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send spiritual wickednesses, and the transgressing and apostate angels, with all ungodly, unrighteous, lawless and blaspheming men into everlasting fire; but grant life to all righteous and holy men, that keep his commandments and persevere in his love, some from the beginning, others after repentance, on whom he confers immortality, and invests them with eternal glory. This faith,' he says 33,was the same in all the world; men professed it with one heart and one soul: for though there were different dialects in the world, yet the power of the faith was one and the same. The Churches in Germany had no other faith or tradition than those in Iberia or Spain, or those among the Celtæ, that is, France, or in the East, or in Egypt, or in Libya, or in the middle parts of the world, by which he means Jerusalem and the adjacent Churches, which were reckoned to be in the midst of the earth. But as one and the same sun enlightened all the world; so the preaching of this truth shined all over, and enlightened all men that were willing to come to the knowledge of truth. Nor did the most eloquent ruler of the Church say any more than this; (for no one was above his master ;) nor the weakest diminish any thing of this tradition : for the faith being one and the same, he that said most of it could not enlarge it, nor he that said least take any thing from it.'

The reader will easily perceive, that Irenæus by this one faith did not mean the express form of words now used in the Apostles' Creed; for his words differ much in expression from that, though in sense and substance it be the same faith,

33 Ιbid. c. 3. (p. 46. 1.) Τούτο το εν Λιβύη, ούτε αι κατά μέσα του κήρυγμα παρειληφυία και ταύτην την κόσμου ιδρυμέναι· αλλ' ώσπερο ήλιος, πίστιν....η εκκλησία, καίπερ εν όλω το κτίσμα του θεού, εν όλο το κόσμο τω κόσμω διεσπαρμένη, επιμελώς φυ- είς και ο αυτός ούτω και το κήρυγμα λάσσει, ως ένα οίκον οικούσα'. και της αληθείας πανταχή φαίνει, και ομοίως πιστεύει τούτοις, ως μίαν ψυ- φωτίζει πάντας ανθρώπους τους βουχήν και την αυτήν έχουσα καρδίαν, λομένους εις επίγνωσιν αληθείας ελ. και συμφώνως ταύτα κηρύσσει, και θείν και ούτε ο πάνυ δυνατός εν λόγω διδάσκει, και παραδίδωσιν, ώς έν στό- των εν ταις εκκλησίαις προεστώτων μα κεκτημένη και γάρ αι κατά τον έτερον τούτων έρεί ουδείς γαρ υπέρ κόσμον διάλεκτοι ανόμοιαι, αλλ' τον διδάσκαλον" ούτε ο ασθενής εν τω δύναμις της παραδόσεως μία και η λόγω ελαττώσει την παράδοσιν" μιάς αυτή και ούτε αί έν Γερμανίαις ιδρυ- γάρ και της αυτής πίστεως ούσης, μέναι εκκλησίαι άλλως πεπιστεύκασιν, ούτε και πολύ περί αυτής δυνάμενος ή άλλως παραδιδόασιν, ούτε εν ταις ειπείν έπλεόνασεν, ούτε και το ολίγον Ιβηρίαις, ούτε εν Κελτοις, ούτε κατά ελαττόνησε. τας ανατολάς, ούτε εν Αιγύπτω, ούτε

BINGHAM, VOL. III.

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The Creed

and that which was then preached and taught over all the Churches.

2. There is another such form of apostolical doctrine colof Origen. lected by Origen in his Books of Christian Principles 34, where

he thus delivers the rule of faith : The things which are manifestly handed down by the apostolical preaching, are these. First, that there is one God, who created and made all things, and caused the whole universe to exist out of nothing; the God of all the just that ever were from the first creation and foundation of all; the God of Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Enoch, Noe, Sem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the twelve Patriarchs, Moses, and the Prophets : and that this God in the last days, as he had promised before by his prophets, sent our Lord Jesus Christ, first to call Israel and then the Gentiles, after the infidelity of his people Israel. This just and good God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, gave both the Law and the Prophets, and the Gospels, being the God of the Apostles, and of the Old and New Testament. The next article is, that Jesus Christ, who came into the world, was begotten of the Father before every creature, who ministering to his Father in the creation of all things, (for by him all things were made,) in the last times made himself of

34 [Iepi 'Apxôv, in Præfat. t. 1. p. Testamenti. Tum deinde quia Jesus 665. (t. 1. p. 47 c.) Species vero Christus ipse, qui venit, ante omnem eorum, quæ per prædicationem apo- creaturam natus ex Patre est: qui, stolicam inanifeste traduntur, istæ cum in omnium conditione Patri sunt. Primo, quod unus Deus est, ministrasset, (per ipsum enim omnia qui omnia creavit atque composuit, facta sunt,) novissimis temporibus quique ex nullis [al. cum nihil esset] seipsum exinaniens homo factus est : fecit esse universa ; Deus a prima incarnatus est cum Deus esset, et creatura et conditione mundi om- homo [factus] mansit, quod Deus nium Justorum, Deus Adam, Abel, erat. Corpus assumpsit nostro corSeth, Enos, Enoch, Noe, Sem, pori simile, eo solo differens quod Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, duodecim natum ex virgine de Spiritu Sancto Patriarcharum, Moysis, et Prophet- est. Et quoniam hic Jesus Christus

Et quod hic Deus in novis- natus, et passus est in veritate, et simis diebus, sicut per Prophetas non per imaginem [al. phantasiam) suos ante promiserat, misit Domi- communem hanc mortem (sustinuit] num nostrum Jesum Christum, pri- vere mortuus (est]; vere enim a mo quidem vocaturum Israel, se- mortuis resurrexit, et, post resurcundo (vero] etiam Gentes post per- rectionem conversatus cum discipufidiam populi Israel. Hic Deus justus lis suis, assumptus est. Tum deinde et bonus, Pater Domini nostri Jesu honore ac dignitate Patri et Filio Christi, Legem et Prophetas et E- sociatum tradiderunt Spiritum Sancvangelia (ipse] dedit, qui et Aposto- tum, &c. lorum Deus est, et Veteris et Novi

arum.

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no reputation and became man: he who was God, was made flesh, and when he was man, he continued the same God that he was before. He assumed a body in all things like ours, save only that it was born of a virgin by the Holy Ghost. And because this Jesus Christ was born and suffered death common to all, in truth, and not only in appearance, he was truly dead; for he rose again truly from the dead, and after his resurrection conversed with his disciples, and was taken up into heaven. They also delivered unto us, that the Holy Ghost was joined in the same honour and dignity with the Father and the Son.'

Thus far Origen speaks of the principal articles of the Christian faith, as handed down by the Church from the preaching of the Apostles. And there goes another book under his name, written by way of Dialogue against the Marcionites, where 35 he more succinctly delivers the Catholic faith in opposition to the false principles of those heretics: 'I believe there is one God, the Creator and Maker of all things; and one that is from him, God the Word, who is consubstantial with him and co-eternal, who in the last times took human nature upon him of the Virgin Mary, and was crucified, and raised again from the dead. I believe also the Holy Ghost, who exists to all eternity. It is true, learned men are not

' certainly agreed who was the true author of those Dialogues ; Wetstenius 36, who first published them in Greek, ascribes them to Origen: but Huetius 37 makes one Maximus the author, who lived, as he conjectures, in the time of Constantine. But whoever was the author, they contain a form of a very orthodox Creed, for which reason I have given it a place in this collection. 8. Next after Origen we find some parts of the ancient The frag.

ments of Creed in Tertullian 38, who speaks of it as the rule of faith

the Creed in

Tertullian. 35 Dialog. 1. (p.815. t.2. Ed. Latin. kaì KTIOTİV kai onusovpyòv twv átrávBasil. 1571.) Credo unum omnium των είναι πεπίστευκα, κ. τ.λ. ED.] Conditorem esse et Opificem : et 36 (John Rodolph Wetstein; Notæ qui ab illo est, Deum Verbum, con- ad Originis Dialogum contra Marsubstantialem juxtaque perennem; cionitas, &c. Basil. 1678. 4to. eumque extremis temporibus homi- 37 Vid. Origenian. 1. 3. c. 9. (Oper. nem ex Maria assumpsisse, et in Origen. t. 4. p. 326 Dialogum de crucem actum, et excitatum a mor- orthodoxa fide, qui et Contra Martuis. Credo etiam Spiritui Sancto, cionitas inscribi solet, &c. Ed.] qui in omnem æternitatem exsistit. 38 De Virgin. Veland. c. 1. (p. 173 Ed. Bened. De Recta in Deum a.) Regula quidem fidei una omnino Fide. 8. 1. (t. 1. p. 804 c.) "Eva Dedv est, sola immobilis et irreformabilis,

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common to all Christians. • There is,' says he, 'one rule of faith only, which admits of no change or alteration, that, which teaches us to believe in one God Almighty, the Maker of the world; and in Jesus Christ his Son, who was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, the third day arose again from the dead, received into heaven, and sitteth now at the right hand of God, who shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead, by the resurrection of the flesh.'

In his Book of Prescriptions against Heretics 37, he has another form not much unlike this: The rule of faith is that, whereby we believe one God only, and no other beside, the Maker of the world, who produced all things out of nothing, by his Word, which he sent forth before all things. This Word was called his Son, who at sundry times appeared to the Patriarchs, and always spake by the Prophets, and at last descended into the Virgin Mary by the Power and Spirit of God the Father, and was made flesh in her womb, and born of her, a man, Jesus Christ; who preached a new law, and a new promise of the kingdom of heaven; who wrought miracles, and was crucified, and the third day arose again, and was taken into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father; whence he sent the power of the Holy Ghost in his stead, to guide them that believe : who shall come again with glory, to take the saints into the possession and fruition of eternal life and the heavenly promises, and to condemn the profane to everlasting fire, having first raised both the one and the credendi scilicet in unicum Deum auditum, postremo delatum ex SpiOmnipotentem, Mundi Conditorem, ritu Patris Dei et virtute in Virgiet Filium ejus Iesum Christum, na- nem Mariam, carnem factum in utero tum ex Virgine Maria, crucifixum ejus, et ex ea natum hominem et esse sub Pontio Pilato, tertia die resusci- lesum Christum : exinde prædicasse tatum a mortuis, receptum in cælis, novam legem, et novam promissiosedentem nunc ad dexteram Patris, nem regni cælorum; virtutes fecisse; venturum judicare vivos et mortuos fixum cruci; tertia die resurrexisse; per carnis etiam resurrectionem. in cælos ereptum sedisse [al. sedere)

37 C. 13. (p. 206 d.) Regula est ad dexteram Patris; misisse vicariam autem fidei .... illa scilicet qua cre- vim Spiritus Sancti, qui credentes ditur, unum omnino Deum esse, nec agat; venturum cum claritate ad sualium præter mundi Conditorem, qui mendos sanctos in vitæ æternæ et universa de nihilo produxerit, per promissorum cælestium fructum, Verbum suum primo omnium emis. et ad profanos [ad)judicandos igni sum. Id Verbum Filium ejus ap- perpetuo, facta utriusque partis repellatum, in nomine Dei varie visum suscitatione cum carnis restitutione a patriarchis, in prophetis semper [al. resurrectione.]

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other by the resurrection of the flesh. “This rule,' he saysys,

'

· 38 was instituted by Christ himself, and there were no disputes in the Church about it, but such as heresies brought in, or such as made heretics. To know nothing beyond this, was to know all things.

In his Book against Praxeas 39 he repeats the same Creed with a little variation of expression: We believe in one God, yet under this dispensation, which we call the economy, that that one God hath a Son, which is his Word, who proceeded from Him, by whom all things were made, and without whom nothing was made. We believe, that he was sent by the Father to be born of a Virgin, both man and God, the Son of man and the Son of God, and that he was called Jesus Christ. That he suffered, and was dead, and buried, according to the Scriptures; that he was raised again by the Father, and taken up again into heaven, where he sits at the right hand of the Father, and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead; from whence also he sent from his Father, according to his promise, the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, who sanctifies the faith of those that believe in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.' • This faith,' he says, 'was the rule of believing from the beginning of the Gospel, and the antiquity of it was sufficiently demonstrated from the novelty of heresies, which were but of yesterday's standing in comparison of it.'

Now it is easy to observe, that Tertullian here speaks not of any certain form of words, but of the substance of the

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38 Ibid. c. 14. (p. 207 a.) Hæc tuum, et sepultum secundum Scripregula a Christo ut probabitur in- turas, et resuscitatum a Patre, et in stituta, nullas habet apud nos quæs- cælos resumptum, sedere ad dextetiones, nisi quas hæreses inferunt ram Patris, venturum judicare vivos et quæ hæreticos faciunt. ... Adver- et mortuos. Qui exinde miserit sesus regulam [al. nihil ultra] scire, cundum promissionem suam a Patre omnia scire est.

Spiritum Sanctum Paracletum, sanc39 C. 2. (p. 501 b.)... Unicum tificatorem fidei eorum, qui credunt quidem Deum credimus, sub hac in Patrem et Filium et Spiritum tamen dispensatione, quam æcono- Sanctum. Hanc regulam ab initio miam [al. oikovoulav]" dicimus, ut Evangelii decucurisse, etiam ante unici Dei sit et Filius Sermo ipsius, priores quosque hæreticos, nedum qui ex ipso processerit, per quem ante Praxeam hesternum, probabit omnia facta sunt, et sine quo

factum tam ipsa posteritas omnium hæreti. est nihil. Hunc missum a Patre in corum, quam ipsa novellitas Praxeæ Virginem, et ex ea natum Hominem hesterni. --Conf. de Bapt. c. 6. p.11. et Deum, filium hominis et filium (pp. 226-228.) [This last citation Dei, et cognominatum Iesum Chri- is indistinct according to the referstum. Hunc passum, hunc mor- ence. Ed.]

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