the observation made by Socrates 46, upon the church of Antioch, that it stood in a different posture from other churches, for the altar did not look toward the east, but toward the west. Which observation is also made by Paulinus Nolanus 47, upon one of his own structures. And the temple of the other Paulinus, at Tyre, seems to have stood the same way; for Eusebius 18 describes the entrance to it, and not the altar-part, as fronting the rising sun. So that though the author of the Constitutions 49, among other rules of this nature, gives directions for building churches toward the east, yet it appears from these instances that the practice was not so universal but that it admitted of exceptions, as necessity or expediency required. Which observation has been made not only by Bishop Usher 50, and Cardinal Bona 51, but, long before them, by Walafridus Strabo 52, who says, the Ancients were not nicely curious

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46 L. 5. c. 22. (v. 2. p. 297.10.)... aliquam locorum opportunitatem in ‘H ékkinoia ávtiot popové xel Tņv Oé- diversas plagas altaria statuerunt, olv, [al. Déaoiv] oủ yap após avatory quia non est locus, ubi non sit Deus. το θυσιαστήριον αλλά προς δύσιν ορα. Verissima enim relatione didicimus,

47 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 151.) Pro- in ecclesia, quam apud Æliam Conspectus vero basilicæ non, ut usita- stantinus Imperator cum matre Hetior mos est, Orientem spectat, sed lena super sepulchrum Domini mire ad domini mei Beati Felicis basili- magnitudinis in rotunditate consticam pertinet, memoriam ejus aspi- tuit : itemque Romæ in templo, quod ciens.

ab antiquis Pantheon dictum, a B. 48 [L. 10. C. 4. (v. I. p. 472. 50.) Bonifacio Papa, permittente Phoca Πρόπυλον δε μέγα και εις ύψος επηρ- Imperatore, in honorem omnium Sanμένον προς αυτάς ανίσχοντος ηλίου ctorum consecratum est. In ecclesia ακτίνας αναπετάσας, κ. τ.λ. ED.] quoque B. Petri, principis Apostolo49 L. 2. c. 57. See 8. 1. p. 50. rum, altaria non tantum ad orien

tem, sed etiam in alias partes esse 6.49, to Selden. (Works [let. distributa. Hæc cum secundum vo51.) v. 15. p. 175.) Touching that luntatem vel necessitatem fuerint ita which you move concerning the si- disposita, improbare non audemus. tuation of churches, &c.

Sed tamen usus frequentior et rationi 51 Rer. Liturg. 1. 1. c. 20. n. 4. (p. vicinior habet in orientem orantes 224.) Quod attinet ad situm, ita e- converti, et pluralitatem maximam rant disposita, ut ad ortum solis ecclesiarum eo tenore constitui. Naræquinoctialem verterentur. ... Pau- rat Procopius, (1. 1. de Bello Perlinus tamen Nolanus, Ep.12., asserit, sico, c. 37.) Dianæ et Iphigeniæ temse in basilica, quam ædificavit, hunc pla in urbe Comana Deo a Christimorem neglexisse. Prospectus, in- anis consecrata fuisse, nihil immuquit, basilica, &c. (See n. 47, pre- tata structura: in quibus aliisque ceding.) Quod vero non omnia al- similibus necessarium fuit, ad vetetaria, quæ in eadem ecclesia sunt, ad rem situm altaris constructionem acortum respiciant, sic excusat Wal- commodare. fridus Strabo, c.4. Cognoscimus, non 52 C.4. (ap. Bibl. Max. t. 15. p.183 errasse illos vel errare, qui templis b. 6. et e. 10.) .... Non magnopere vel noviter Deo constructis, vel ab curabant illius temporis justi, &c. idolorum squalore mundatis propter ... Sed tamen usus frequentior, &c.


or five.


way their churches stood, but yet the most usual custom was for Christians to pray toward the east, and therefore the greatest part of the churches were built with a respect to that custom.' But St. Patrick in Ireland, as Bishop Usher 53 observes out of Jocelin, the writer of his Life, varied from all others; for he built a church in Sabul, hard by Down in Ulster, which fronted neither east nor west, but stood from north to south,—ab aquilonali parte versus meridianam plagam. So that ecclesiastical history affords us instances, if we make a cu

rious inquiry, of churches standing in all postures. Commonly 3. Next to consider the several parts of the ancient churches, divided into three parts,

we are to observe, that as in the temple of God, at Jerusalem, and some- not only the Holy and the Most Holy were reckoned parts of the times four

temple, but also the outward courts, and even the court of the Gentiles, which is expressly called the house of God and the house of prayer; so in Christian churches, which were built with some regard to the Jewish temple, the whole ambitus or circumference about them was esteemed in a large sense as part of the church ; and accordingly when churches became asylums, or places of refuge, under Christian emperors, not only the inner buildings, but the outer courts and boundaries were reckoned a sufficient sanctuary, as we shall see in the latter part of this Book. Now hence arose a twofold division of churches, as taken in a stricter or a larger sense. In the strictest sense, including only the buildings within the walls, they were commonly divided into three parts : 1. The narther, or ante-temple, where the penitents and catechumens stood; 2. The naos, or temple, where the communicants had their respective places; and 3. The bema, or sanctuary, where the clergy stood to officiate at the altar. But in a larger sense there was another ante-temple or narthex without the walls, under which was comprised the mpónvlov, or vestibulum, the outward porch; then the atrium, or area, the court leading from that to the temple, surrounded with porticoes or cloisters, as we shall presently see in the temple of Paulinus. There were also several exedrae, such as the baptisterium, the diaconica, the pastophoria, and other adjacent buildings, which were

53 Let. 49, to Selden, (as at n. 50, preceding.) And particularly with us here in Ireland, &c.



reckoned to be either without or within the church, according as it was taken in a stricter or a larger acceptation.

4. Eusebius in describing the church of Paulinus takes it in and these the largest sense, and therefore he begins his description with subdivided

into other the trepißodov, or wall that enclosed the whole circumference parts. The of the outward courts, which we may call the ante-temple, or narther, or exterior narthex, to distinguish it from the narthex within the ante-temple church. In the front of this sacred enclosure toward the east, first the at some distance from the church, the first building that pre- mówUAOV,


or vestibusented itself was a great and lofty porch, which Eusebius and lum, the other Greek writers call the mpónvlov péya, and the Latins porch. vestibulum magnum, the great porch, to distinguish it from the lesser porches, which joined to the church. He calls it also pútnv cloodov, the first entrance, to distinguish it from the second, which were the gates of the church.

5. Between this porch and the church was a large area Theatrium, or square plot of ground, which Eusebius 54 calls aidplov, or the area,

or court, and Paulus Silentiarius aýany in his Description of Sancta before the Sophia 55. The Latins term it atrium and impluvium, be-church, cause it was a court open to the air without any covering, with portisave only on each side of the square, which was surrounded with porticoes or cloisters, (otoai, Eusebius calls them,) and these built upon columns; whence, as Du Fresne 56 observes, this place is called sometimes tetpáotulov, and quadriporticus in modern authors. In this place stood the first class of penitents according to Eusebius 57, who says expressly, .it was the mansion of those, who were not allowed to enter


coes or cloisters,


54 L, 10. c. 4. (v. I, p. 473. 17.) dum, exteriorem vestibuli porticum .... Μέσoν αίθριον ήφίει είς τήν του ad atrii porticus pertinuisse, si non ουρανού κάτοψιν, λαμπρόν και ταις et tertia fuit, quod jam monuimus : του φωτός ακτίσιν ανειμένον αέρα alioquin atrium Sophiarum tribus Trapézov.-De Vit. Constant. 1. 3. c. constitisset porticibus, non 35: (ibid. p. 598. 3.) Atéßaive 8 eens quatuor, proindeque non terpáo tu, επι παμμεγέθη χώρον, εις καθαρόν λον fuisset vel quadriporticus sed αίθριον αναπεπταμένον.

triporticus, uti ejusmodi atria di55 Part. 2. v. 174. (ap. Byzant. cuntur Anastasio in Hilario PP. Hist. Scriptor. t. 13. p. 190 b. 4.) Nymphæum et triporticum ante oraΤέτρασιν αιθούσησι περίδρομον όψεαι torium Sancte Crucis, &c. αυλήν,

57 L. 10. C. 4. (v. 1. p. 473. 23.) "Ων μία μεν νάρθηκι συνάπτεται, αίγε Και πρώτη μεν εισιόντων αύτη διαμεν άλλαι

τριβή, κόσμον ομού και αγλαΐαν το Πεπταμέναι τελέθουσι πολυσχιδέεσσι παντί, τοις τε των πρώτων εισαγωγών κελεύθοις.

έτι δεομένοις, κατάλληλος της μονής 56 In Paul. Silent. I. c. p. 536. Tapexouévn. (ibid. p. 204. n. 20.) Ubi observan


further into the church ;' that is, they stood either in the porch or the porticoes, to beg the prayers of the faithful as they went into the church. Or, perhaps, if they were more notorious criminals, they were cast out of these also, and obliged to wait in the court or open air, and stand there exposed to the weather, as part of their penance : which seems to be intimated by Tertullian 58, when speaking of some monstrous sinners, he says, 'they were expelled not only from the doors of the church, but from every place that might afford them any shelter or covering. So that the atrium was always an open place or court before the church; and therefore those authors who confound the atrium, or vestibulum and porticus into one, wholly mistake the form of the ancient churches; for these, as I have shewed, were distinct

parts of the ante-temple. In the mid- 6. It is further to be noted, that in the middle of the dle of which stood a

atrium there was commonly a fountain, or a cistern of water, fountain

for people to wash their hands and face before they went into for washing as they en- the church. Eusebius expressly mentions this in the temple tered into of Paulinus. He says 59, “ In the court over against the church the church, called can he placed spývas, fountains of water, as symbols of purificaiharus and tion, for such to wash as entered into the church.' Paulinus, phiala in

bishop of Nola, takes notice of the same thing, but gives it thors.

the name of cantharus 60, which signifies any capacious vessel that will hold much water, and sometimes a statue made to spout out water at its mouth : as Du Fresne has observed, that in some places the fountain was surrounded with lions thus spouting out water, whence this place has the name of leontarium in some modern Greek writers. It is also called by some nymphæum, èußárns, and kodumßeiov, which all signify a fountain. Paulus Silentiarius, in his description of Sancta Sophia, gives it the name of piáin, phiala, which we may English, the basin. And Socrates calls it opéap, the spring : for speaking of a skirmish that happened between the Catholics and Macedonian heretics in the church of Acacius, at


some au

58 De Pudicit. c. 4. See before, ιερών επί τα έσω προϊούσι την απόρch. I. s. 17. p. 37. n. 82.

puyev trapexouévas. Grischov.] 19 [L. 10. c. 4. (ibid. p. 473. 19.) 60 Ep. 12. ad Sever. (p. 153.) Ιερών δε ενταύθα καθαρσίων ετίθει Sancta nitens famulis interluit atria σύμβολα κρήνας άντικρυς είς πρόσω- lymphis πον επισκευάζων του νεώ, πολλώ το Cantharus, intrantumque manus laχεύματι του νάματος, τους περιβόλων vat amne ministro.

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Constantinople, he says 61, such a slaughter was made, that the aún (the atrium, or court of the church) was filled with blood, insomuch that the φρεάρ (the fountain, that stood in it) was overflowed therewith, and ran through the adjoining otoà (the portico or cloisters) even into the street.' St. Chrysostom 62 also speaks of these fountains, as of things of

use in the atria, or courts before the churches. And frequently in his popular discourses 63 alludes to the custom of washing their hands before they went into church. Which is also done by Tertullian 64, who exposes the absurdity of going to prayers with washed hands, whilst men retained a filthy spirit and polluted soul. In like manner Synesius 65 speaks of the cisterns or vessels of water set for washing in their ante-temples.

7. The writers of the Church of Rome, Baronius 66 and Whether others, commonly derive and defend the use of their holy citicupeuse water from this ancient custom ; but Du Fresne 67 seems to of holy wa

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61 L. 2. c. 38. (ν. 2. 148. 30.)... άγε. ει γαρ ανίπτους αυτάς ουκ επιΚαι γίνεται φόνος ανθρώπων πολλών τρέπεις εις ευχήν επαίρεσθαι, πολλά ώστε την αυλήν της εκκλησίας εκείνης μάλλον αμαρτήμασιν ουκ αν είης δίαίματος πλήρη γενέσθαι, και το εν καιος αυτάς μιαίνειν ει το έλαττον αυτή φρέαρ υπερβλύσαι του αίματος, δέδοικας, πολλώ μάλλον το μείζον εκρεϊν δε τούτο και εις την εχομένην φρίξουν το μεν γαρ ανίπτοις χερσί στοάν, άχρι της πλατείας αυτής. προσεύχεσθαι, ου τοσούτον άτοπον,

62 Ηom. 57. t. 5. Edit. Savil. p. 39ο. 12. (t. 3. p. 298 d.) ... Κρήνας 64 De Οrat. c. ΙΙ. (p. 133 c.) Ceείναι εν ταις αυλαίς των ευκτηρίων terum que ratio est manibus quiοίκων νενόμισται, κ. τ.λ.

dem ablutis, spiritu vero sordente, 63 Hom. 52. [al. 51.] in Matth. orationem obire? (t. 7. p. 526 6.) Και γάρ έν [τη] 65 Ep. 121. ad Anastas. (p. 258 b. εκκλησία τοιούτον δρώμεν έθος κρα- 3.) .... Τα εν τοις προτεμινίσμασι τούν παρά τους πολλοίς, και όπως μεν χέρνιβα, κ. τ.λ. [Conf. Synes. Caκαθαρούς εισέλθοιεν ιματίοις σπουδά- tastas. (p.303b. 5.) ... Τάς παναγείς ζονται, και όπως τας χείρας νίψαιντο, προστήσομαι χέρνιβας. ED.] κ. τ.λ.-Hom. 72. [al. 73.] in Joan. 66 Αη. 57. nn. 1ο7-III. (t. Ι. p. (t. 8. p. 433 c.) Είτα χείρας μεν νιπ- 478c.) Nec vero praetereundum, &c. τόμεθα εις εκκλησίαν εισιόντες, την δε

67 In Paul. Silent. p. 539. (ubi καρδίαν ουκέτι ; Είπέ μοι, άρα αν supr. t. 13. p. 205. n. 22. ad calc. col. έλoιο χερσίν ανίπτοις τη θυσία προσ- dextr.)... He fontium aque quoελθείν ; ουκ έγωγε οίμαι" αλλ' εθέ- tannis in pervigilio sacrorum Theoλοις αν μηδε όλως προσελθείν, ή ρυ- phaniorum, interdum in ipso festo Trapais xepoiv.-Hom. 3. in Eph. die, consecrabantur et benediceban(t. ΙΙ. p. 22 d.) Είπέ μοι, άρα αν tur, quarum benedictionis ordo haέλoιο χερσίν ανίπτους τη θυσία προσ- betur in Euchologio: unde νόσων ελθείν, κ. τ.λ. [Conf. ibid. p. 23 d. απελαστικαί δαιμόνων φυγαδευτικαί et f. ED.]-In Ps. I40. (t. 5. p. 431 apud Clement. in Constit. Apost. d.) Κάθαιρε τοίνυν αυτάς χείρας] Ιαματικών ψυχών και σωμάτων, alibi ελεημοσύνη, φιλανθρωπία, προστασία αμαρτημάτων λυτήριον, &c. in eoderm δεομένων, και ούτως αυτάς εις ευχές Euchologio dicuntur. Harum loco


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