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or fourthly, by a constant partaking of the eucharist, in the
bosom of the Church. The case of 24. But it is to be observed that these allowances were infants dy chiefly made to adult persons, who could exhibit faith and retized. The pentance, the essential parts of religion, to make some compenopinion of the ancients
sation for the want of the external ceremony of baptism; but concerning as to infants the case was thought more difficult, because there
was no personal faith or repentance to be pleaded in their behalf; so that they were destitute both of the outward visible sign, and of the inward spiritual grace of baptism. Upon this account, they, who spoke the most favourably of them, would only venture to assign them a middle state, neither in heaven nor hell. As Gregory Nazianzen 76, who says, “that such children as die unbaptized, without their own fault, shall neither be glorified nor punished by the righteous Judge, as having done no wickedness, though they die unbaptized, and as rather suffering loss than being the authors of it. Severus, bishop of Antioch, follows Nazianzen in this opinion; for first he says 77, ‘that if children die unbaptized, without partaking of the laver of regeneration, they are certainly excluded from the kingdom of heaven :' but then he adds, 'that, forasmuch as they have committed no sin, they shall not undergo any punishment, or torment, but be consigned to a sort of middle state,' which he describes as a state betwixt the glory of the saints and the punishment of the damned. But this opinion of a middle state never found any acceptance among the Latins. For they make but two places to receive men after the day of judgment, heaven and hell, and concluded, that since children, for want of washing away original sin, could not be admitted into heaven, they must of necessity be in hell, there being no third place between them. St. Austin frequently insists upon this
76 Orat. 40. (t. 1. p. 653 b.) Tous τιστα τελευτήσειεν, μή μετασχόντα δε μήτε δοξασθήσεσθαι μήτε κολασθη- του της παλιγγενεσίας λουτρού, προσεσθαι παρά του δικαίου Kριτού, ως δήλως έξω της των ουρανών βασιλείας ασφραγίστους μεν, απονήρους δε, καθίσταται, διά τό τον Κύριον εν Εύαλλά, παθόντας μάλλον την ζημίαν, ή αγγελίοις απoφήνασθαι πρός Νικόδηδράσαντας.
μον, και είπείν 'Αμήν, αμήν, λέγω 77 Catena in Ioan. 3. (p. 83.) σοι, εαν μή, κ. τ. λ. Επειδή δε ουδέν Ζητείται δε λοιπόν, ει και τα παιδία, τα έπλημμέλησαν τα εν δώρω τη ηλικία αώρω τη ηλικία τετελευτηκότα, της τετελευτηκότα, ούτε κολάσεσιν ή τισι βασιλείας μετάσχειες των ουρανών βασάνοις υπάγονται, μέσην δέ τινα και προς τούτο λεκτέον: “Ως ει άφώ- τάξιν υφέξoυσι.
against the Pelagians, who distinguish between the kingdom of God and eternal life, asserting, “that children dying unbaptized, might be admitted to eternal life and salvation, though not to the kingdom of God:' whom he opposes after this manner in his books about the Merits and Remission of Sin77 : * Though,' he says, the condemnation of those shall be greater, who to original sin add actual sins of their own; and every man’s condemnation so much the greater, by how much greater sin he commits; yet original sin alone does not only separate from the kingdom of God, whither children, dying without the grace of Christ, cannot enter, as the Pelagians themselves confess; but also it excludes them from eternal life and salvation, which can be no other than the kingdom of God, into which our communion with Christ alone can introduce us.' A little after75 he says plainly, 'that children dying without baptism are under condemnation, though theirs be the mildest of any other. But he is very much deceived and deceives others, who teaches that they are in no condemnation at all, whilst the Apostle declares, “ that judgment was by one offence to condemnation.” And again, " that by the offence of one, judgment came upon
all men to condemnation.” He tells us79, upon this account the Punic Christians were used to call baptism by the name of salvation, and the sacrament of the body of Christ, life. And therefore, since no one could hope for salvation and eternal life without baptism and the body and blood of the Lord, it was in vain to promise children salvation without them.' In the same Book so he declares peremptorily against
77 De Peccat. Merit. 1. 1. c. 12. natione omnium mitissima futuros. (t. 10. p. 9 g.) Quamvis enim con- Multum autem et fallit et fallitur, demnatio gravior sit eorum, qui ori- qui eos in damnatione prædicat non ginali delicto etiam propria conjunx- futuros, dicente Apostolo, Judicium erunt, et tanto singulis gravior, ex uno delicto in condemnationem. quanto gravius quisque peccavit; Et paulo post, Per unius delictum tamen etiam illud solum, quod ori- in omnes homines ad condemnatiginaliter tractum est, non tantum a regno Dei separat, quo parvulos sine 79 Ibid. c. 24. (p. 19 e.) Optime accepta gratia Christi intrare non Punici Christiani baptismum ipsum posse, ipsi etiam confitentur; verum nihil aliud quam vitam vocant.It. et a salute ac vita æterna facit alie- (g. et p. 20 d.) Si ergo ... nec salus, nos, quæ nulla alia esse potest præ- nec vita æterna sine baptismo, et ter regnum Dei, quo sola Christi corpore et sanguine Domini cuiquam societas introducit.
speranda est, frustra sine his pro78 Ibid. c. 16. (p. 12 c.) Potest mittitur parvulis. proinde recte dici, parvulos sine bap- 80 Ibid. c. 28 (p. 30 d.) Nec est tismo de corpore exeuntes in dam- ullus ulli medius locus, ut possit esse,
the doctrine of a middle state for infants or any other. There is no middle place for any,' says he, ‘he must be with the Devil, who is not with Christ. For our Lord himself, intending to take away this opinion of a middle state, which some erroneously endeavour to assign to children dying unbaptized, as
, if by virtue of their innocence they might be in eternal life, though not with Christ in his kingdom so long as they wanted baptism, pronounced this definitive sentence to stop the mouths of these men, saying, “He that is not with me is against me." He argues against this middle state in many other places 81 against the Pelagians, and urges the necessity of baptism to take away original sin in children, and bring them by regeneration to eternal life: therefore, he says, ' men ran with their children to be baptized, because they verily believed they could not otherwise be made alive in Christ. Fulgentius 82 is
nisi cum Diabolo, qui non est cum-Ibid. 1. 2. c. 12. (p. 367 a.) Novellos Christo. Hinc et ipse Dominus vo- hæreticos Pelagianos justissime conlens auferre de cordibus male cre- ciliorum Catholicorum et sedis apodentium istam nescio quam medie- stolicæ damnavit auctoritas, eo quod tatem, quam conantur quidam par- ausi fuerint non baptizatis parvulis vulis non baptizatis tribuere, ut quasi dare quietis et salutis locum, etiam merito innocentiæ sint in vita æterna, præter regnum cælorum. Quod ausi sed quia non sunt baptizati, non sint non fuissent, nisi negarent, eos hacum Christo in regno ejus, definiti- bere originale peccatum, quod opus vam protulit ad hæc ora obstruenda esset absolvi per baptismatis sacrasententiam, ubi ait, Qui mecum non mentum.-Ibid. l. 3. c. 13. tot. (p. est, adversum me est.
382 e.) Noli credere, nec dicere, nec 81 Serm. 14. de Verb. A post. t. 10. docere, &c.—Ep. 28. ad Hieron. [al. p. 122. [al. Serm. 294. de Bapt. Lib. ad Hieron. s. Ep. 167. c. 7.]
). relictus est medius locus, ubi ponere nat ecclesiam, ubi propterea, cum queas infantes. De vivis et mortuis baptizandis parvulis festinatur et curjudicabitur : alii erunt ad dextram, ritur, quia sine dubio creditur, aliter ali ad sinistram : non novi aliud. eos in Christo vivificari omnino non Qui inducis medium, &c. — De posse. Anim. l. 1. c. 9. (t. 10. p. 343 a.) 82 De Fid. ad Petr. c. 27. See before, Verum hæc ut volet quisque accipiat, 8. 20. n. 53, preceding:-De Bapt. dum tamen de baptismo non pre- Æthiop. c. 8. (ap. Bibl. Max. c.9. scribatur Salvatoris præcepto, hujus p. 176 d.) Neque enim ab hac senlatronis exemplo: et non baptizatis tentia nostrum animum revocare deparvulis nemo promittat, inter dam- bet ulla suspicio, ne quis dicat, quod nationem regnumque cælorum, quie- ille salvus esset, si nec ad ipsam tis vel felicitatis cujuslibet atque ubi- tinctionem corporis pervenisset, cum libet quasi medium locum. Hoc utique non dicamus, illum sine bapenim eis etiam hæresis Pelagianatismi sacramento, sola confessione, promisit, quia nec damnationem me- potuisse salvari. Qui enim credidetuit parvulis, quos nullum putat ha- rit, et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit. bere originale peccatum, nec sperat Illum utique adolescentem, quia creeis regnum cælorum, si non perve- didisse, et confessum fuisse novimus, niunt ad baptismatis sacramentum. ideo per sacramentum baptismatis
rather more peremptory and severe than St. Austin : he says, • It is to be believed without all doubt, that not only men, who are come to the use of reason, but infants, whether they die in their mother's womb, or after they are born, without baptism, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are punished with everlasting punishment in eternal fire, because though they have no actual sin of their own, yet they carry along with them the condemnation of original sin from their first conception and birth.'
The author under the name of Justin Martyr 83, also speaking of infants, says, “there is this difference between those that die baptized, and those that die unbaptized, that the one obtain the benefits that come by baptism, which the other do not obtain.' And the author of the Hypognostics 84, under the name of St. Austin, who is supposed by learned men to be either Marius Mercator, or Sixtus, bishop of Rome, disputing against the Pelagians, treads exactly in the steps of St. Austin; for he says, 'there is no middle state between heaven and hell ; a third place for unbaptized infants is no where mentioned in Scripture. This was only an invention forged in the shop of the Pelagians, to find out a place where infants might have rest and glory without the grace of Christ. These are pretty
' salvum fuisse firmamus. Qui si non fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, non baptizaretur, non solum nesciens, potest introire [al. non introibit] in sed etiam sciens, nullatenus salvare- regnum cælorum. Intrare quippe in tur. Via enim salutis fuit in confes- regnum cælorum non aliud est, sione, salus in baptismate. Nam, in quam [in] vita beata vivere, quæ illa ætate, non solum ei confessio permanet in sæcula sæculorum. sine baptismate nihil prodesset, sed Ecce non baptizatus, vitali etiam nec ipsum baptisma non credenti cibo poculoque privatus, dividitur a neque confitenti ullatenus proficeret regno cælorum, ubi fons viventium ad salutem. Ideo ergo illi Deus con- permanet Christus. Da mihi præter fessionem prodesse voluit, quia eum hunc alterum locum, ubi vita possit usque ad sanctam regenerationem in requies esse perennis. Primum enim hac vita servavit. Donum itaque locum fides catholicorum divina sanctæ regenerationis sicut ille, quia auctoritate regnum credit esse cævoluit, petivit; sic Deus, quia voluit, lorum, unde, ut dixi, non baptizatus dedit.
excipitur : secundum gehennam, 83 Quæst. et Respons. ad Ortho- ubi omnis apostata vel a Christi fide dox. 9:56. (p.424 a.) Aún éotiv ń alienus, æterna supplicia experietur : διαφορά των βαπτισθέντων προς τα tertium penitus ignoramus, immo μη βαπτισθέντα του τυχεϊν μεν τα nec esse in Scripturis sanctis inBattiolévta Tôv dià toù Bantlouatos venimus. Finge, Pelagiane, locum αγαθών" τα δε μη βαπτισθέντα, μη ex oficina perversi dogmatis tui, τυχείν.
ubi alieni a Christi gratia vitam re84 Lib. 5. c. 5. (t. 10. append. quiei et gloriæ possidere parvuli part. 1. p. 40 a.) Si quis non renatus possint.
severe expressions, and yet, considering the state of the controversy between the Catholics and Pelagians, there seems to have been pretty good reason for them. For Pelagius said, 'there was no original sin nor any need of baptism to wash away the guilt of it, but children might obtain salvation and eternal life, distinct from the kingdom of God, without it.' In opposition to this, the Catholics maintained the necessity of baptism for infants, as well as adult persons, to purge away original sin, and procure eternal life for them. But they have not so plainly told us, whether there be any excepted cases as to what concerns infants, as they have concerning adult persons; whether a bare want of baptism in the child, when there was no contempt or neglect of baptism in the parent, but an unavoidable necessity and sudden death intervening, debars the child from the kingdom of heaven?
Among all the Ancients, only Fulgentius, [as cited just before,] has declared absolutely against the salvation of infants dying before the birth in the mother's womb. But others seem to speak more favourably, except where the parents were guilty of a contempt or neglect of baptism, in not bringing their children to be baptized when they had time and opportunity to do it, in which case the child might fail of salvation for the parents' fault, and there be no impeachment of God's justice or mercy in the punishment. This seems to have been the judgment of that excellent author, who wrote the book De Vocatione Gentium, which goes under the name of Prosper or St. Ambrose. For he gives this reason, why this doctrine about the necessity of baptism for the salvation of infants was so earnestly pressed upon men; that parents might not be remiss or negligent in bringing their children to baptism; which they certainly would be, if they were once possessed with an opinion that there was no necessity of baptism to salvation. We ought not to believe,' says he $4, in general terms, “ that they, who obtain not the sacrament of regeneration, can appertain to the society of the blessed: for
84 De Vocat. Gent. 1. 2. c. 8. Cal. autem latet quantum cordibus fide20.] (p. 909 a. 1.) Neque enim credilium desidiæ gigneretur, si in baptifas est, eos, qui regenerationis non zandis parvulis nihil de cujusquam adepti sunt sacramentum, ad ullum negligentia, nihil de ipsorum esset beatorum pertinere consortium. mortalitate metuendum. Ibid. [al. c. 24.] (p. 912 b. 7.) Non