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plundered or demolished almost as soon as they had erected them. But in times of peace great multitudes of converts forsook the temples, and came over to the Church, and those, many times, persons of fortune and quality; and in some of the heathen reigns the Church enjoyed a more serene and uninterrupted gale of tranquillity, as in that happy interval of near fifty years between the death of St. Cyprian and the last persecution. And then there was a necessity to build more ample and stately churches, and they had ability to do it, and were not without hopes of continuing to enjoy their works of piety in a settled and lasting peace. So that then, in that promising interval, as Eusebius 95 observes, when Diocletian's court and family were almost all become Christians, and great multitudes of believers in all cities came over daily to the Faith; their ancient fabrics could not contain them, but they built them more ample and spacious churches in every city from the foundation. And when many of these had been destroyed in the long decennial persecution, they were again rebuilt from the ground, more lofty and beautiful than they were before, as the same Eusebius 96 words it, as soon as Constantine had revived the Christians' hopes, by publishing his

edicts in favour of their religion. Particular 3. But now there were two other reasons concurred, after ly the munificence of

the Emperors were become Christians, which contributed much Christian toward the state and magnificence of Christian churches. contributed Which were, first, the great liberality and munificence of the toward this.

Emperors themselves, who were at great expense in erecting many noble fabrics in several cities to the honour of Christ; and, secondly, their orders for converting heathen temples into churches. Constantine spared no charge to erect, beautify, and adorn churches in all parts of the East, as at Jerusalem, Antioch, Nicomedia, Mambre, Heliopolis, in Phænicia, and many other places, of which the reader that pleases may find a

95 L. 8. c. Ι. See before, ch. Ι. δυσσεβείαις ήρειπωμένον, ώσπερ εκ S. 15. p. 32. n. 57.

μακράς και θανατηφόρου λύμης ανα96 L. 10. c. 2. (ν. Ι. p. 463. 15.) βιώσκοντα θεωμένοις, νεώς τε αύθις Μάλιστα δ' ημίν, τοις επί τον Χριστόν εκ βάθρων εις ύψος άπειρον έγειρομέτου θεού τας ελπίδας ανηρτημένοις, νους, και πολύ κρείττονα την αγλαϊαν άλεκτος παρήν ευφροσύνη και τις των πάλαι πεπολιορκημένων απολαμένθεος άπασιν επήνθει χαρά πάντα βάνοντας. τόπον πρό μικρού ταϊς των τυράννων

particular account in Eusebius 97 and Socrates 98. But especially at Constantinople, where, among others, he built the beautiful church called Ecclesia Constantiniana, to the memory of the Twelve Apostles; which, as Eusebius 99 describes it, was vastly high, and yet had all its walls covered with marble, its roof overlaid with gold, and the outside, instead of tiles, covered with gilded brass. He also laid the foundation of the famous temple called Sancta Sophia, and Magna, which was finished and dedicated, thirty-four years after, by his son Constantinus, anno 360, who joined the Temple of Peace to it, (which was another church built by Constantine,) including them both in one, as Socrates 1 and the author of the Chronicon Alexandrinum2 inform us. Constantine's example was followed by the succeeding Emperors, but more especially by Justinian, who, among many other works of this nature, rebuilt the church of St. Sophia, which had been burnt down in the time of Anastatius. And now it became the glory of the world for its greatness, curious architecture, richness, and beauty; insomuch that Justinian himself, having finished it, was heard to say, “Νενίκηκά σε, Σολομών, I have outdone thee, Solomon. They who are desirous to read the particular description of this church may find it briefly delineated in Evagrius 3, Procopius+, and

97 De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c.5o tot. δε τον καιρόν τούτον, και ο βασιλεύς (ibid. p. 6ο5.) et c. 5I tot. (p. 6ο6.) την μεγάλην εκκλησίαν έκτιζεν, ήτις

98 L. Ι. cc. 16-18. (ν. 2. pp. 45, Σοφία μεν προσαγορεύεται νυν συνseqq.)

ηπται δε την επωνύμω Ειρήνη, ήν ο 99 De Vit. Constant. 1. 4. c. 58. πατήρ του βασιλέως, μικράν ούσαν το (ν. 1. p. 659. 8.) Έπί τούτοις το μαρ- πρότερον, εις κάλλος και μέγεθος ηύτύριον εν τη επωνύμω πόλει, επί μνή- ξησε και νύν εισίν εις ένα περίβολον μη των Αποστόλων οικοδομείν παρε- άμφω δρώμεναι, μιάς την προσωνυμίαν σκευάζετο. Αυτός δε νεών άπαντα εις έχουσαι. ύψος άφατον επάρας, λίθων ποικίλαις 2 Αl. Paschale, an. 36ο. p. 685. παντοίων έξαστράπτοντα επoίει, εις [Paris. 1686. p. 294.] (ap. Byαυτόν όροφον εξ εδάφους πλακώσας" Zant. Ηist. Scriptor. t. 4. p. 235 b. Ι.) διαλαβών δε λεπτοίς φαντώμασι την 'Επί της αυτής συνόδου των επισκόστέγην, χρυσώ την πάσαν εκάλυπτεν πων, ου μετά πολλές ημέρας του ενάνω χαλκός μεν άντί κεράμου, φυλα- θρονισθήναι τον Ευδόξιον επίσκοπος κήν τω έργω προς υετών ασφάλειαν Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, τα εγκαίνια της παρείχε και τούτον δε πολύς περι- μεγάλης εκκλησίας της αυτής πόλεως έλαμπε χρυσός" ως μαρμαρυγας τοίς ετελέσθη, δι' ετών λδ' μικρό προς αφ' πόρρωθεν αφορώσι ταϊς ηλίου αυγαϊς ου θεμελίους κατεβάλλετο Κωνσταναντανακλωμέναις εκπέμπειν δικτυωτά τινος. δε πέριξ έκύκλου το δωμάτιον ανάγ- 3 L. 4. c. 31 tot. (ν. 3. p. 411.) κυφα, χαλκό, και χρυσό κατειργασ- 4 De Ædific. Justinian. l. 1. c. I μένα.

tot. (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. t. 2. 1 L. 2. c.16. (ν. 2. p. 95. 25.) Κατά pp. 5, seqq.) De Sancta Sophia.

Agathias 5; but more fully and exactly by Paulus Silentiarius, and his learned commentator, Du Fresne, whose accurate knowledge in these matters exceeds all that ever came before him. I have extracted out of him such observations as I thought necessary to my own design; but they that please to peruse the whole may find it at the end of Johannes Cinnamus, among

the Byzantine Historians, published at Paris, 1670. As also 4. The other reason which I said contributed toward the their orders for convert.

magnificence of Christian churches, was the orders of several ing heathen emperors for converting heathen temples into churches. At temples into

first, indeed, whilst the reformation from heathenism was in churches. its infancy, no idol-temples were made use of as churches, but

they were either permitted to the heathen for some time, or else shut up, or demolished. Till the twenty-fifth year of Constantine, i. e. anno 333, the temples were in a great measure tolerated; but in that year he published his Laws, commanding temples, altars, and images to be destroyed; which Laws are sometimes referred to in the Theodosian Code7. And, pursuant to these Laws, a great many temples were defaced in all parts of the world, and their revenues confiscated, as appears not only from the Christian writers, St. Jerom 8, and Eusebius 9, and others, but also from the complaints of the heathen writers, Eunapius 10, Libanius 11, and Julian 12. In some of the follow

5 L. 5. sub med. (p. 152 b. c. d.) νόμενα, βασιλέως προστάγματι ετέ'Επεφρόντιστο δε οι έν τά μάλιστα ο ρων δ' ή επί τοις ορόφους στέγη, των μέγιστος του θεού νεώς, κ. τ.λ. καλυπτήρων αφαιρουμένων, έφθείρετο.

[Surnamed the Grammarian. He 10 Vit. Edesii. (p. 33.) Τούτων was secretary to the Emperor Ma- γαρ ουδέν είχομεν αναγράφειν, ότι nuel Comnenus, whose life is in- το μεν επέκρυπτεν ίσως Αιδέσιος cluded in his History. It is consi- διά τους χρόνους. Κωνσταντίνος γάρ dered the best written of the Byzan- εβασίλευε, τά τε των ιερών επιφανέtine series. It forms tome 13, Venet. .

στατα καταστρέφων, και τα των 1729, according to Mr. Darling's Χριστιανών ανεγείρων οικήματα. Cyclopædia Bibliographica, Lond.

11 Οrat. 26. Apolog. (t. 2. p. 591 1854: part. Ι. col. 665. ED.] b. ΙΙ.) Κωνστάντιον και την εκείνου

L. 9. tit. 17. de Sepulcr. Viola- βασιλείαν, δς παρά του πατρός σπινlat. leg. 2. (t. 3. p. 138.) Sed si et θήρα κακών δεξάμενος εις φλόγα πολ. præcepto judicium, &c.

λήν το πράγμα προήγαγεν ο μεν γάρ 8 Chronic. an.332.-[Ed. Vallars. εγύμνωσε του πλούτου τους θεούς an. 335.] (t. 8. p. 788.) Edicto Con- ο δε κατέσκαψε τους ναούς, και πάντα stantini gentilium templa subversa ιερόν εξαλείψας νόμον, έδωκεν αυτόν, sunt. .

οίς ίσμεν. 9 De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. C. 54. 12 Οrat. 7. (p. 424. Ι8.) Πατρώα (ν. Ι. p. 6ο9. 15.) "Ένθεν είκότως μεν ιερά κατεσκάπτετο παρά των παιεγυμνούτο μεν αυτοίς των κατά πόλιν δων, ολιγωρηθέντα πρότερον υπό του νεων τα προπύλαια, θυρών έρημα γι- πατρός, και αποσυληθέντα των αναθη

ing reigns also the same method was taken to shut up or to deface the temples, as is evident from the account which Ruffin 13 gives of the general destruction of them in Egypt by the order of Valentinian. But in the next reign, in the time of Theodosius, another method was taken with some of them. For, as Gothofred 14 observes out of the Chronicon Alexandrinum, anno 379, Theodosius turned the famous temple of Heliopolis, called Balanium, into a Christian church,— 'Εποίησε αυτό εκκλησίαν Χριστιανών.

And about the same time, Socrates 15 tells us, that when Valens had banished the two Macarii, the heads of the Egyptian monks, into a pagan island, they converted all the inhabitants, and turned their temple into the form of a church. The like was done by the famous temple of the Dea Cælestis, at Carthage, by Aurelius, the bishop, in the time of Honorius, anno 399, which the author of the book, De Prædictionibus, under the name of Prosper 16, tells with this remarkable circumstance: that it had been dedicated before, by one Aurelius, a heathen highpriest, with this inscription, Aurelius Pontifex Dedicavit ; which,' our author says, “ was left in the frontispiece to be read by all the people, because, by God's providence, it was fulfilled again in Aurelius, the bishop, for whom it served as well as the former Aurelius, when he had once dedicated it to the use and service of the Christian religion, and set his

μάτων, και τέθειτο παρά πολλών μεν ένοικούντας εν τη νήσω ευθύς ούν και άλλων, ουχ ήκιστα δε των προ- τα μην αγάλματα εξέβαλον το δε πατόρων αυτού καθαιρομένων δε των σχήμα του ναού εις εκκλησίας τύπος ιερών, ανωκοδομείτο παλαιά και νέα μετοποιήσαντες, εβαπτίζοντο, κ. τ.λ. μνήματα.

16 De Promiss. 1. 3. c.38. (append. 13 L. 2. [al. 11.] c. 28. (p. 258. p. 186 d. 1. ). .... Antistes Aurelius, b. 2.) Per cunctas Ægypti urbes, cælestis jam patriæ civis, cathedram per castella, per vicos, per omne illic loco cælestis et habuit, et sedit. rus, per ripas fluminis, per eremum Ipse tunc aderam cum sociis et amiquoque, si qua phana vel potius cis, atque (ut se adolescentium ætas busta reperiri potuerunt, instantia impatiens circumquaque vertebat) uniuscujusque episcopi subruta et dum curiosi singula quæ pro magad solum deducta sunt, ita ut denuo nitudine inspicimus, mirum quodrus culturæ redderetur, quod injuste dam et incredibile nostro se ingessit fuerat dæmonibus deputatum. aspectui, titulus æneis grandiori

14 In Cod. Theod. l. 16. t. 10. de busque literis in frontispicio templi Pagan. leg. 25. (t. 6. p. 297.) Sic conscriptus, Aurelius Pontifex Theodosius Magnus, &c.

Dedicavit. Hunc legentes populi 15 L. 4. C. 24. (v. 2. p. 244. 4.)... mirabantur. Præsago tunc Spiritu Είς πίστιν του χριστιανισμού ήγαγον acta, que prescius Dei ordo certo τόν τε ιερέα και πάντας τους εκεί isto fine concluserat. .

chair in the place of the goddess.' Not long after this, Honorius, anno 408, published two laws 17 in the Western Empire, forbidding the destruction of any more temples in cities, because they might serve for ornament or public use, being once purged of all unlawful furniture, idols, and altars, which he ordered to be destroyed, wherever they were found. These laws, as Gothofred rightly observes, seem to have been published at the instance of the African Fathers, who, as appears from one of the canons of the African Code 18, petitioned the Emperor “ that such temples as were in the country only, and private places, not serving for any ornament, might be destroyed.' Arcadius published such another law 19 for the Eastern Empire, which relates only to the destruction of temples in country places and not in cities, where now there was no such danger of superstition, since they might be converted to a better use. And upon this ground the author under the name of Prosper 20 commends Honorius for his piety and devotion, “because he gave all the temples, with their adjacent places, to the Church, only requiring the idols to be destroyed. It is true, indeed, after this we find a law of Theodosius Junior 21 commanding all temples to be destroyed. But, as Gothofred seems rightly to interpret it, the word destroying in that law is to be understood only of

17 Cod. Theod. l. 16. tit. 10. de Ot@tes, Tavtà tpúrra kellevo boi kaPagan. leg. 18. (t. 6. p. 287.) Ædes taotpaoņvai. illicitis rebus vacuas ... ne quis

19' Cod. Theod. 1. 16. tit. 10. de conetur evertere. Decernimus enim, Pagan. leg. 16. (t. 6. p. 283.) Si qua ut ædificiorum quidem sit integer in agris templa sunt, sine turba et status.—Ibid. leg. 19. (p. 288.) Ædi- tumultu diruantur. His enim deficia ipsa templorum, quæ in civita- jectis, omnis superstitionis materia tibus vel oppidis, vel extra oppida consumetur. sunt, ad usum publicum vindicen- 20 De Promiss. 1. 3. c. 38. (aptur: aræ locis omnibus destruantur. pend. p. 185 d. 13.) Honorius .

18 C. 58. (t. 2. p. 1086 b.) 'Qu Christiana religione ac devotione χάριν αιτήσαι δει τους θρησκευτικω- praeditus, templa omnia cum suis τάτους βασιλείς, ώστε τα εγκαταλείμ. adjacentibus spatiis ecclesiis conрата των ειδώλων τα κατά πάσαν την tulit ; simulque eorum simulacra 'Αφρικήν κελεύσαι παντελώς ανακο- confringenda in potestatem dedit. πηναι και γαρ εν πολλούς τόπους 21 Cod. Theod. ib. 25. (t. 6. p. 296.) Tapadalaogios kai diapópois ktń- Cuncta eorum fana, templa, delubra, σεσιν ακμάζει έτι της πλάνης ταύτης si qua nunc etiam restant integra, , η αδικία, ένα παραγγελθώσι και αυτά precepto magistratuum destrui, colαπαλειφθήναι, και οι ναοί αυτών, οι Iocationeque venerande Christiaue εν τοις αγρούς και εν αποκεκρυμμένους religionis signi expiari precipiτόποις χωρίς τινος ευκοσμίας καθε- mus.

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