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despoiling them of their superstition, because it follows in the same law that they were to be expiated by placing the sign of the cross upon them, which was a token of their being turned into churches. And his observation may be confirmed further from what Evagrius 22 reports of Theodosius : that he turned the Tychæum, or Temple of Fortune, at Antioch, into a church, called by the name of Ignatius. The like was done by a great temple at Tanis, in Egypt, as Valesius 23 has observed out of the Itinerary of Antoninus, the martyr. Cluver also, in his Description of Italy 24, takes notice of a place in the Jerusalem Itinerary, called Sacraria, betwixt Fulginum and Spoletum, near the head of the river Clitumnus, which he thinks was originally no other than the temple of Jupiter Clitumnus: though another learned antiquary 25 makes it something doubtful as to the present church now standing there. However we have seen instances enough of this practice; and Bede 26 tells us, 'that Gregory the Great gave Austin, the monk, instructions of the same nature, about the temples here among the Saxons in Britain,—that if they were well built they should not be destroyed, but only be converted from the worship of devils to the service of the true God;' and so, he observes, it was done at Rome, where, not long after, Boniface IV. turned the heathen temple, called the

22 L. I. C. 16. (v. 3. p. 271. 6.) ut ostendunt fragmenta quædam ... YTTo ejévou ToŨ Travayáčov OcoŮ vetusta parietibus inserta, &c. θεοδοσίω, τον θεοφόρον μείζοσι τι- 26 Hist. 1. 1. c. 30. (p. 71.8.) Cum μήσαι τιμαίς, ιερόν τε πάλαι τοις ergo Deus omnipotens Vos ad reδαίμοσιν ανειμένον, Τυχαίον τοις έπι- verentissimum virum fratrem noχωρίοις ωνόμαστο, το άθλοφόρω και strum Augustinum episcopum permáptvpı åvadeivai kai onkòs evayns, duxerit, dicite ei, quid diu mecum και τέμενος άγιον τω Ιγνατίω το de causa Anglorum cogitans tracπάλαι Τυχαίον γέγονε, κ. τ.λ. tavi : videlicet quia fana idolorum

23 In Sozom. 1. 5. c. 21. (v. 2. p. destrui in eadem gente minime de213. 1. 2.) Immensum fuit ibi tem- beant: sed ipsa, quæ in eis sunt plum, quod modo est ecclesia, etc. idola, destruantur; aqua benedicta

24 Ital. Vet. (p. 702.) Sacraria ista fiat, in eisdem fanis aspergatur, nulla alia fuere, nisi quæ ab initia altaria construantur, reliquiæ poad varios Clitumni fontes variis nantur. Quia si fana eadem bene Jovis Clitumni nominibus nunini- constructa sunt, necesse est, ut a busque posita, ea haud dubie postea cultu dæmonum in obsequio veri in Christianæ religionis usum con- Dei debeant commutari ; ut dum

gens ipsa eadem fana sua non videt 25 Holsten. in Cluver. loc. cit. (pp. destrui, de corde errorem deponat, 123, 124.) Templum sane antiquis- et, Deum verum cognoscens ac adsimum, &c. .... Hæc quoque ejus- orans, ad loca, quæ consuevit, fadem antiquitatis sunt cum priore, miliarius concurrat.

versa.

Pantheon, into the church of All Saints 27, in the time of the Emperor Phocas. Sometimes the temples were pulled down, and the materials were given to the Church, out of which, new edifices were erected for the service of religion, as Sozomen 28 and Ruffin 29 particularly observe of the temples of Bacchus and Serapis at Alexandria. I have already shewed 30, out of Ausonius, that the Roman halls, or basilica, were likewise turned into churches. The like is reported of some Jewish synagogues, by the author of the Chronicon Alexandrinum 31, who takes notice particularly of a synagogue of the Samaritans, in a place called Gargarida, which Zeno, the Emperor, converted into a large Christian church.

And though it is not agreed by learned men whether the temples said to be built by Hadrian were intended for the worship of himself or the worship of Christ; (for Casaubon 32

27 Ibid. 1. 2. c. 4. (p. 83. 14.) Hic Sever. p. 179. (int. August. Hist. est Bonifacius, quartus a Beato Gre- Scriptor. p. 568. n. 2.) De Tiberio gorio Romanæ urbis episcopo, qui narrant hoc Tertullianus et alii Paimpetravit a Focate principe donari tres Græci ac Latini; de Hadriano ecclesiæ Christi templum Romæ, vero nemo illorum, si satis memini, quod Pantheon'vocabatur ab anti- simile quicquam. [Et mirum , nium deorum. In quo ipse, elimi- tot fidei Christianæ propugnatores nata omni spurcitia, fecit ecclesiam acerrimos, viros undecunque docsanctæ Dei genetricis atque omnium tissimos, et quorum intererat hoc martyrum Christi; ut, exclusa mul- scire, potuisse fugere. Sed videtur titudine dæmonum, multitudo ibi hæc de Hadriano suspicio, multo sanctorum memoriam haberet. post ejus sæculum, hominum men

28 L. 7. c. 15. (v. 2. p. 296. 39.) tes insedisse: quum neque Justinus Υπό δε τούτον τον χρόνον, Αλεξαν- Martyr, neque Athenagoras, neque Opéwv étio KOTOS map' aŭtois Alo- Tertullianus, neque Cyprianus, aut νύσου ιερον εις εκκλησίαν μετεσκεύαζε omnino quisquam ex illa veterum δώρον γάρ ειλήφει τούτο παρά του Patrum Imanu, vel tenuissimam ejus Baordéws.--Ibid. (p. 298. 19.) Tò mèvrei suspicionem fando unquam acδη Σεράπιον ώδε ήλω, και μετ' ού cepissent. Unde autem vulgo multi πολύ εις εκκλησίαν μετεσκευάσθη, seculo Lampridii hanc de Hadriano 'Αρκαδίου του βασιλέως επώνυμον. concepissent opinionem, declarat

29 L. 2. Cal. 11.) c.27 (p. 257 b.19.) auctor, quum subjicit ; Qui templa Flagitiorum cavernæ ac veternosa in omnibus civitatibus sine simubusta dejecta sunt, et veri Dei tem- lacris jusserat fieri : quæ hodie idpla ecclesiæque celsæ constructæ. circo, quia non habent numina, di

30 See ch. s. 8. 5. p. 8, preceding. cuntur Hadriani, quod ille ad hoc

31 Al. Paschale, an. 10. Zenon. p. parasse dicebatur. En fontem et 757. (Paris. 1686. p. 327.] (ap. By- originem hujus opinionis.] Jusserat zant. Hist. Scriptor. t.4. p. 260b. 3.) Hadrianus templa fieri in omnibus 'Etroinge try ouvayvwyniv

avtwv, onu civitatibus, suo nomini, sine dubio, oủoav eis tò kaloújévov l'apyapídnv, consecranda : quod et Spart. in Vita ευκτήριον οίκον μέγαν, κ. τ.λ. illius testatur; sed mortuo Hadriano

32 In Lamprid. Vit. Alexandr. prius, quam hæc templa absolveren

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and Pagi 33 think he designed them for himself; whilst Huetius 34 defends Lampridius's relation, who says he designed them for the honour of Christ ;) yet it is certain, that after they had been used to other purposes, they were at last, some of them, turned into Christian churches. For Epiphanius 35 says there was a great temple at Tiberias, called the Hadrianum, which the Jews made use of for a bath ; but Josephus Comes, the converted Jew, in the time of Constantine, turned it into a church. And the like was done by another of them, by Athanasius, at Alexandria, having before been the hall or palace of Licinius, as the same Epiphanius 36 informs

So that now, partly by the munificence of the Emperors, building churches at their own charge, and partly by their orders for converting heathen temples into churches, and

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tur, mansere pleraque illorum im- ad eum locum observat, de Tiberio perfecta, neque unquam dedicata narrant hoc Tertullianus et alii Pasunt. Exemplo potest esse illud, tres Græci ac Latini, &c. ..... Jusquod Tiberiade magnifice inchoa- serat Hadrianus templa fieri in omtum, mox relictum est nec dum nibus civitatibus suo nomine sine absolutum, tandemque in usum bal- dubio consecranda : quod et Sparnearum a civibus destinatum. Epi- tianus in illius Vita testatur. phanius contra Ebionitas : Nads

34 Demonstrat. Evangel. prop. 3. JOTOS, K.T... (See note 35, follow- S. 23. (v. I. p. 65.) Addit Lampriing.) Talia ædificia in plerisque dius, &c. civitatibus adhuc Lampridii ætate 35 Hær. 30. Ebion. n. 12. (t. 1. exstabant, inchoata solum, non per- p. 136 b.) Naòs de péyiotos èv TỶ fecta, non dedicata : ac proinde, ut πόλει προϋπήρχε, τάχα οιμαι 'Αδριάait ipse, sine numine et simulacro νειον τούτο εκάλουν ατελές δε τουτο ullo. Εο factum, ut in animum το 'Αδριάνειον διαμένον τάχα οι πολίinducerent multi, quibus hic assen- ται εις δημόσιον λουτρόν επειρωντο titur Lampridius, non sibi Hadria- επισκευάσαι: όπερ ευρών ο Ιώσηπος, num illa templa exstruxisse, verum εκ τούτου την πρόφασιν έσχε, και ως Christo, &c.

ήδη εύρε διά τετραπήχων λίθων τε33 Crit. in Baron. an. 134. n. 4. τραπέδων, έως ύψους τινός ανεγη(t. Ι. p. 130.) Quod ad Lampridium γερμένον, εντεύθεν άρχεται ποιείσθαι spectat, is de Alexandro Severo in της εκκλησίας την επιμέλειαν, κ. τ.λ. ejus Vita, c. 43. (int. Aug. Hist. Scrip- Ibid.(p.137 b.)ToXákis dèkakoúvtov tor. p. 568.) loquens, ait: Christo Tòv ävòpa ékeivov, eis ūotepov wépos templum facere voluit, eumque inter τι του ναού έν Τιβεριάδι οικοδομήσας, deos recipere; quod et Hadrianus και μικράν εκκλησίαν αποτελέσας, cogitasse fertur, qui templa in omni- oŰTWS éreidev ávexópnoev. bus civitatibus sine simulacris jus- 36 Hær. 69. Arian. n. 2. (t. 1. serat fieri : quæ hodie idcirco, quia p. 728 b.) Eigi toivuv Taeious tòy non habent numina, dicuntur Ηα- αριθμόν εν τη Αλεξανδρεία συν τη driani, quæ ille ad hoc parasse dice- vũv Ktlodeion Kaloapeią kalovbatur: sed prohibitus est ab iis, qui, névn, 8 apótepov'Adpravov érúyxavev, consulentes sacra, repererant omnes ύστερον Λικινιανόν γέγονε γυμνάσιον, Christianos futuros, si id optato cirouv Barthelov METÉTELTA &ė év xpóevenisset, et templa reliqua dese- νοις Κωνσταντίου έδοξεν αυτήν οικοrenda. Sed, ut Casaubonus in notis dounoņval érkanolav, k. 7.d.

BINGHAM, VOL. III.

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partly by the great liberality and zeal of private Christians, in times of peace, churches became another thing from what they were in former ages, that is, more noble and stately edifices, more rich and beautiful, under which advantage we are next to take a view of them in the following part of this Book.

CHAP. III.
Of the different forms and parts of the ancient churches.

And first of the exterior narthex, or ante-temple. Churches 1. It may easily be collected from what has been discoursed anciently in the former chapter, that anciently churches were not all of different forms. built precisely in one form or figure; for since both heathen

temples and public halls were turned into churches, it can hardly be imagined, that all these should happen to be built exactly in the same form. Nor indeed was there

any

universal rule among Christians about this matter. The author of the Constitutions 34 seems to intimate that they were generally oblong, in the figure of a ship. This figure was otherwise called dromical, Opouckòv, because, as Leo Allatius 35 and Suicerus 36 after him conjecture, churches built in this form had void spaces for deambulation. And this is said to be the figure of the famous church of Sancta Sophia, at Constantinople, by Paulus Silentiarius and other writers. But this figure was not so general but that we meet with churches in other forms; for the church which Constantine built over our Saviour's sepulchre at Mount Golgotha was round, as we learn from Eusebius 37 and Walafridus Strabo38. That which

34 L. 2. C.57. (Cotel. v. 1. p. 261.) projecturis asserum tegantur. Cur Και πρώτον μεν ο οίκος έστω επιμή- autem δρομικά vocentur, explicatu κης, κατ' ανατολάς τετραμμένος εξ non est facile: si quid tamen conéxaTépwv twv mepôv maotopópia jecturæ dandum, videntur a deamπρος ανατολήν, όστις έoικε νηϊ. bulatione, qua per tabulas super

35 De Templ. Græcor. (p. 164.) trabibus expansis a facie templi ad Apouirà sunt, &c. See the next sanctuarium ipsum progrediuntur, note.

nomen habere : ex iis enim inferius 36 Thes. Eccles. voce, Naós. (t. 2. templi spatium universum hac atpp. 389, 390.) Alia (nempe templa] que illac percurrebatur. Sic dicta sunt Spouká, quæ forma quadrata, a Spóuos, quod cursum et pervagalateribus paribus, vel imparibus, tionem significat. substructa sunt; quorum in culmine 37 De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 38. asseres, seu trabes cantheriis colli. (v. 1. p. 599. 13.) Tò kepalalov Toù gantur, et tegulis superpositis con- mavròs ñulopaipiov nv, k. 7.d. teguntur; adeo ut templi parietes 38 De Reb. Eccles. c. 4. (ap. Bibl.

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