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no appropriated clergy belonging to them, but were served by the ministers of the great church, who officiated in them according to their courses. It is observed also by some, that a peculiar custom prevailed at Rome, to have two presbyters officiate in every church, whereas in other places there was but one.

Dr. Maurice 96 infers this from a passage in the Comments of Hilary the Roman deacon, who commonly goes under the name of St. Ambrose 97, who says, “that though there were but seven deacons in all Rome, yet there was such a number of presbyters as to have two to officiate in every church, because the inhabitants communicated twice a week, and there were sick persons to be baptized almost every day.' But whether this custom was so peculiar to Rome, as to belong to no other Church, is what I had rather the reader should believe upon that learned man's judgment, than my own assertion.

As to country-churches, the case is very plain, that presbyters were more early fixed and appropriated peculiarly to them, there being not the same conveniency of serving them in common by the presbyters of the city-church. Therefore we may observe, that the Council of Neocæsarea 98 makes a distinction between the éixópiou apeoßútepol, the countrypresbyters, and those of the city, forbidding the former to officiate in the city-church, except in the absence of the bishop and city-presbyters: which plainly implies, that country-parishes were then served by fixed presbyters of their own, who had nothing to do with the service of the city-church. And the same appears from the account which Athanasius gives of the presbyters of the villages of Mareotis under Alexandria, and

many other passages of the ancient writers. Settled re

6. But we are to observe, that the being settled in a parishvenues not cure, whether in city or country, did not immediately entitle immediate. ly fixed a man to the revenue arising from that cure, whether in tithes vpon pa- or oblations, or any other kind. For anciently all church-rerishes at

venues were delivered into the common-stock of the bishop's

96 Defence of Diocesan Episco- Omni enim hebdomada offerenpacy. (p. 47.) There is one thing dum est, etiam si non quotidie pere

their first

grinis, incolis tamen vel bis in heb97 In 1. Tim. 3. (12, 13.] (t. 2. ap- domada, etsi non desint qui prope pend. p. 295 e.) Nunc autem septem quotidie baptizentur ægri. diaconos esse opportet, et aliquantos 98 C. 13. See before, ch. 6. s.21. presbyteros, ut bini sint per eccle- p. 386. n. 46. sias, et unus in civitate episcopus.

more, &c.

into the

stock.

church; whence by the direction and approbation of the division,

but paid bishop, who was the chief administrator of the revenues of his diocese, a monthly or an annual division was made among

the common clergy under his jurisdiction, as has been showed before 99, in giving an account of ecclesiastical revenues and their distribution. Where among other things it has been observed out of Theodorus Lector 1, that at Constantinople no parish-church had any appropriated revenues till the time of Gennadius, in the middle of the fifth century, anno 460, when Marcian's æconomus first ordered the clergy of every church to receive the offerings of their own church, whereas before the great church received them all. In the Western Church, particularly in Spain, in the middle of the sixth century, it appears from the first Council of Bracara”, that the bishop and city-clergy had still their revenues in a common fund, which was divided into four parts: one for the bishop, another for the clergy, a third for the fabric and lights of the church, and a fourth for the relief of the poor, to be dispensed by the hands of the archpresbyter or archdeacon, with the bishop's approbation. But the country-clergy, as to their revenues, were now or shortly after upon a different foot: for in the second Council of Bracara", which was held but nine years after the first, anno 572, we find a canon forbidding bishops to have any share in the oblations of the parochial churches, and assigning that third part to maintain the fabric and lights of the church; only allowing them to receive two solidi by way of honorary acknowledgment, (honor cathedra, the canon terms it,) in their parochial visitations. So that, at least from this time, we may

1 L.I.

99 B. 5. ch. 6. s. 1. V. 2. p. 182. parte sive archipresbyter sive archi

(v. 3. p. 566. 10.) IIpoeßá- diaconus, illam administrans, epiλετο δε Γεννάδιος Μαρκιανόν οικονό- scopo faciat rationem. μον, της των Καθαρών όντα θρησκεί- 3 [al. Bracar. 3.) c. 2. (ibid. p. as, eis Tv ekranoiav metedoóvra' ôs, 896 e.) Placuit ut nullus episcopoάμα τα γενέσθαι οικονόμος, τα προσ- rum per suas diæceses ambulans, φερόμενα εν εκάστη εκκλησία τους preter honorem cathedrae sue, id Toù TÓTOU Kinpikoùs Komiteodal de est, solidos duos, aliquid aliud per TÚTWOEV, éws Toútou tñs veyalns ék- ecclesias tollat. Neque tertiam parκλησίας πάντα κομιζομένης.

tem ex quacunque oblatione populi 2 C. 25. [al. Bracar. 2. c. 7.] (t. 5. in ecclesiis parochialibus requirat, p. 840 e.) Item placuit ut de rebus sed illa tertia pars pro luminaribus ecclesiasticis tres æquæ fiant portio- ecclesiæ vel recuperatione servetur, nes, id est, una episcopi, alia clerico- et per singulos annos episcopo inde rum, tertia in reparatione vel in lu- ratio fiat. minariis ecclesiæ. De quarta [qua]

6

date the appropriation of revenues in Spain to the country parochial churches. In the same Council there is another canon which corrects an abuse that plainly implies such an appropriate settlement upon country-churches. For some patrons, it seems 4, would build churches on their own lands, not for piety, but for lucre's sake, that they might go halves with the clergy in whatever was collected of the oblations of the people. To remedy which inconvenience the Council orders, ‘that no bishop should consecrate any church for the future, that was built upon such an abominable contract and tributary condition. This is further evidence that the revenues of countrychurches were then appropriated to them, else such abuses as these could not have had any foundation.

But in Germany and France the revenues of the parochial churches seem to have continued in the hands of the bishop, at least he had his dividend of a fourth part for some ages longer. For there are rules in the Capitulars 5 of Baluzius's and Goldastus's editions, which order tithes and oblations to be divided into four parts, according to ancient canon, and one fourth to be given to the bishop. And some learned persons 6 who have narrowly examined our English constitution, seem to be of opinion, that the bishops had their portion of the ecclesiastical revenues with the parochial clergy, for some considerable time after the first designation and settlement of parishchurches. For they suppose that originally the bishop's cathedral was the only church in a diocese, from whence itinerant or occasional preachers were sent to convert the country people,

4 Ibid. c. 6. (p. 897 e.) Si quis ba- ut quatuor partes ex omnibus decisilicam, non pro devotione fidei, sed mis et oblationibus fiant. Quarta pro quæstu cupiditatis, ædificat, ut episcopo referenda.-Conf. Goldast. quicquid ibi de oblatione populi col. Constit. Imper. t. 3. c. 23. (p. 158.) ligitur, medium cum clericis dividat, Ut decimæ populi dividantur in quaeo quod basilicam in terra sua ipse tuor partes, id est, una pars episcopo, [al. quæstus causa] condiderit, quod alia clericis, tertia pauperibus, quarta in aliquibus locis usque modo dici- ecclesiæ in fabricis applicetur, sicut tur fieri. Hoc ergo de cætero ob- in decreto Gelasii papæ continetur. servari debet, ut nullus episcopo- 6 See Dr. Kennet's Case of Imrum tam abominabili voto consen- propriations. (p. 9, &c.) And these tiat, nec basilicam, quæ non pro were indeed as many acknowledge sanctorum patrocinio, sed magis ments, &c.—Mr. Wharton's Defence sub tributaria conditione est con- of Pluralities, c. 2. (p. 71 and ondita, audeat consecrare.

ward.) When Augustin, the first s Lib. 7. c. 375. (Capitul. Reg. archbishop of Canterbury, came into

5 Franc. t. 1. p. 1104 lin. ult.) Scilicet England, &c.

who for some time resorted to the cathedral for solemn divino worship. Afterwards by degrees some other churches were built among them ; first private oratories or chapels, without any parish-bounds, for the conveniency of such, as being at too great distance from the cathedral, might more easily resort to them. Then parish-churches with certain limits were erected, some by the liberality of the people themselves in more populous and wealthy places, others by the bishops, and others by the Saxon kings; but chiefly the lords of manors, the thanes, as they then called them, were great instruments in this work of founding parish-churches. Whence it was that parish-bounds were conformed to the limits and extent of a manor, as I have shown that the bounds of an ancient diocese were to the territory of a city; and hence the lord of a manor had his original right of patronage and presentation. Yet this did not destroy the bishop's right to a share in the revenue of his whole diocese. But time made an alteration in this matter : for our bishops seem voluntarily to have relinquished their title to parochial revenues, as the Spanish bishops had done before them; though whether they made any canon about it, as the other did, I am not able to inform the reader. But Dr. Kennets has observed out of Dugdale, that notwithstanding the alteration that was made in this matter, the bishops of the Isle of Man continued to have their tertiana or third part of all church-revenues in that island: which I suppose was be

7 See ch. 2. the latter part of s. 3. lecto nobis in Christo patri ac dop. 255.

mino, domino Huano, permissione 8 Case of Impropriations. (p. 28.) divina Sodoriensi episcopo moderno, And for the same reason, the bishops in puram et perpetuam eleemosyof Man had their tertiana or third nam, ad mensam suam episcopalem, part of all churches in that island. omnes ecclesias, terras, decimas, ac

9 Monastic. Angl. (t. 1. p.718.) possessiones, quas antecessores noConfirmatio ecclesiarum et terra- stri reges et domini Mannæ ecclesiæ rum, &c. Universis sanctæ matris Sodoriensi et episcopatui ejusdem ecclesiæ filiis, præsentes literas in- dederunt, concesserunt, et confirmaspecturis vel audituris, Thomas, Dei verunt. Videlicet cathedralem sancti gratia, rex Mannæ et Insularum, Germani in Holme Sodor vel Pele comes Derby et dominus Stanley, vocatam ... et tertiam partem desalutem in Domino sempiternam. cimarum de omnibus ecclesiis de Universitati vestræ innotescimus, Manne, confirmantes eis tertianam quod nos, pro salute animæ nostræ plenæ villæ de Kirkby propinquioet animarum antecessorum nostro- rem ecclesiam sancti Bradani cum rum atque omnium fidelium defunc- terra sancti Bradani, et tertianam torum, concessimus et dedimus di- plenæ villæ de Kirkmarona, &c.

cause they were not liable to any alterations made here, as not being then of the English jurisdiction.

Thus I have given a short account of the original and ancient state of parochial churches, but it is beyond my design to carry this inquiry any further. They, who would know by what steps and encroachments parish-churches lost their revenues again, first by the confusion of parish-bounds, and a liberty granted to men to pay their tithes and oblations where they pleased, and then by appropriations to monasteries, and impropriations granted to laymen, may find these things handled at large in Dr. Kennet's elaborate Discourse of Impropriations and Augmentation of Vicarages, to which I refer the inquisitive reader.

THE CONCLUSION.

Wherein is proposed an easy and honourable method for

establishing a primitive diocesan episcopacy, conformable to the model of the smaller sort of ancient dioceses, in all the Protestant Churches.

All I have further to add upon this subject is only to make one seasonable and useful reflection upon what has been discoursed in this last Book, with relation to the long wished for union of all the Churches of the Reformation in the same form of episcopal government, agreeable to the model and practice of the primitive Church. One great objection against the present diocesan episcopacy, and that which to many may look the most plausible, is drawn from the vast extent and greatness of most of the northern dioceses of the world, which makes it so extremely difficult for one man to discharge all the offices of the episcopal function. To take off the main force of which objection, I have been at some pains to show, that for the preservation of episcopacy, there is no necessity that all dioceses should be of the same extent, since there was so great differ

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