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a lighted which was peculiar in their opinion to the African Church, viz. taper in their hands the use of a lighted taper put into the hands of the catechuin the time mens in time of exorcism, to signify, as Mr. Basnage explains

it,' the illustration of the Holy Ghost;' or, as Vicecomes would have it, the power of exorcism in expelling Satan. But their observation, I think, is grounded upon a mere mistake, interpreting some words of St. Cyprian and St. Austin in a literal sense, which are only figurative and metaphorical. Cyprian 13 speaking of the power of Christians over unclean spirits, says, among many other things, that they could oblige them by their powerful stripes to forsake the persons they had possessed; that they could put them to the rack, and make them confess, and cry out, and groan; that they could scourge them with their whips, and burn them with their fire.' Where it is plain enough to any unprejudiced reader, that the fire of exorcism here spoken of is of the same kind with the whips, and stripes, and rack; that is, the spiritual and invisible power of the Holy Ghost; as Cyprian himself immediately explains them, when he

says, all this was done, but not seen; the stroke was invisible, and the effect of it only appeared to men.' So that it was not a material fire, or a lighted taper in the hands of the catechumens, that Cyprian speaks of, as Vicecomes fancies,

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illuminatur, gratia scilicet resurrec- semper ad superiora contendit, et
tionis et catechumeni ad baptismum expiationis symbolum, quod eo ve-
venturi. Et mox infra, ubi idem ar- teres in purgationibus maxime ute-
gumentum exsequitur: Cereus, qui bantur.
novo igne accenditur, novam Christi 12 Exercit. in Baron. an. 44. (p.
doctrinam, sive gratiam in Novo Tes- 488.) In Africa, ni fallor, usus lumi.
tamento, novamque gratiam, qua nox nis adhibebatur in catechismo: Au-
dominica illustratur, designat : quod gustin. in Ps. 67. Noli festinare ad
enim catechumenos præcedit ad bap- aquam, ut transeas ad aquam ; prop-
tismum, significat hoc, quod columna terea et in sacramento, et in catechi-
ignis præcedebat filios Israël, ante- zando et in exorcizando, adhibetur
quam Mare Rubrum transirent, ubi prius ignis. Eo tendebat et ille ritus,
etiam figuraliter initium sumpsit bap- ut igne significaretur Spiritus Sancti
tismus. Ex quibus Cypriani, Augus- illustratio.
tini, et Albini testimoniis, facile col- 13 Ad Donat. p. 4. (p. 3.)... Fa-
ligi potest, non modo ejus cerei figu- cultas datur ... immundos et erra-
ram in igne, qui Hebræos Rubrum ticos spiritus ... ad confessionem
Mare trajecturos plane divinitus præ- minis increpantibus cogere; ut re-
cessit, expressam esse ; verum etiam cedant duris verberibus urgere; con-
causam in mali dæmonis expulsio- flictantes, ejulantes, gementes, in-
nem, aut humanæ mentis ex Dei sa- cremento pænæ propagantis exten-
pientia illustrationem, conjici opor- dere; flagris cædere, igne torrere.
tere, quibus adjici volumús, ignem Res illic geritur, nec videtur; oc-
et fidei signum fuisse, quæ, sicut ille, culta plaga, et pæna manifesta.

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but the invisible fire or power of the Holy Ghost. And it is the same fire that St. Austin means, whose authority only is urged by Mr. Basnage to found this custom on. Helt speaks of a fire indeed in the sacraments, and in catechizing, and in exorcizing. “For whence otherwise should it be,' says he, that the unclean spirits so often cry out, I burn! if there be not a fire that burns them? From the fire of exorcism we pass to baptism, as from fire to water, and from water to a place of rest.' There is nothing in all this that can signify a lighted taper in the hands of the catechumens, which certainly has no power to burn an unclean spirit : but the fire of exorcism is the invisible fire of the Holy Ghost, that is, the energy and powerful operation of God's Spirit, which casts out devils with a word, and makes Satan fall like lightning from heaven. Though I deny not but that this custom might come into the Church in after ages : for Albinus Flaccus 15, a ritualist of the eighth century, speaks of a custom like to it, as used at least the night before the catechumens were to be baptized. For, describing the ceremonies of the vigil of the great Sabbath before Easter, he says, “A wax taper was used to be carried before the catechumens, which signified the illumination wherewith Christ enlightened that night, by the grace of his resurrection, and the catechumens coming to baptism.' And this was it that deceived Vicecomes, who would have all modern customs appear with a face of antiquity, and therefore wrested the words of St. Cyprian and St. Austin to patronise a novel ceremony, which in their days was not so much as thought of.

16. There is another mistake, which runs through the writ- What ings of many modern authors, concerning what the Ancients meant by

the sacracall the sacrament of the catechumens. They suppose, that ment of the though the catechumens were not allowed to participate of the eucharist, yet they had something like it, which they call eulogiæ, or panis benedictus, consecrated bread, taken out of

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catechumens.

14 Enarrat. in Ps. 65. p.277. (t. 4. 15 Al. Alcuin. de Divin. Offic. c. p.651 a.) Propterea et in sacramentis 19. (p. 1059 d.) Nostra columna id et in catechizando et in exorcizando est cereus præcedit catechumenos adhibetur prius ignis. Nam unde nostros. Lumen ipsius Christum immundi spiritus plerumque cla- significat, quo præsens nox illumimant, Ardeo! si ille ignis non est ? netur, [al. illustratur,) gratia scilicet Post ignem autem exorcismi venitur resurrectionis, et catechumeni ad ad baptismum, &c.

baptismum venturi.

the same oblations, out of which anciently the eucharist itself was taken. Baronius 16 was the first that maintained this opinion; and after him Bellarmin 17, Vicecomes 18, Albaspiny 19, Petavius 20, Bp. Beveridge 21, Estius 2, Maldonate 23, and many

16 An. 313. n. 55. (t. 3. p. 120 c.) tio non fiat, tamen et ex eo, quod Sanctus Augustinus ..... nominat corporis alimento comparatur, pasacramentum panem benedictum, nem, et quia sanctum, sive sanctius ipsis catechumenis impertiri soli- appellatur, a communi usu certis tum, &c.

precibus exemptum fuisse, perspi17 De Sacrament. Matrimon. 1. 1. cuum est; ut non immerito nostri c. 3. (t. 3. p. 1300 b.) Quæ sunt sa- scriptores, conjunctis nominibus, cramenta, improprie et largo quo- panem sanctificatum appellaverint. dam sensu, non solent, nisi raro et 19 Observ. ult. 1. 2. c. 36. (pp. 106, cum addito, sacramenta nominari. 107.) Inter cæteros ritus, &c. Exemplum esse potest in eo pane 20' Animadvers. in Epiphan. Exsanctificato, qui dabatur catechume- pos. Fid. (p.366.) Quum sal catechunis loco eucharistiæ ; nam eum pa- menis præberi consuetum esset, apnem vocat Augustinus sacramen- petentibus Paschatis feriis extraortum, l. 2. de Peccatorum Merit. et dinarium quiddam concessum illis Remiss. c. 26.; sed id semel tantum est. Non utique eucharistia ; nec fecit, et in eodem loco admonuit, enim tantum insanivisse quenquam eum panem non esse corpus Christi, arbitror. Neque vero per sacraet catechumenis non sufficere ad mentum intelligi puto symbolum : salutem.

sed panem ipsum ac vinum, ex quo 18 De Rit. Bapt. l. 2. c. 9. (p. eucharistia consecrata fuerat. 258. lin. ult. et p. 259.) Cum autem 21 Not. in Can. 2. C. Antioch. eucharistiæ sacramento, fidelium (t. 2. append. p. 189.) Nimirum non more, expiari non possent, optimo consecrati sunt hi

panes,

sed tantum jure factum est, ut sanctificato cum benedictione inter populos dispane (sic enim vocant) vel sale, tributi. Unde et monachi, in penis instar cælestis pabuli, reficerentur. existentes, participes eorum esse Cujus rei multos locupletes et ido- possunt ; ut ex Nicephori confes. neos authores habeo ; ut Concilium soris canonibus patet, ubi dicitur, Carthaginense I. cujus hæc sunt ex Τους όντας, κ. τ. λ. De hoc pane c. 5.: Item placuit, ut etiam post [per] etiam, ut a catechumenis accepto, solennissimos paschales dies sacra- D. Augustinus meminisse videtur, mentum catechumenis non detur, nisi ubi ait, Nam et catechumenos, sesolitum sal ; quia si fideles per illos cundum quemdam modum suum, per dies sacramentum non mutant, nec signum Christi et orationem manus catechumenis oportet mutari. Et impositionis, puto sanctificari : et S. Augustinum, qui Lib. de Peccat. quod accipiunt, quamvis non sit corMerit. et Remiss. c. 26., dum varias pus Christi

, sanctum est tamen et rationes sanctitatis acquirendæ, et sanctius quam cibi, quibus alimur. in principem amicitiæ et gratiæ Dei 22 In Sentent. l. 4: dist. 10. s. 5. locum perveniendi refert, ita loqui- [The reference is not clear. Conf. tur: Non uniusmodi est sanctifica- st. 4. p. 131 f.) Curantem Augustitio. Nam et catechumenos, secundum nus, &c. Ed.) quendam modum suum, per signum 23 [De Bapt. c. 1. (t. 1. p. 78.) Christi et orationem manus impositi. Secunda cæremonia erat, ut daretur onis puto sanctificari ; et quod ac- catechumenis statim panis quidam cipiunt, quamvis non sit corpus Chri- sanctificatus per benedictionem ecsti, sanctum est tamen, et sanctius clesiæ, qui dicebatur panis catechuquam cibi, quibus alimur, quoniam menorum, et figura corporis Christi, sacramentum est. Ubi quamvis ejus sed non erat corpus Christi, quale rei, quam probamus, expressa men- est in eucharistia. Ed.]

others, follow him in the same assertion. But the opinion is wholly grounded on a mistaken passage in St. Austin, who speaks indeed of something that, according to the language of his age, was then called the sacrament of the catechumens; but he does not say that it was consecrated bread, or part of the same eulogiæ out of which the eucharist was taken. His words are these 24 : That which the catechumens receive,

· though it be not the body of Christ, is yet an holy thing, and more holy than the common meat which sustains us, because it is a sacrament.' He gives it the name of sacrament according to the custom of that age, which was to call every thing a sacrament that had either any thing of mystery, or of spiritual signification in it. But that this sacrament was not the consecrated bread, but only a little taste of salt, we may learn from the same St. Austin 25, who, speaking of himself as a catechumen, says, ' at that time he was often signed with the cross of Christ, and seasoned with his salt.' And that it was this and no more, appears further from a canon of the third Council of Carthage 26, at which St. Austin was present, which orders, 'that no other sacrament should be given to the catechumens on the most solemn days of the Paschal festival, except their usual salt;' giving this reason for it, ' that for as much as the faithful did not change their sacraments on those days, neither ought the catechumens to change theirs. From whence it is easy to be inferred, that the sacrament of the catechumens means no more than this ceremony of giving them a little taste of the salt, like milk and honey that was given after baptism, as Cardinal Bona 27, and Mr. Aubertine 28, and Basnage 29, have

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24 Peccat. Merit. I. 2. c. 26. (t. 10. chumenis non detur, nisi solitum

62 f.) ....... Et quod accipiunt sal : quia si fideles per illos dies sa[catechumeni), quamvis non sit cor- cramenta non mutant, nec catechupus Christi, sanctum est tamen, et menis oportet mutari. sanctius quam cibi, quibus alimur, 27 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 16. n. 3. quoniam sacramentum est.

(p. 201.) Etiam eulogiæ, sive panis 25 Confess. l. 1. C. II. (t.1. p. 75 f.) reliquiæ, quæ distribui solebant post Audieram enim ego adhuc puer de missam, negabantur catechumenis, vita æterna nobis promissa per hu- &c. militatem (Filii tuis Domini Dei no- 28 De Eucharist. I. 2. (p. 650. ad stri, et signabar jam signo cruci dextr. circ, med.) Perronius et Cofet condiebar ejus sale, &c.

fetellus id de sale exponunt, et qui26 C. 5. (t. 2. p. 1167 b.) Item dem, ni fallor, rectissime.-Ibid. placuit ut etiam per solennissimos (p. 711. ad summ.) Locus ergo ille paschales dies sacramentum cate- non de panis et vini consecrati reli

catechu. mens were

rightly concluded : the design of the thing being not to give them any thing in imitation of the eucharist, or introductory to that, which they always kept hid as a secret from them; but that by this symbol they might learn to purge and cleanse their souls from sin; salt being the emblem of purity and in

corruption. How the 17. I have but two things more to observe concerning

the discipline used towards the catechumens. The one relates punished, if to those ecclesiastical censures and punishments, which were they fell into gross usually inflicted on them, in case they were found to have sins.

lapsed into any gross and scandalous offences. These being not yet admitted into full communion with the Church, could not be punished as other offenders, by being subjected to those several rules of penance as other offenders were; nor did the Church think fit to be so severe upon them,

other

penitents that lapsed after baptism : but their punishment was commonly no more but a degradation of them from one degree of catechumenship to another, or at most a prorogation of their baptism to the hour of death. This appears plainly from the fifth canon of the Council of Neocæsarea 30, which speaks thus of the several degrees of catechumens, and their punishment : • If any catechumen, who comes to church, and stands in any order of catechumens there, be found guilty of sin ; if he be a kneeler or prostrator, let him become a hearer, if he sins no more: but if he sin while he is an hearer, let him be cast out of the Church.' After the same manner it was decreed by the great Council of Nice31, 'that if any of the catechumens,’ (by

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quis, sed de sale est intelligendus, ejus sale. Hoc unum fuit sacraquod sacramentum vocatum, et ca- mentum, quod in vicem corporis techumenis sub hac ratione datum * Christi dabatur catechumenis, &c. ex Concilio Carthaginensi tertio su- [See also Steph. Morin., Dissert. pra ostendimus.

3. p. 109., cited by Fabricius, Bibl. 29 Exercit. in Baron. an. 44, (p. Antiq. c. 25. (p. 393. ult. lin.) Ca487.) Per animos virorum eruditis- techumenis, ante quam ad sacram simorum antiqua pervasit opinio, cænam admitterentur, datum sal, panem benedictum fuisse compe- velut in symbolum futuræ commutentibus erogatum : sic Bellarmi- nionis, de quo ritu vide Steph. Monus; .... sic Maldonatus ; sic Ba- rini Dissert. 3. p. 109. ED.) ronius; immo sic Breviaria Ecclesiæ 30 C. Neocæsar. c. 5. See before, Rom. atque Manualia .... Sed fal- 8. 2. p. 452. n. 49. luntur animi ; cibus ille, a catechu- 31 Č. 14. (t. 2. p. 36 c.) llepi @v menis acceptus, sal fuit, non panis. KaTnxovuévwv kai TapategóvtWv Augustinum ipsum adduco testem, δοξε τη αγία και μεγάλη συνόδω, 1. 1. Confess. c. 11. .... Condiebar wote tpi@véTôv aŭtous åkpowuévous

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