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Church. And we learn from thence also, that the practice was so universal, that the heretics themselves did not omit it, though it was esteemed of no effect by the Catholics when done by them, but looked upon only as a mock-practice, where one demoniac exorcized another, as Cæcilius à Bilta 68 phrases it in the same Council. Ferrandus Diaconus 69 also speaks of this exorcism, which immediately followed the scrutiny or examination of the competentes. And the like testimonies may be seen in Petrus Chrysologus 70, and the second Council of Bracara 71, for the practice of the Italic and Spanish Churches. In the last of which it is particularly specified, that these exorcisms shall continue for twenty days before baptism.

Gennadius of Marseilles 72 testifies not only for the French Church, but the universal Church throughout the whole world, that exorcisms and exsufflations were uniformly used both to infants and adult persons, before they were admitted to the sacrament of regeneration and fountain of life. And for the Greek Church in particular, though the Author of the Apostolical Constitutions, for a peculiar reason, makes no mention of this ceremony, because he represents the business of an exorcist 73, not as a standing and ordinary office in the Church, but as an extraordinary and miraculous gift of God, as it was in the age of the Apostles; yet Gregory Nazianzen and Cyril of Jerusalem are undeniable evidences of the practice. For Nazianzen, in his Oration upon Baptism 74, thus bespeaks his catechumen : * Despise not thou the medicinal office of exor

68 Ibid. p. 230. (p. 158. n. 1.)... sacramento. Apud hæreticos ... omnia per men- 71 [Al. Bracar. 3.) c. 1. (t. 5. P: dacium aguntur, ubi exorcizat dæ- 896 d.) Ante viginti dies baptismi moniacus, &c.

ad purgationem exorcismi concur69 Ep. ad Fulgent. de Catechiz. rant catechumeni, &c. Æthiop. inter Fulgent. Oper. p. 606. 72 De Dogmat. Eccles. c. 31. Illud (ap. Bibl. Max. t. 9. p. 172 h. 16.)... etiam, quod circa baptizandos in uniCelebrato solemniter scrutinio, per verso mundo sancta ecclesia uniforexorcismum contra diabolum vindi- miter agit, non otioso contemplamur catur.

intuitu: cum sive parvuli sive juvenes 70 Serm. 52. (p.83.) Hinc est quod ad regenerationis veniunt sacramenveniens ex gentibus impositione ma- tum, non prius fontem vitæ adeant, nus et exorcismis ante a dæmone quam exorcismis et exsufflationibus purgatur.--Serm. 105. (p.158.) Qui clericorum spiritus ab eis immundus solo verbo fugarat dæmones, et in- abigatur. [This passage, which, with firmitates omnes sola sanaverat jus- many other portions of the Treatise sione: quare super hanc mulierem here cited, is rejected by the Benesuas imponit manus? Quare circa dictines, (see my note on De Dogistam curandi ordinem novat, nisi mat. Eccles. c. 30, cited afterwards, quia jam tunc in una sanat omnes? b. 15. ch. 3. 8. 21.) will be found ap. Immo quia non ante suscipit eccle- Celestin. Epist. ad Gall. Episc. c. 4. siam, nisi eam, per impositionem (int. Oper. August. t. 10. append. manuum suarum, purget a diabolo, p. 134.) Ed.] et faciat Christianam : et amplius 73 L. 8. c. 26. (Cotel. v. 1. p.410.) faciendorum Christianorum curam 'Eπορκιστής ου χειροτονείται ευνοίας presentis cure fortnet, et instituat γάρ εκουσίου το έπαθλον, και χάριτος

:: cism, neither grow weary of the length or continuance of it; for

, it is a proper trial of a man's sincerity in coming to the grace of baptism.' Cyril 75 in like manner bids his catechumen, 'to receive exorcism with diligence in the time of catechizing:' for, whether it was insufflation or exorcism, it was to be esteemed salutary to the soul; for as mixed metals could not be purged without fire, so neither could the soul be purged without exorcisms, which were divine, and gathered out of the Holy Scriptures. He adds a little after, that the exorcists did thus, by the power of the Holy Spirit, cast a terror upon the Evil Spirit, and make him fly from the soul, and leave it in a salutary state and hope of eternal life. Where we may observe two things that give great light in this matter. First, why it is so often called by the Ancients the fire of exorcism; because it purges the soul, and as it were fires the Evil Spirit from it. Secondly, that these exorcisms were nothing but prayers, collected and composed out of the words of the Holy Scripture, to beseech God to break the dominion and power of Satan in new converts, and to deliver them from his slavery by expelling the spirit of error and wickedness from them.

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θεού διά Χριστού, επιφοιτήσει του ούτως άνευ επορκισμών ου δύναται “Αγίου Πνεύματος και γάρ λαβών χά- καθαρθήναι ψυχή εισί δε θείοι, εκ ρισμα ιαμάτων δι' αποκαλύψεως υπό θείων γραφών συνεκλεγμένοι ... ον θεου αναδείκνυται, φανεράς ούσης γάρ τρόπον οι της χρυσοχοϊκής εργαπάσι της εν αυτώ χάριτος.

σίας. το πνεύμα το πυρί παρεμ74 Οrat. 4ο. (t. Ι. p. 657 a.) Μη βάλλοντες, και το εν τη χώνη κεκρυμδιαπτύσης εξορκισμού θεραπείας, μηδε μένον χρυσίον αναφυσώντες την παραπρος το μήκος ταύτης απαγορεύσης: κειμένην ερεθίζοντες φλόγα ευρίσκουσι βάσανός έστι και αύτη της περί το το ζητούμενον, ούτω των επορκιζόντων χάρισμα γνησιότητος.

διά Πνεύματος θείου εμβαλλόντων τον 75 Praef. ad Catech. n. 5. [al. 9.] φόβον, και ώσπερ έν χώνη τω σώματι p. 7. (p. 7b.) Τους έπορκισμούς δέχoυ την ψυχήν αναζωπυρούντων, φεύγει μετά σπουδής, κάν έμφυσηθής, κάν μεν ο εχθρός δαίμων, παραμένει δε η επορκισθής, σωτηρία σοι το πράγμα σωτηρία, και παραμένει η ελπίς της νόμισον είναι αργόν χρυσόν, και δε- αιωνίου ζωής, και λοιπόν η ψυχή καδολωμένον, ποικίλαις ύλαις αναμεμιγ- θαρθείσα των αμαρτημάτων, έχει την μένον, χαλκό, και κασσιτέρω, και σωτηρίαν.-Conf. Catech. Ι. η. 5. σιδήρω, και μολύβδω, ζητούμεν τον p. 18. (p. 18 c.) Σχόλασον εις τους χρυσόν μόνον έχειν. Χρυσός μη δύνα- έπορκισμούς, [al. εξορκισμούς,] κ.τ.λ. ται άνευ πυρός καθαρθήναι τα ανοίκεια:

Therefore Cyril 77 in another place calls them dóyou củxns, the words of prayer, by which a devil or a demoniac, who could not be held in chains of iron by many, was often held by one, through the power of the Holy Ghost working in him; and the bare insufflation of an exorcist was a fire of sufficient force to expel the invisible spirits.

So that the whole business of exorcism, and the power of it, is to be resolved into prayer; some forms of which are now extant in the Euchologium, or Rituals of the Greek Church, published by Goar78, and in the Rituals of the ancient Gallican Church, published by Mabillon 79. From whence also it appears, that the insufflation, and imposition of hands, and the sign of the cross, which was used at the same time, as we find in the writings of St. Austin 80, and St. Ambrose 81, were only looked upon as decent ceremonies or concomitants of prayer; to whose energy, and not to the bare ceremonies, the whole efficacy and benefit of this part of the catechumens' discipline is to be attributed. For though the ceremonies be sometimes only mentioned, yet prayer is always to be understood, and to be taken for the substance of the action, whilst the other were only the circumstances of it.

9. During this same term of twenty days the catechumens

Partly by the exer

rum.

meæ...

77 Catech. 16. n. 9. [al. 19.] p. Post hæc insufflabis in os 234. (p. 254 c.) IIodákis é daluwv, ejus ter, et dices, Accipe Spiritum ο σιδηραίοις δεσμοίς υπό πολλών μη Sanctum, et in corde teneas. κρατούμενος, λόγοις ευχής έκρατήθη

80 Confess. l. 1. C. II. (t. 1. p. 76 υπ' αυτού, διά την εν αυτώ δύναμιν b.).... Et conturbata mater carnis του αγίου Πνεύματος και το απλούν

curaret ... ut sacramentis cuptonua toù étropkicovtos Tüp yive- salutaribus initiarer et abluerer, te, ται των μη φαινομένων.

Domine Jesu, confitens in remis78 Paris. 1647.(pp.335, seqq.)'Enri- sionem peccatorum, &c.—[Conf. de τιμα σε Κύριος, Διάβολε, ο παραγενό- Symbol. 1. 4. c. Ι. (t. 6. p. 575 e.) μενος εις τον κόσμον, και κατασκηνώσας Omnia sacramenta, que acta sunt έν ανθρώπους να την στην καθέλη τυ- et aguntur in vobis per ministerium pavviða kai tous åv pátous étrantai, servorum Dei, exorcismis, orationi

bus, canticis spiritalibus, insuffla79 Musæum Italicum. (t. 1. part. tionibus, cilicio, inclinatione cervi2. p. 323.) Facies signum t in eum cum, humilitate pedum ... hæc om[Christianum faciendum] et dices nia, ut dixi, escæ sunt, quæ vos symbolum. Accipe signum crucis reficiunt in utero, ut renatos ex tam in fronte, quam in corde. Sem- baptismo hilares vos mater exhibeat per etso fidelis. Templum Dei in- Christo. Ed.] gredere; idola derelinque. Cole 81 De iis qui initiantur, [al. De Deum Patrem Omnipotentem, et Mysteriis,] c.4. (t. 2. p.330 b. n. 20.) Jesum Christum filium ejus, qui Credit autem etiam catechumenus in venturus est judicare vivos, et mor- crucem Domini Jesu, qua et ipse tuos, et sæculum, per ignem, cum signatur. Spiritu Sancto, in sæcula sæculo

κ. τ. λ.

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were also exercised with abstinence and fasting, as a suitable cises of fastpreparation for their ensuing baptism. The fourth Council of ing and ab

stinence, Carthage has a canon 82 which joins all these things together : and confes· Let such, as give in their names to be baptized, be exercised

sion, and

repentance. a long time with abstinence from wine and flesh, and with imposition of hands, and frequent examination, and so let them receive their baptism.' In like manner St. Austin 83 puts abstinence, fastings, and exorcism together, and particularly mentions abstinence from the marriage-bed, during this time of preparation for baptism. So Socrates $4 tells us, when the Burgundians desired baptism of a French bishop, he first made them fast seven days. And when a certain Jewish impostor, who had been baptized by the Arians and Macedonians, came at last to Paul, the Novatian bishop, to desire the like favour of him, the same author 85 observes, that Paul would not admit him, till he had first exercised him with fasting many days, and taught him the rudiments of the Christian faith. These fastings are also mentioned by Justin Martyr and Tertullian, where they speak of men's preparation for baptism. “As many,' says Justin Martyr 56, 'as believe the things to be true, which we teach, and promise to conform their lives to the law of our religion, first of all learn to ask pardon of their by-past sins of

a

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82 C. 84. [al. 85.] (t. 2. p. 1206 d.) μενος, πολλάκις εβαπτίζετο, και διά Baptizandi nomen suum dent, et, ταύτης της τέχνης χρήματα συνελεdiu [sub] abstinentia vini et car

γετο.

Ως δε πολλάς αιρέσεις τη τέχνη nium, ac manus impositione, crebra ήπάτησε και γαρ 'Αρειανών και Μαexaminatione, [al. examinati,] bap- κεδονιανών εδέξατο βάπτισμα: μηκέτι tismum percipiant.

έχων ους απατήσειεν, τέλος ήκει προς 83 De Fid. et Oper. c. 6. (t. 6. p. τον Ναυατιανών επίσκοπον Παύλον 169 b.).... Quo sine dubio non ad- και, του βαπτίσματος επιθυμείς είπών, mitterentur, si per ipsos dies quibus διά της αυτού χειρός παρεκάλει τούeandem gratiam percepturi, suis no- του τυχείν. ο δε αποδέχεται μην αυminibus datis, abstinentia, jejuniis, του την προαίρεσιν ου πρότερον δε exorcismisque purgantur, cum suis έφη δώσειν το βάπτισμα, ει μή κατηlegitimis et veris uxoribus se con- χηθείη τον περί της πίστεως λόγον, cubituros profiterentur, atque hujus μετά του νηστείαις σχολάσαι ημέρας rei, quamvis alio tempore licite, pau- πολλάς. cis ipsis solemnibus diebus nullam 86 Apol. 2. (p. 93 e.) "Οσοι αν πειcontinentiam servaturos.

σθώσι και πιστεύωσιν αληθή ταύτα 84 L. 7. c. 30. (ν. 2. p. 379. 19.) τα υφ' ημών διδασκόμενα και λεγό... ο δε επί επτά ημέρας παρασκευ- μενα είναι, και βιούν ούτως δύνασθαι άσας νηστεύσαι αυτούς, και την πί- υπισχνώνται, εύχεσθαί τε και αιτείν στην κατηχήσας αυτούς, τη ογδόη η- νηστεύοντες παρά του θεού των προμέρα βαπτίσας απέλυσε.

ημαρτημένων άφεσιν διδάσκονται, η85 Ιbid. c.17. (p. 363. 1.) 'Ιουδαίος μών συνευχομένων και συννηστευόντις απατεών Χριστιανίζειν υποκρινό- των αυτοίς.

God, by prayers and fastings, we joining our prayers and fastings with theirs. So Tertullian 57 : “They, that are about to receive baptism, must first use frequent prayers and fastings, and geniculations and watchings, and make confession of all their former sins, in imitation of John's baptism, taking it for a favour that they are not obliged to make public confession of their flagitious crimes and offences.' Whence we may conclude, that these confessions were sometimes public, and sometimes private, as directed by the wisdom of the Church.

They who would see more of this matter may consult St. Cyril's Catechetic Discourses 88, and Gregory Nazianzen's Oration about Baptism 89, who to confession, and prayers, and fasting, add humicubations, and groans, and tears, and forgiving of enemies, as proper indications of a penitent mind, before men came to receive the seal of forgiveness at God's hand by the

ministry of his Church. Partly by 10. At this time also the competentes were taught the words learning the of the Creed, which they were obliged to get by heart, in order the Creed to repeat it before the bishop at their last examination before Lord's

baptism. This part of catechizing was often performed by the Prayer. bishop himself, as we may learn from those words of St. Am

brose 90, where he thus distinguishes the competentes from the other catechumens: 'When the catechumens were dismissed, I recited the Creed to the competentes in the baptisteries of the

and the

87 De Bapt. c. 20. (p. 232 b.) In- τίαν, ειδώς όπως 'Ιωάννης εβάπτισεν, gressuros baptismum, orationibus ίνα την εκείθεν αισχύνην, τη ενταύθα crebris, jejuniis, et geniculationibus, φύγης.-Ιbid. (p. 66o b.) Καλόν σου et pervigiliis orare oportet, et cum βοήθημα προς το τυχείν, ών επιπoθείς, confessione omnium retro delicto- αγρυπνίαι, νηστείαι, χαμευνίαι, προσrum, ut exponant etiam baptisimum ευχαι, δάκρυον, οίκτος, των δεομένων Johannis. Tinguebantur, inquit, μετάδοσις.-Ιbid. (d.) Εάν χρεωφειconfitentes delicta sua. Nobis gra- λέτην λάβης προσπίπτοντα, πάσαν tulandum est, si non publice cont- συγγραφήν άδικον και δικαίαν διάtermur iniquitates aut turpitudines σπασον μνήσθητι των μυρίων ταλάνnostras.-Vid. de Penitent. c.6. See

των, ών σοι Χριστός έχαρίσατο μη before, ch. Ι. 8. 2. p. 439. n. 4. γένη πράκτωρ πικρός του ελάττονος

88 Catech. 1. n. 5. p. 18. (p. 18 c.) χρέους, και ταυτα τίσι; τοις όμοδούΚαιρός εξομολογήσεως ο παρών έξ- λοις, και το πλέον παρά του Δεσπότου ομολόγησαι τα πεπραγμένα, τα εν λό- συγχωρηθείς, μη και της εκείνου φιγη, τα έν έργω, τα εν νυκτί, τα εν η- λανθρωπίας υπόσχης δίκην, ήν ουκ μέρα.-Ιbid. n. 6. p. 19. (p. 19 b.) εμιμήσω λαβών υπόδειγμα. Εί τι κατά τινος έχεις, άφες προσ

Ep. 33. [al. 20.] ad Marcellin. έρχη λαβείν άφεσιν αμαρτιών ανάγκη p. 158. (ε. 2. p. 853 b. n. 4.).... Di

tp και σε συγχωρήσαι τώ ημαρτηκότι. missis catechumenis, symbolum ali

89 Orat. 40. (t. 1. p. 657. a.) Mỳ quibus competentibus in baptisteriis απαξιώσης εξαγορεύσαι σου την αμαρ- tradebam basilice.

90

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