lapide, insolito Britonibus more, festrales Picti, qui intra eosdem mon- cerit.-See before, b. 8. ch. 1. 8. 10. tes habent sedes, multo ante tem- v. 3. p. 17. n. 89. and ch. 2. S. I. pore, ut perhibent, relicto errore p. 40. n. 92. idololatriæ, fidem veritatis accepe

famous monk, who came out of Ireland in the time of Justin Junior, anno 565, to preach the Gospel to them, as Bede informs us in the same place. So that it would be in vain to search after episcopal dioceses, before we have any certainty that Christianity was planted among them. In the following ages we have no particular account of any other diocese, save this of Candida Casa, in Bede or any other authentic writer. For though they speak of bishops both among the southern and the northern Picts, yet they take no notice of the names of their sees. Whence some have concluded, that the Scottish

, bishops had no proper sees, but were ordained at large for the whole country; and others, that there was but one bishop for all the region. The first of which opinions is incredible, because it is against the known rule of the Catholic Church, which forbad any bishop to be ordained at large: and the other is expressly refuted by Bede31, who speaks of several bishops in the province of the northern Picts; and by the writer of the Life of Ninias in Bp. Usher's Antiquities 32, who says, 'that Ninias, having converted the southern Picts, ordained them presbyters, and consecrated them bishops, and divided the whole region into certain parochiæ or dioceses, and so returned to his own church again,' meaning Candida Casa before mentioned. Whence it is evident there were bishops both among the northern and southern Picts, though the names of their dioceses be not mentioned.

As for the diocese of Candida Casa, bishop Usher truly observes, that it was not properly in any part of the Picts' dominions, but in that part or province of the Romish Britain which was called Valentia, and afterwards Bernicia by Bede, when it was under the dominion of the Saxons. Bishop Usher 33 thinks

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31 Ibid. 1. 3. C. 4. See before, b. 2. lore appellatione retenta, Whit-herne 4. s. 2. V. 1. p. 88. n. 50.

nominato. Unde ad ecclesiam Glas32 P. 350. (Works, v. 6. p. 207.) cuensem in Glottæ sive Cluidæ fluHic vero ordinavit presbyteros, epi- vii, qui ditionis Romanorum et rescopos consecravit, et totam terram lictorum ab eis Britonum extremus per certas parochias divisit, confir- erat terminus, ripa sitam, a Kentimatisque in fide omnibus, ad eccle- gerno translata fuisse videtur. Glassiam suam est regressus.

cuensem enim diæcesim eo tempore 33 Ibid. p. 249. (p. 205.) Illud in- eosdem cum Cambrensi illo regno terim certum est, inter Britannos limites habuisse, et ad murum illum suos sedem episcopalem constituisse celebratissimum protensum fuisse, Ninianum, in loco olim Candida et, quod hinc est consequens, CanCasa, hodie, a candido quoque co- didam Casam complexu suo conti

it was also sometimes called the kingdom of Cambria or Cumberland; and that the diocese of Casa Candida was some time of equal extent with that kingdom, reaching from Glasgow on the river Clota or Clyde, to Stanemore-Cross in the borders of Westmoreland; and that in the time of Kentigern the see was removed to Glasgow. But when the Irish-Scots had seized this country, and given it the name of Galloway, this and the neighbouring regions were all subjected to the bishop of Sodora, whose residence was in the Isle of Man; till Malcolm the Third, King of Scots, made Candida Casa a bishop's see again, and assigned it the country of Galloway for its diocese,

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nuisse, in Kentigerni Vita pariter didæ Casæ episcopatum semper fulegimus. Ulterius etiam, ejus ver

isse ditionis Scoticæ, nec unquam sus austrum episcopatus tunc tem- Anglico juri subjectum.' Ut igitur poris ultimum finem fuisse ad Cru- apud Britones primus Candidæ Cacem Regiam infra Stanemore, in sæ episcopus erat Ninianus, ita AnScoti Chronico traditum invenimus. glorum primus in ea sede antistes Quod autem Hector Boëthius Can- erat Pecthelmus : ad quem populadidam Casam sub Mordaci Scotorum ris sui Bonifacii Moguntini archiregis ditione fuisse vult, quem anno episcopi XI. data legitur epistola. 737, in quo Ecclesiasticam suam Hi- Pecthelmo, ut in Florentii Wigornistoriam terminavit Beda, defunctum ensis habetur Chronico, anno 735, fuisse notat; tam verum est, quam defuncto successit Frithwaldus; eiquod de Beda statim subdit : ‘Beda que, anno 763, nonis Maii ex hac locum Pictiminiam vocat, Accamque vita decedenti, successor 16 Kalend. antistitem, qui sub id tempus sacræ Augusti datus est Pechtwinus ; eo sedi Candida in Casa præfuit; eum- vero, anno 777, mortuo, sequente que virum primum post D. Ninia- anno Eboraci decimo septimo Canum ibidem gessisse episcopatum.' lendas Julii episcopus ordinatus est Nam neque ita locum hunc uspiam Æthelbertus : cui, anno 791, subvocavit Beda, neque illum loci ejus stitutus est Beadvulfus : Nec prænominavit antistitem : et in Anglo- terea,' inquit Guilielmus Malmesburum non in Scotorum potestate Can- riensis, 'plures alicubi reperio; quod didam Casam eo tempore fuisse, cla- cito defecerit episcopatus, qui extrerissime confirmat. Anno enim illo, ma Anglorum in ora est, et Scoto731, præsulatum tenuisse scribit : rum vel Pictorum depopulationi op

Accam in Hagustaldensi ecclesia, portuna. In antiquissimo tamen Pecthelmum in ea, quæ Candida Anglo-Saxonicorum episcoporum inCasa vocatur ; quæ nuper, inquit, diculo, huic etiam Heathoredum sucmultiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in se- cessisse invenio : post cujus tempora dem pontificatus addita, ipsum pri- regio illa, a Scotis sive Hibernis ocmum habet antistitem. Hanc vero cupata, Gallwalliæ et Gallovidiæ ab jam tunc Anglorum gentem obtinu- eis nomen accepit. Deinceps vero isse, et ad provinciam Berniciorum in Scotiis proditum habetur annalipertinuisse,' et ipse apertissimis ver- bus, Gallovidiam ac vicinas regiones bis antea scripserat, et Joannes Ma- Sodorensi episcopo, cui in Mona injor ingenue agnoscit ; “pro tempore sula sedes erat sacra, usque ad Malsuo et non futuro Bedam scripsisse' colmi tertii regis tempora in rebus simul admonens. Quo magis Thomæ paruisse divinis: a quo Gallovidiæ Dempsteri confidentiam et temerita- Candida Casa, ut hodie manet, epitem demirari liceat, tam audacter scopalis sedes est constituta. asseverantis, hoc certe liquere; Can

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which continues to be so to this day. I cannot give any such particular account of any other diocese in the kingdom of Scotland for want of certain records; but this is certain, that from the first conversion of it, first by Ninias and then by Columbanus, they had several bishops among the Picts; part of whose country being made tributary, as well as Valentia, to the Saxon kings of Northumberland, their bishops consequently became subject to the metropolitan of York, from whose hands they sometimes had their ordination.

20. There remains only one country more to be examined, of the Briwhich is our own part of the British nation ;-a country that tish Church embraced the Christian faith as early as any of the western and Wales. parts of the world, and therefore may be presumed to have received the same form of government that we have found in all other Churches. It has been noted before, (at the sixth section of the first chapter of this Book, p. 227,] that the Britannic diocese was divided by the Romans at first into three provinces, and then into five: but by the injury of time we have no complete account of what bishoprics were erected in every province. They who speak of a precise number of flamens and archflamens, turned into so many archbishops and bishops, seem rather to deliver their own fancies, than relate true history. That which is certain in the case, is this :there were here in the beginning of the fourth century such episcopal Churches as were in all other nations ; for the bishops of these Churches were summoned to Councils as others were. There were British bishops in the Council of Arles 34, Eborius de Civitate Eboracensi, Restitutus de Civitate Londinensi, Adelphus de Civitate Colonia Londinensium. The last of which Holstenius 35, following Camden and Selden in his Notes upon Eutychius, thinks ought rather to be read Colonia Camalodunensium, which some take to be Colchester, others Maldon,

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34 C. Arelat. 1. an. 314. (t. 1. p. Colonia Camalodunum vocabatur, 1430 b.) Eborius episcopus, de ci- ut erudite docet Camdenus, qui eam vitate Eboracensi, provincia Britan- non Colchester, sed Maldon nunc nia. Restitutus episcopus, de civitate dici ostendit ; ut et Seldenus in Londinensi, provincia supra scripta. Notis ad Eutychium Alexandr. p. Adelphius episcopus, de civitate Co. 119, ubi recte conjicit in subscript. lonia Londinensium ; exinde sacer- Arelatensis Concilii dos presbyter, Arminius diaconus. Londinensium, legendum Colonia

35° Annot. in Car. a S. Paul. p. Camalodunensium. Hoc enim veris108. (ap. C. a S. P. p. 163. n. 1.) simum est.

pro Colonia

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others Walden in Essex. But a late learned antiquary 36, in his Posthumous Observations upon Antonine's Itinerary of Britain, has happily discovered that the true reading should in all probability be Colonia Lindi, which is the old Roman name for Lincoln, as he shows not only out of Antonine and Ptolemy who call it Lindum, but out of the anonymous geographer of Ravenna, who more expressly styles it Lindum Colonia ; which with a little variation is the name that is given it also by Bede 37, who calls it Lindocolina, and the region thereabout Provincia Lindissi, whence I presume comes the name of Lindsey Coast, which is the name of one part of that province to this day.

But to return to the ancient bishops of this nation. Some authors say, there were British bishops in the Council of Nice; but that does not so evidently appear from ancient history. It is more certain there were three bishops from Britain in the Council of Ariminum, as Sulpicius Severus 38 informs us. And Athanasius 39 also takes notice of British bishops in the Council of Sardica, anno 347. And Hilary inscribes his book, De Synodis 40, to the bishops of the British provinces among many others. Yet none of these authors tell us precisely the number

36 Gale, Not. in Antonin. Itiner. prima ad meridianam Humbræ. AluBrit. ad voce Lindo, Lincolne, (p. minis ripam, pertingens usque ad 96.) Anonymus Ravennas habet ex- mare; præfectumque Lindocolinæ presse Lindum Colonia. Hoc uno civitatis, cui nomen erat Blaecca, vocabulo adjecto, quantum lucis af- primum cum domo sua convertit ad fudit historiæ antiquæ! Magnas pro

Dominum. fecto gratias ei debemus, quod tan- 38 Hist. Sacr. 1. 2. p. 109. (p.419.) dem subscriptionem Concilii Arela- Ita Missis per Illyricum, Italiam, tensis intelligamus. Adelphius episco- Africam, Hispanias, Galliasque mapus, de civitate Colonia Londi, haud gistris officialibus, acciti numerative dubie pro Colonia Lindi: hoc ipsum quadringenti et aliquanto amplius Beda pene vidit, cum hanc urbem occidentales episcopi, Ariminum Lindi-colina nominaret. Ptolemæus [anno 359 ?] convenere... Tres tanquoque Lindum dixit. Romana nu- tum ex Britannia. mismata in campis ad boream hujus 39 Apol. 2. p. 720. (t. I. part. 1. p. civitatis inveniri notat Lelandus. 97 b.). . - 'Ev Tôn megály quvodo [Ravennas, an assumed name. The έν Σαρδική συναχθείση κατά πρόσταwork, entitled Geographic Libri V. ξιν των θεοφιλεστάτων βασιλέων Κωνcum Notis Placidi Porcheron, was σταντίου και Κωνσταντος έν ή και οι published at Paris

, 1688. 8vo. and kaố nuôr yevójevou kabnpédnoar ós

. καθ ημων γενόμενοι καθηρέθησαν ως by J. Gronovius at Leyden, 1696. Okopávrat rois te kpiciou umep

συκοφάνται τοις κριθείσιν υπέρ 8vo. as well as afterward by Abra- ημών συνεψηφίσαντο μεν επίσκοποι harm Gronovius again at Leyden, πλείους τριακοσίων, εξ επαρχιών Αι

, 1722. 8vo. Ed.]

γύπτου, Λιβύης... Βρεττανίων. 37 Hist. 1. 2. c. 16. (p. 97. 4.) 40 Ap. Oper. t. 2. (p. 458.) the Prædicabat autem Paulinus verbum title, Synodis Provinciarum Britanetiam provinciæ Lindissi, quæ est niarum Episcopis.

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