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30. Vicus Ariacharum. 31. Neotes. 32. Clima Orientalium, et Occidentalium. 33. Vicus Ariathæ Saxosæ. 34. Vicus Bebdamus.

Province of Armenia Magna. Concerning this, the author only remarks, that it is an autocephalus, or independent country, not subject to any apostolical throne, but honoured in respect to St. Gregory of Armenia, having two hundred cities and castles.

Province of Cyprus. The author makes the same observation upon this country, that it is an independent also, in honour of St. Barnabas, the Apostle, who was found here, having the Gospel of St. Mark laid upon his breast. The cities in this province are,

1. Constantia, the metropolis. 2. Citium. 3. Amathus. 4. Curium. 5. Paphus. 6. Arsene. 7. Soli. 8. Lapithus, the

. birthplace of Georgius Cyprius, who wrote the book out of which these were taken. 9. Cyrenia. 10. Tamasus. 11. Cythri. 12. Trimithus. 13. Carpasin.

There is added at the end of Goar's Notitia, This account was taken anno 6391, in the reign of the Emperor Leo Sapiens, and under the Patriarch Photius, that is, anno 891.

In this description of the Church, the reader may observe, that the author being a Greek, is much more accurate in his account of the Greek and Eastern Churches, than of the Western and Latin; for here is no account of France, Spain, Britain, Illyricum, and such confused and imperfect accounts of the provinces of Italy and Afric, as show plainly that the author was not rightly acquainted with the state of the Church in those countries, at least not in Italy; for in all Italy and Sicily here are not mentioned above an hundred dioceses, and yet it is clear from the accounts that have been given before out of the Subscriptions of the ancient Councils, that there were nearer three hundred dioceses in those regions. Above one hundred and fifty Italian bishops of distinct sees are found subscribed in one age in the Roman Councils held under Hilary, Felix, and Symmachus; and there were almost as many more not mentioned in those Councils, but to be found in other Councils and ancient records. And though when these Notitiæ

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were made, several of the ancient dioceses might be united together, yet it appears from the Subscriptions of the Roman Councils under Eugenius II. and Leo IV. in the ninth century, that there were above double the number to what the Notitiæ mention. So that it must be owned that they give but an imperfect account of the Latin or Western Church. But the account of the Greek and Eastern Churches is more complete, and agrees very well with the Subscriptions collected out of the ancient Councils : and so they one confirm another, and both together fully make out the account that has been given both of the number and extent of dioceses in the ancient Church.

CHAP. VIII.
Of the division of dioceses into parishes, and the first

original of them. 1. THERE remains but one thing more to be inquired into on of the anthis head, which is the division of dioceses into such lesser pre- of parish

cient names cincts as we now call parishes and parish-churches. Con-churches. cerning which I shall here need to say the less, because so much has already been said incidentally in speaking of the extent of ancient dioceses, which we have generally found too large to be confined to a single congregation. All that I shall add upon this subject therefore in this place, is only to make a few remarks upon the ancient names of parishes, because some of them are a little ambiguous, and shew when, and upon what account, and by what degrees, dioceses were divided into parishes, to bring them to the present state and form of the Church.

As to the ancient names, I have had occasion to shew before63, that the words Tapoukia and oloiknous, for the three first ages, were of the same importance, denoting not what we now call a parish-church, but a city with its adjacent towns or country region. But in the fourth and fifth ages we find both names promiscuously given as well to country-parishes as episcopal or city-churches. For now these lesser divisions of dioceses began to be called parochiæ, as may be seen in the Council of

63 See ch. 2. s. 2, last clause. p. 253 of this volume.

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Chalcedon 64, which ordered that in every church such country parishes, as belonged of old time to any bishop, should continue in his possession without any molestation.' And in the Council of Vaison 65, anno 442, a decree was made ó that country parishes should have presbyters to preach in them, as well as the city-churches.' And so the word parochia is often used by St. Jerom 66, Sulpicius Severus 67, Theodoret 68, Innocentius 69, and other writers of those ages. Though still the name parochia continued to signify properly an episcopal diocese, from which it was transferred to denote those lesser parochiæ, because they were a sort of imitation of the former. Which is the account that Socrates 70 seems to give of them, when speaking of the villages of the region of Mareotes that were subject to the bishop of Alexandria, he says, 'they were as so many mapoukiai, or lesser dioceses, under his city. And upon the same reason the name diocesis was sometimes given to a parish-church also, though it most properly belongs to an episcopal diocese. Thus Sidonius Apollinaris 71 speaks of his own' visiting his dioceses,' meaning only the parish-churches under his episcopal jurisdiction. And so in the Collation of Carthage 72 it is said of one place, “that there was perfect unity not only in the city, but in all the dioceses,' that is, the country-parishes or villages belonging to it. Baluzius 73 has

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64 C. 16. [al. 17.) (t. 4. p. 763 b.) 69 Ep. ad Decent. c. 5. See beΤας καθ' εκάστην εκκλησίαν αγροικι- fore, ch. 5. 6. Ι. p. 335. n. 15. κάς παροικίας, ή εγχωρίους, μένειν 70 L. 1. c. 27. (v. 2. p. 64. 1.) απαρασαλεύτως τοις κατέχουσιν αυτάς Τάττονται δε αύται αι εκκλησίαι υπό επισκόποις, κ. τ.λ.

το της Αλεξανδρείας επισκόπω, και 65 Vasens. I. c. 2. (ibid. p. 1680 a.) cio iv ÚTÒ tnv avtoù trów ós maHoc etiam.... placuit ut non solum poukiai. in civitatibus, sed etiam in omnibus 71 L. 9. Ep. 16. (p. 611.) Peraparochiis, verbum faciendi daremus gratis forte diocesibus cum domum presbyteris potestatem.

veni, &c. 66 Cont. Vigilant. c. 2. [al. 3.] 72 Die. 1. c. 176.(CC. t. 2. p. 1398 (t. 2. p. 389 d.) Auctores sunt hujus c.). . .. Unitas illic perfecta est, non dictatiunculæ meæ sancti presbyteri solum in ipsa civitate, verum etiam Riparius et Desiderius, qui paro- in omnibus diocesibus. chias suas vicinia istius scribunt 73 Not. ad Gratian. p. 510. (Oper. esse maculatas.

Ant. August, t. 3. p. 194. col. dextr.) Dialog. 1. c. 4. (p. 520.) Eccle- Diocesim, id est, pareciam, ecclesiam loci illius Hieronymus presby- siam. Nam sicut paræciæ vocabuter regit: nam parochia est episcopi, lum usurpabatur antiquitus ad sigqui Hierosolymam tenet.

nificandam integram episcopi dioce68 Ep. 113. ad Leon. (t. 4. part. 2. sim.... ita diæcesis vocabulo exprip. 1190.). Togaútas yàp Ý Kúppos mebantur interdum singulares presπαροικίας έχει.

byterorum ecclesiæ, quæ nunc vulgo vocantur ecclesiæ paræciales. Ruri- sumpto episcopatu, confestim Ursicius Lemovicensis, &c. See the cinum, Cadurcinæ urbis episcopum, next note.

67

:

observed the same in Ruricius Lemovicensis 74, and Gregory of
Tours 75, and some other writers; the reason of this appella-
tion being, as I said before, for that these churches, whereupon
presbyters were fixed, were a sort of lesser dioceses, as the
author of the Pontifical 76 under the name of Damasus terms
them; and some canons 77 give them the name of ecclesiæ
diocesana, diocesan churches, and others, country or village
churches, whence the presbyters residing on them were termed
ểm cópiou opeo Bútepot, country-presbyters, by the Council of
Neocæsarea78, in opposition to the city-presbyters in the cathe-
dral or mother-church. Parish-churches were also peculiarly
called tituli, as has been noted before 79, in contradistinction
to the bishop's church, being such churches as had particular
presbyters and deacons assigned to them, who upon that ac-
count are said to have a title ; and some learned persons
of opinion, that cardinal presbyters and deacons at first were
no more but presbyters and deacons so deputed and affixed to
the service of particular parish-churches, and that as well at
Rome as at other places.

2. As to the original of parish-churches, there is no doubt Theoriginal but it was necessity, and the conveniences of celebrating Chris- of parishtian offices, and holding Christian communion with greater owing to

necessity, ease, that first gave occasion to them. For when the multitude

and foundof believers increased so in large and populous cities, that one ed upon the

SO

are

lacessere cæpit, dicens, quia dice74 L. 2. Ep. 6. (ap. Baluz. ut supr. ceses Rutenæ ecclesiæ debitas reti. 9.v.). .. Has (ecclesias] ad sanctita- neret. tem vestram per presbyterum meum

76 Vit. Marcelli. (CC. t. 1. p. 946 pro diæcesi Gemiliacensi, unde jam c.) Viginti quinque titulos in Urbe pridem vobis scripseram, destinavi. Roma constituit, quasi diæceses,

76 Hist. Francor. 1. 4. C. 13. (p. propter baptismum et pænitentiam 152 e. 1.) Erant autem quadrage- multorum. simæ dies, et Cautinus episcopus in 77 Vid. C. Tarracon. c.8. See beBrivatensem diæcesim psallendo a- fore, ch. 6. s. 22. p. 388. n. 55. dire disposuerat. [Conf. Ruinart. ad 78 C. 13. See before, ibid. s. 21. h. 1. Diæcesis hic pagum designat ; p. 386. n. .46. nam Brivas, ubi celebris ecclesia S. 79 B. 8. ch. I. 8. 10. p. 19. Juliani, ex diæcesi erat Avernensi. 80 Vid. Joan. Fronto, Ep. de CaGrischov.]-It. 1. 6. c. 38. (p. 315 a. nonicis Cardinalibus. Paris. 1661. 6.)... Transobadus presbyter rejici- (p. 5.) Aio presbyteros cardinales tur, et Innocentius Gabalitanorum eos fuisse, qui apud veteres titulis comes eligitur ad episcopatum, opi- potiti sunt. Fuere presbyteri uni tulante Brunichilde regina. Sed, ad- loco affixi, &c.

rules of

communion.

apostolical church could not contain them, there was a necessity for diChristian viding the assembly, and erecting other churches, where all

the solemnities of the Christian worship and the usual offices of divine service might be performed, as well as in the motherchurch, to answer the apostolical ordinance of holding Christian communion one with another ; which was according to what we read, Acts 2, 42, that men should “ continue stedfastly in the Apostles' doctrine, and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers." The author of the Pontifical under the name of Damasus, in the Life of Marcellus, [cited in the preceding section,) seems to say that several of the Roman tituli, or parish-churches, were erected for the conveniency of baptizing great multitudes that were converted from paganism, and for burying the martyrs. But if there was any necessity upon that account, there was doubtless a greater necessity upon another : for in those days the whole body of the Christian Church was used to communicate weekly at the Lord's table; and it being impossible that one church should suffice in large cities for this purpose, there was an absolute necessity of building more, that Christians might live in communion one with another. And so parish-churches must be as ancient as the necessities of the Church, and he that knows how to date the one, may easily date the original of the other, for any

particular city or diocese in the universe. Some of 3. But as cities and their appendent dioceses differed very them pro- much in their size and extent, so it is reasonable to believe

as ancient as the that some of them were obliged to build parish-churches much Apostles.

sooner than others. And in such places as Jerusalem and Rome, there is great probability, from several passages in the Acts and St. Paul's Epistles, that there were more churches than one from the days of the Apostles. However, it is undeniably evident from Optatus, as I have shewed before 81, that Rome had above forty churches in it before the end of the third century, or in the beginning of the Diocletian persecution. As for the lesser cities, it will be no wonder to find some of them which had but one church whilst the persecution lasted; such as that city in Phrygia which Lactantius speaks of, where 92 he says, “the church and all the people were burnt 81 See b. 8. ch. 1. s. 17. p. 35.

times of the

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82 Instit. 1. 5. C. 11. (t. 1. p. 390.) Aliqui ad occidendum præcipites

n. 71.

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