catechumen, who enters the church, and stands amongst any without the

church. order of catechumens there, be found guilty of sin; if he be a kneeler, let him become a hearer, provided he sin no more: but if he sin while he is a hearer, let him be cast out of the church. Here it seems pretty evident that there was an order of catechumens not allowed to enter the church, to which such of the superior orders as had offended were to be degraded by way of punishment, which the canon calls expulsion from the church. Which does not mean utterly casting them off as heathens again, but only reducing them to that state in which they were before, when they first received imposition of hands to make them catechumens; which was a state of private instruction, before they were allowed to enter the church. Maldonate calls these the order of penitents among the catechumens ; and Balzamon and Zonaras, on this canon, style them mourners ; which expresses something of this order, but not the whole: for there were catechumens privately instructed out of the church, who were not properly mourners or penitents, as persons cast out of the church by any censure, but they were such as never had yet been in the church, but were kept at a distance for some time from that privilege, to make them the more eager and desirous of it. And till we can find a better name for these I call them, from this canon, the èfwDoúpevol, which is a general name, that will comprehend both this lowest order of catechumens privately instructed out of the church, and also such delinquents of the superior orders as were reduced back again to it by way of punishment for their faults. 3. The next degree above these were the hearers, which the Secondly,

the άκροώGreeks call åkpobjevol, and the Latins audientes. Who were so called from their being admitted to hear sermons and the entes, or Scriptures read in the church, but they were not allowed to stay any of the prayers, no, not so much as those that were made over the rest of the catechumens, or energumens, or penitents; but before those began, immediately after sermon, at the word of command then solemnly used, Ne quis audientium! Let none of the hearers be present ! they were to depart the

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χούμενος, εαν εισερχόμενος εις κυρι- γόνυ κλίνων, ακροάσθω, μηκέτι αμαρακόν εν τη των κατηχουμένων τάξει τάνων" εάν δε ακροώμενος έτι αμαρστήκη, ούτος δε αμαρτάνων" εάν μεν τάνη, εξωθείσθω.

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church. As appears from the author of the Apostolical Constitutions 50, who orders the deacon to dismiss the hearers and unbelievers with that solemn form of words, before the liturgy or prayers of the Church began. Upon which account the Council of Nice 51 calls them åkpowuévous uovov, hearers only, to distinguish them from such catechumens as might not only hear sermons, but also attend some particular prayers of the Church, that were especially offered up for them, whilst they were kneeling upon their knees, and waiting for imposition of

hands and the minister's benediction. Thirdly,

the 4. Hence arose a third sort of catechumens, which the yovukasvov- Greeks call yovukalvoutes, and the Latins genuflectentes and nuflectentes

, prostrati, that is, kneelers or prostrators. These sometimes the kneelers have the name of catechumens more especially appropriated to

them, as in the forementioned canon of the Council of Nice 52,
which runs in these terms: “ It is decreed by the great and
holy synod concerning the catechumens that have lapsed, that
they for three years shall be hearers only, and after that pray
with the catechumens again. Hence that part of the liturgy
which respected them was particularly called karnyovuévwv
cixò, the prayer of the catechumens, which came immediately
after the bishop's sermon, together with the prayers of the
energumens and penitents, as we learn from the Council of
Laodicea 53, which orders the method of them: and the forms
of these prayers are recited both in the Apostolical Constitu-
tions 54 and St. Chrysostom 55, which I do not here insert, be-
cause they will have a more proper place 56 in the Liturgy of the
Church. Together with these prayers they always received
imposition of hands, kneeling upon their knees : whence the
Council of Neocæsarea 57 and others distinguish them by the

50 L. 8. c. 5. (Cotel. v. Ι. p. 392.) λίας των επισκόπων, και των κατη... Πληρώσαντος αυτού τον της διδα- χουμένων ευχήν επιτελείσθαι» και σκαλίας λόγον...ο διάκονος, εφ' υψη- μετά το εξελθείν τους κατηχουμένους, λου τινος ανελθών, κηρυττέτω, Μή τις των εν μετανοία την ευχήν γίνεσθαι. των ακροωμένων" μή τις των απίστων. 54 L. 8. c. 6. (Cotel. v. 1. p. 393.) 51 See the next note.

Εύξασθε οι κατηχούμενοι, κ.τ.λ. 52 C. 14. (t. 2. p. 36 c.) llepi Tôv 55 Hom. 2. in 2 Cor. (t. 10. p. κατηχουμένων και παραπεσόντων, έ- 435 b. seqq.) Διά του τούτο, και τας δοξε τη αγία και μεγάλη συνόδω, ώστε ευχάς ούτω γίνεσθαι, κ.τ.λ. τριών ετών αυτούς ακροωμένους μόνον, 56 See b. 14. ch. 5. s. 3. in vol. 5. μετά ταύτα εύχεσθαι μετά των κατη- of this edition. χουμένων.

57 C. 5. See before, s. 2. n. 49, 53 C. 19. (t. 1. p. 1500 c.) Iepi preceding. του, δείν ιδία, πρώτον μετά τάς όμι

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name of yovukiivoutes, the kneelers : the prayer is called Oratio impositionis manus, the Prayer of imposition of hands, which was frequently repeated both in the public and private exercises of the catechumens.

5. Above these was a fourth order, which the Greeks call Fourthly, βαπτιζόμενοι and φωτιζόμενοι, and the Latins competentes and the comp

and electi ; all which words are used among the Ancients to denote electi, the

immediate the immediate candidates of baptism, or such as gave in their candidates names to the bishop, signifying their desire to be baptized the of baptism. next approaching festival. Their petitioning for this favour, gave them the name of competentes; and from the bishop's examination and approbation, or choice of them, they were styled electi. St. Cyril of Jerusalem, in his Catechetic Discourses 57, always terms them fwricóuevol, which, though it frequently signifies persons already baptized 58, or illuminated by the sacrament of baptism, yet in his style it denotes persons yet to be baptized, or such as had only the illumination of catechetical instruction antecedent to baptism; and so the name BUTTicóuevoi, in the author of the Apostolical Constitutions 59, is taken, not for persons actually baptized, but for those catechumens who were desirous to be baptized; whence, in the same author, the prayer that is said over these catechumens in the church is called βαπτιζομένων and φωτιζομένων ευχή, the prayer for those that were about to be illuminated and baptized : which also shows that the substrati and competentes were different orders or degrees of the catechumens, contrary to what Mr. Basnage and some others have asserted, since different prayers, at different times in the church, were offered up for them.

57 Catech. 1, 2, &c. (pp. 16, seqq.) the above-cited place in proof that Κατήχησις των φωτιζομένων εν Ιερο- believers were called οι φωτιζομένοι, σολύμοις.

the illuminati, the enlightened ones. 58 [This sense of the passive par. See v. 1. p. 31. n. 55, where, as well ticiples present, pwricópevol and as in other editions, the erratum, Batticóuevoi, is not very common: Laptopopowow, needs correction. nevertheless both terins are so em- Ed.] ployed by Jobius in Photius's Bi- 59 L. 8. c. 8. (Cotel. v. 1. p. 395.) bliotheca, Codex 222. (p. 596. 35.) “Υπέρ των βαπτιζομένων. Ο προειπών Οι φωτιζόμενοι επτά ημέρας λαμπρο- διά των αγίων σου προφητών τους μυφορούσιν. and, ibid. (p. 597. 20.) Το ουμένοις, Λούσασθε, καθαροί γίνεσθε μέντοι λαμπροφορείς τους βαπτιζο- και διά του Χριστού νομοθετήσας την μένους, κ. τ.λ. See Suicer, in voce πνευματικής αναγέννησιν αυτός και λαμπροφορέω. Refer also to b. I, νύν έπιδε επί τούς βαπτιζομένους, και ch. 4. 8. 1, where our author alleges ευλόγησον αυτούς, και αγίασον, κ.τ.λ.

and pre

How this 6. These competentes, as I said, were so called from their last order were parti.

petitioning for the sacrament of baptism, as we learn from cularly dis- St. Austin 60, who often gives this reason for it, telling us, ciplined

that upon the approach of the Easter festival, it was usual pared for for the catechumens to give in their names in order to be baptism.

baptized, whence they were called competentes, petitioners or candidates for baptism. When their names were given in, and their petition accepted, then both they and their sponsors were registered in the books of the Church; as is noted by the author, under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite 61, who brings in the bishop commanding the priests to register both the catechumen and his sponsor, or susceptor, together : and in the Council of Constantinople, under Mennas 62, there is mention made of an officer in the Church, particularly appointed to this business, one whose appropriated office it was to register the names of those who offered and presented themselves to baptism. These registers were called their diptychs; but as they had several sorts of diptychs, some for the dead and some for the living, these were particularly called dintuxa sóvrwv the diptychs, or books of the living, as is observed by Pachymeres 63, in his comment upon the foresaid

place of Dionysius. Partly by 7. When their names were thus registered, then followed frequent examina- a scrutiny or examination of their proficiency under the pretions, in Which much ceding stages of the catechetical exercises; and this was often as approved repeated before baptism, according to the direction given in

60 De Fid. et Oper. c. 6. (t. 6. p. παραδότοις ηγήσεσι του επομένου . c. t. p.

. 169 d.).... Cum fontis illius sacra- χειραγωγών.-[Ibid. part. 2. η. 5. menta peteremus, atque ab hoc com- (p. 169 a.)... ΓΙεράρχης] επιτίθησιν petentes etiam vocaremur, &c.—De αυτού τη κεφαλή την χείρα και Cur. pro Mort. c.12. (ibid. p. 525 f.) σφραγισάμενος απογράψασθαι κε

. . p. ) Pascha appropinquante [al. Pascha λεύει τους ιερεύσι τον άνδρα και τον jam propinquabat] dedit nomen in- åvádoxov. Grischov.] ter alios competentes.

62 Act. 5. (t. 5. p. 221 e.) Ως Στέ61 Hierarch. Eccles. C. 2. part. 3. φανος ο θείος και ιερώτατος διάκονος n. 4. p. 216. (t. Ι. p. 171 d.) "Ων έστι επιμαρτυρεί, ο και της προσηγορίας σύμβολον ιερόν, ή του ιεράρχου τω των εις το βάπτισμα προσιόντων έγπροσιόντι δωρουμένη σφραγίς, και γράφην τεταγμένος. των ιερέων ή σωτηριώδης απογραφή, 63 In Dionys. 1. c. part. 2. η. 5. τοις σωζομένοις αυτόν εγκαταλέγουσα, p. 234. (t. Ι. p. 18o d.) Κελεύει τους και μνημοσύνους ιερούς ανατιθείσα προς υπ' αυτόν πρεσβυτέροις και διακόνους αυτό και τον ανάδοχον, ώς της ζωο- εν δέλτοις ιεραϊς απογράψασθαι τα ποιου προς αλήθειας πορείας τον μεν, ονόματα, του τε προσελθόντος και του εραστήν αληθή και συνοπαδόν ηγεμό- αναδόχου" ταύτα δε οίμαι εισι τα των νος ενθέουτον δε, απλανή ταϊς θεο- ζώντων δίπτυχα.

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this case by the fourth Council of Carthage 64. They that themselves were approved upon such examination, were sometimes called electi, the chosen, as we find in the decrees of Pope Leo electi. Magnus 65, who speaks of them under this appellation, because they were now accepted and chosen as persons qualified for baptism at the next approaching festivals of Easter or Whitsuntide, which were the usual times of baptizing. Cardinal Bona 66 makes these electi a distinct order from the competentes : but there seems to be no ground for such a distinction, because their exercises were all the same henceforward till they arrived at baptism.

8. For as they were all examined, so they were all exorcized Partly by alike, for twenty days before baptism. This custom is often cxorcism, mentioned by the ancient writers, both of the Greek and Latin pied with Church.

imposition St. Austin 67 more than once speaks of it as the of hands, common practice of the African Church; joining examination, and the

sign of the catechizing, and exorcism together, and telling us that the fire of exorcism,' as his phrase is, always preceded baptism. We learn the same from Cyprian and the Council of Carthage, held under him about the validity of heretical baptism; for there 68 it is often said, that heretics and schismatics were first to be exorcized with imposition of hands, and then baptized, before they could be admitted as true members of the Catholic


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64 C. 84. [al. 85.] (t. 2. p. 1206 d.) eligible. Consequently all electi were

Crebra examinatione [al. ex- competentes, though all competentes aminati] baptismum percipiant. were not electi. Ed.]

65 Ep. 4. ad Episc. Sicul. c. 5. 67 In Ps. 65. (t. 4. p. 651 a.) Post (CC. t. 3. p. 1300 b.) .... In bap- ignem autem exorcismi venitur tizandis in ecclesia electis, hæc duo ad baptismum.-De Fid. et Oper. tempora, de quibus locuti sumus c. 6. (t. 6. p. 169 b.)... Suis nomiesse legitima, &c.

nibus datis, abstinentia, jejuniis, ex66 [Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 16. n. 4. orcismisque purgantur.

Ibid. (p. (p. 238.) Alii [catechumeni] in fide. ead. e.).... Ipsis diebis quibus carecte instituti baptismum petebant, techizantur, exorcizantur, scrutanet dicti sunt competentes. Qui vero tur. ex istis in albo baptizandorum de

68 C. Carth. ap. Cypr. p. 232. (p. scripti erant electi nuncupari sole- 160. n. 8.) Censeo omnes hæreticos bant.-Bona does not seem to re- et schismaticos, qui ad catholicam gard these electi as a distinct order, ecclesiam voluerint venire, non ante but rather, if we judge from the ingredi, nisi exorcizati et baptizati words ex istis referring to the ante- prius fuerint.-Ibid. p. 287. (p. 163. cedent competentes, as the approved n. 37.) Primo per manus imposiportion selected successively for the tionem in exorcismo, secundo per privilege of baptism which the others baptismi regenerationem, tunc poswere still petitioning for, though sunt ad Christi pollicitationem vethey were not yet found equally nire.

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