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he built at Antioch, Eusebius says 39, was an octagon; and such was the church of Nazianzum, built by Gregory the father of Gregory Nazianzen, as we find in the son's Funeral Oration 40 upon his father, who describes it as having eight sides equal to one another.
Other churches were built in the form of a cross, as that of Simeon Stylites mentioned by Evagrius 41; and the church of the Apostles, built by Constantine at Constantinople, was in this form likewise, as we learn from Gregory Nazianzen in his Somnium Anastasia, who thus describes it 42:
Σὺν τοῖς καὶ μεγάλαυχον ἕδος Χριστοῖο Μαθητῶν,
Among these stood the stately church of the Apostles of Christ, dividing itself into four wings in the form of a cross. These were sometimes made so by the addition of a wing of building on each side, (which wings the Greeks called apsides,) as Cedrenus 43 and Zonaras observe in the Life of Justin Junior, who added two of these apsides to the church of Blachernæ, and so made it resemble the form of a cross. Valesius 44 has also observed out of the Itinerary of Antoninus, the martyr, that the church which Constantine built at Mambre was in a quadrangular or square figure, with an open court in the middle, so as one part of it was made use of by the Jews, and the other by the Christians. Some churches were also called
Max. t. 15. p. 183 d. 19.) Verissima relatione didicimus in ecclesia, quam apud Aliam Constantinus Imperator, cum matre Helena, super sepulchrum Domini miræ magnitudinis in rotunditate constituit, &c. See n. 51, following.
t. 8. p. 308 c. 3.) To тel pέαTо Ἰουστῖνος κτίζειν τὸν ναὸν τῶν ἁγίων ̓Αποστόλων Πέτρου καὶ Παύλου ἐν τῷ Ορφανοτροφείῳ· προσέθηκε δὲ καὶ εἰς τὸν ναὸν τῶν Βλαχερνῶν τὰς δύο ἀψίδας, καὶ ἐποίησεν αὐτὴν στρωτήν. [Eravρwrny, in the margin, which is the reading according to Suicer's citation, (voce Naós. t. 2. p. 389. n. 3.) who cites Zonaras also, Annal. 1. 14, 10. ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor. 40 Orat. 19. (t. 1. p. 313 C.) 'OKT t. 12. p. 55 c. 5.)... Kaì ràs ávídas μὲν ἰσοπλεύροις εὐθείαις εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἄμφω τῷ ναῷ τῷ ἐν Βλαχέρναις προσέἀπαντῶντα, κιόνων δὲ καὶ στοῶν κάλ-θετο ἐκ καινῆς, ὡς εἶναι τοῦτον σταυρολεσι δι ̓ ὀρόφων, εἰς ὕψας αιρόμενον, ειδή. ED.] κ. τ. λ.
39 De Vit. Constant. 1.3. c. 50. (v. 1. p. 605. 40.).. Tòv EvкTηplov oikov eis ἀμήχανον ἐπάρας ὕψος, ἐν ὀκταέδρου μὲν συνεστῶτα σχήματι.
41 L. 1. c. 14. (v. 3. p. 268. 15.) Ἡ δὲ τοῦ νεὼ οἰκοδομία σύγκειται μὲν σταύρου δίκην.
42 Carm. 9. (t. 2. p. 79 a.)
43 Vit. Justin. in Compend. Hist. p. 390. (ap. Byzant. Hist. Scriptor.
44 Not. in Euseb. de Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. 53. (v. 1. p. 608. 1.) Est ibi [Mambre] basilica difcata per quadrum, et atrium in medio discoopertum; et per medium cancellum ex uno latere intrant Christiani, ex alio vero Judæi, &c.
And different situa
octachora; but, as Valesius rightly observes, those were the same with the octagones, as appears from this ancient inscription in Gruter 44:
Octachoruin sanctos templum surrexit in usus,
Octagonus fons est munere dignus eo.
Suicerus and Allatius, [as cited just before,] take notice also of another form of churches, which they call τρουλλωτὰ, κυλιν δρωτὰ, θολωτὰ, and κυκλοειδή, that is, round in the figure of an arch, or a sphere, or a cylinder, or a shield, or a circle, as the Pantheon at Rome was said to be. But this, properly speaking, was not so much the form of a church, as the figure of one part of some churches, as particularly that of Sancta Sophia, the body of which was built in the form of a trulla, that is, a great round arch, or sphere; but yet the whole was oblong, resembling the form of other churches: as the reader may judge by comparing the several figures in the following table, [at the end of this volume of this edition,] whereof one is that of Sancta Sophia, taken from Du Fresne's Constantinopolis Christiana, another from Dr. Beveridge in his Pandects, a third from Leo Allatius, and a fourth from Goar; all of which being contracted and put together by Schelstrate, in his Concilium Antiochenum Restitutum are here represented from his copy, with the proper names referring to each part of them. To these I have added another figure, representing the stately church of Tyre, built by Paulinus, and described by Eusebius in his panegyrical oration upon the church and the founder of it, which the curious reader may see at large in the tenth Book of his Ecclesiastical History 45. I shall here in a great measure follow his description, as one of the most ancient and authentic that we have, only intermixing such other things as are necessary to explain the forms and parts of other churches, since, as I have observed, they were not all alike, but differed in form, in site, and in several parts from one another.
2. To begin with their situation or posture. They were comtions from monly so placed, as that the front or chief entrances were toward the west, and the sanctuary or altar-part toward the east; yet in some churches it was otherwise, as is evident from
44 Thesaur. (p. 1166. n. 8.)
this plan also at the end of this 45 C. 4. (v. 1. pp. 464, seqq.) See volume with the others.
See VIII. iii. 2 et seqq. Vol. 3. pp. 52 seqq.)
ylæum or Vestibulum Magnum, the great Porch or first Entrance
Miravalov, Atrium or Area leading from the Porch to the Church.
great Gate into the Church.
two lesser Gates on each side of the other.
Northern and Southem Gates.
Cloisters on the North and South side the Church.
Ferula or Interior Narthex where the Catechumens and Hearers tood with Jews and Gentiles.
Place of the Substrati, or third Degree of Penitents,
ehind the Ambo.
Ambo or Reading Desk.
Ascent on both sides the Ambo.
LocuInner Porticoes or Cloisters for Men below.
Catechumenia or Hyperoa, Upper Galleries for Women, above he Porticoes of the Men, upon Pillars.
elli Bematis, the Rails of the Chancel.
Bema or Chancel
Altar or Communion Table.
úgyos or Ciborium, the arched Canopy built round the Altar. Love Bishop's Throne with the
d Thrones of Presbyters in a Semicircle about the Altar. Loctonicum Minus, the Inner Vestry.
hesis or Paratorium.
ophylacium or Diaconicum Magnum, the great Repository Greeting House.
Font in the middle of the Baptistery.
ophoria, Dwelling-houses for the Clergy, with Schools,
ibraries, &c., on each side the Church.
llegißoxes or utmost bounds allowed for Refuge or Sanctuary.